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Edited by 

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The design of this publication, established by the City in 
1816, is to create an interest in the history of New York, and to 
encourage a study of the subject by every means fan its power. 

All receipts are devoted to the enlargement and improve- 
ment of the Manual and our friends are cordially invited to 
submit photographs and articles pertaining to our subject. Such 
as are found available will be paid for at our usual rates. 

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'•' • t r\ *■ - • hit 

Henry Collins Brown. 

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Duplicate copies of the large supplement in this number 
on heavy plate paper suitable for framing may be had at $1.50 
per copy. Proofs of colored plates may also be obtained at 
$1.00 each. 




LAFAYETTE PLACE. Walter Frlchurd Eaton.. 18 

"JOTt TO AMERICA." (Broadside) 28 





Wm. S. Eddy .... 3B 



lina Adam* 46 



















"BY THE KINO. A PROCLAMATION." (Broadside) 108 




lii-gtiwld Peltiam Bolton ..114 




PRINTER IN NEW YORK. 1761. (Broadside) 120 

THE REVOLUTION. W. L. Culver 126 



THE VALE OF CASHMERE..................... 130 

JONES' WOOD. Hoppur Striker Molt 140 

Hopper Striker Mott 150 


IRISH PIONEERS OF NEW YORK. Judgo Victor J. Dowllng.. 174 





SAINT PAUL'S CHAPEL, 1765-1(110 163 

I Viii ] 








OLD BOND STREET. Sturges S. Dun hum , 207 


(Broadside) 290 



liBgen ................ 808 

NEW YORK. (Broadside) t 313 

ISLAND. W. U Celve* ..,..„,......„.....,.,, 333 




PIRE STATE IN 1835 345 












Facing page 


















Facing page 


PLACE ABOUT 1890....... ........ 54 




SIXTH AVENUE, 1690 ffi 








WATER FOUNTAIN, 1842,,...,,,,.,,, 84 



STREET, 1835 69 

STREETS. 1853 103 



AT 45TH STRKKT. l88o 110 


EXCAVATION „ ,,..114 








[ xii] 

Facia* page 

1SS5 133 


COLORED. , 134 


1800 136 











WARREN STREET, 1854 170 




STREET, 1867 189 

HOUSE, 1858 193 








STREET ...215 

[ *Si ] 

Facile Tabo 

ASTOR HOUSE, 1830,. 219 

THEATRE, 1880 , 223 







FIFTH AVENUE SOUTH FROM 31ST STREET, 1858. ......... . 253 


BUILDING, 1S90 258 


LUKE'S HOSPITAL. 1880 200 







1800 2B6 






STREET, 1848 309 




WEST STREET, NORTH FROM PIER 2. 1874,, . .. S21 







DOCK. 1890 350 



1837 ...... 358 



IBT5 387 




WEST STREET, 1885 393 




HOUSH, 1800 398 



HOTEL, 1885 108 





Our Revival last year, of the famous old Manual of 
Valentine proved a matter of deep concern to a con- 
siderable number of our fellow villagers. If no bells 
were rung from the ancient Fire Towers nor any Broad- 
sides posted up at Fraunces Tavern, the intelligence 
nevertheless quickly spread to all and sundry. Many 
respectable persons were observed to gather outside the 
Merchants' Exchange and in front of the Bank to discuss 
the welcome news. Our worthy High Constable, Arthur 
Woods warned several groups of citizens who persisted 
in blocking traffick in the Broad Way, and the Sub Way 
that such conduct was unseemly and contrary to the laws 
of the Crown and the Statutes made and provided. 
Whereupon these groups after giving three cheers for 
the new Manual, quietly dispersed to their homes, there 
to examine its contents at their leisure and to speculate 
upon the possibility of its continuance. 


It was the late Charles A. Dana who was fond of 
saying that no artistic success was possible without also 
a commercial one, and in this we fear, he is right. 
The stern necessity of making everything "pay" in this 
life occasionally, we think, deprives us of some things 
really worth while. Yet in the long run the really 
meritorious accomplishment demonstrates its right to live 
and achieves a practical, as well as an artistic success. 
Difficulties, and many of them, may he encountered at 
the beginning but in time these will disappear and the 
result prove the soundness of the fundamental idea. 

+ * * * * 

In the Salutatory of our first number, we expressed 
ourselves as emphatically opposed to the idea that the 
New Yorker had no love for his city, no pride in its 
storied past, no knowledge of its history or affection for 
its traditions. And we backed our belief by reviving the 
"Manual" — that ancient storehouse of antiquarian lore 
and fascinating annals of Old New York, which has little 
interest to any but our own people, and they few and far 

The late Mr, Whitridge remarked to us on a memorable 
occasion "New York is not a big city, it's a little bit of 
a village." And so it is. In time no doubt all these 
people of curious tongues will be assimilated. As it was 
in the beginning so is it now. Our alien friend of today 
is the native of tomorrow. Always has New York been 
a polyglot city. But he cannot well be included today 
when we speak of New Yorkers, and he is very numerous. 
When we deduct also those of similar tongue, but also 
foreign in the sense of not having been born here, we 
realize the truth and justice of Mr. Whitridge'* remark. 
And so the Manual must pick and choose from the 
remnant that remains. 

* * * * * 

If our readers bewail the fact that it does not achieve 
the unique popularity reserved for the Thursday-Friday- 
Saturday Evening Post or Harold Bell Wright, let him 
dismiss all such gloomy thoughts and depressing regrets. 


Filling in the Battery from Broadway to South Ferry. 
This remarkable photograph is supposed in be the first out-door photograph ever made in our city. 

It was take* an a wax paper ; iti' ■■ in 1(154, by a Frenchman, V. Prevost. It ihuvrk the original 

Battery Wall, then fronting Greenwich Street and Broadway, and the iilling-in work under way that 
made the present Battery Park. A bridge formerly led to Castle Garden, but that now disappears. 

Courtly ff/ Mr. S. V. Hoffman. 

The publishing business at best is not a short cut to 
wealth. Its product is far from being a necessity. And 
in a year when every body feels under moral obligation 
to practice self denial, and economy is preached from 
every house top, a new book is not exactly the traditional 
long felt want. 

All of which is supplementary and corroborative of the 
statement made at the beginning of this paragraph- -that 
the New Yorker is fond of his city and its history. He 
made the Manual pay the very first year, 

* * * * * 

Countless letters of a kindly and congratulatory nature 
were received by us upon the appearance of the initial 
number. The press of the city were also extraordinarily 
cordial in their welcome and bestowed upon us much 
higher praise than we had any reason to expect, Mr. 
James Gordon Bennett was especially kind, as readers 
of the Herald will recall. His absence from the city in 
no wise affects his interest in its welfare and he was 
of great aid in bringing the Manual to the attention of 
many New Yorkers. The list of friends who, by word or 
deed, were helpful in this enterprise is long. To them 
all we extend our grateful appreciation and cheerfully 
share with them the credit for the success of the Revival 
whose permanency seems now assured. 


It is also pleasant to reflect that in its first issue the 
Manual was helpful to the people of New York in a very 
important matter — the printing of the hitherto unpub- 
lished Minutes of the Common Council from 1784 to 
1831. Our readers will recall our article on this subject 
on page 6, which we followed up by personal letters to 
the Mayor and other prominent persons whose aid we 
sought to obtain in the matter. The Mayor's secretary 
Mr. Bertram de Cruger acknowledged our letter saying 
that "something more" would be heard from him "in a 
day or two." 

Evidently this promised "something more" presaged 
definite action, for in a short time a Committee was 


appointed, the Board of Estimate passed an appropriation 
of $15,000 to start the work, and early in July the first 
copy was being made ready for the printer. Mayor 
Mitchell deserves the thanks of all our citizens for his 
action in this matter. These Minutes cover the most 
vital and interesting period of our city's history — its very 
cradle days in fact — and begin evidently the day after 
the evacuation of the city by the British. The first 
recorded meeting however is a little later, Feb. 1784, at 
which time the Council elected Mr. James Duane as our 
first Mayor and Mr. Richard Varick as our first Recorder. 
The scene of this memorable occurrence was in the 
Tavern kept by John Simmons on the corner of Wall and 
Nassau Streets. By one of those curious coincidences of 
fate, a great-great grandson of Mr. Duane's is now a 
Vice President in the great banking house which now 
rears its lofty height on the modest site of Simmons' 

The New York Historical Society could find an appro- 
priate place for a tablet on this building, recording the 
first meeting of our City Fathers and it would make a 
fitting close to a celebration which could be planned to 
observe the final printing of these Minutes. 


We are inclined to think, in which opinion we hope our 
readers share, that this second issue of the Manual is 
a distinct improvement over the first. We naturally 
approached the first number with considerable trepidation. 
It was no slight task to attempt to succeed so charming 
and delightful an editor as Mr. Valentine. But as the 
work progressed we found the same cordial co-operation 
from various sources as was extended to Mr. Valentine 
and which proved so helpful to him in his work. His 
relations with the New York Historical Society were 
particularly fortunate ; and we find that many of the 
articles which are now classics in our annals were the 
work of one or another of their Librarians, extending 
over a period of nearly twenty years. 


Chambers Street, 1872— completion of the A. T. Stewart building. For rn*ny 
years a small saloon broke the continuity of the front, the owner declining to 
sell at any price. At his death, Stewart was then able to complete his structure 

Mr. George H. Moore who was Librarian of the So- 
ciety from 1849 to 1875 discovered the famous map of 
New York known as the "Duke's plan" in the British 
Museum during a visit to London, and brought it to 
Valentine's attention, Mr. William Kelby, assistant 
Librarian from 1857 to 1892, was also frequently called 
upon and furnished such famous articles a? the exhaust- 
ive sketch of the History of Broadway, which has 
served as a model for every writer on the topic ever 
since — and also the equally famous contribution relating 
to the Evacuation of the City of New York by the 
British in which every movement of the Commander- 
in-chief of the American Army is carefully noted even 
to the time of its actual occurrence. The labors of 
Valentine were consequently immensely lightened by this 
intelligent and hearty co-operation, and the ripe scholar- 
ship of these two men contributed in no small degree to 
the fame which was afterwards to come to the Manual. 


We speak thus in detail of the close connection between 
the officers of the New York Historical Society and the 
old Manual with a two fold purpose. First, to record 
our own relief at having made a discovery which greatly 
reduces our own sense of responsibility and encourages 
us to believe that there is possibility of equaling the 
work of our distinguished predecessor — and with the 
many new methods of pictorial embellishment — of even 
exceeding it in some respects. For we have found the 
Historical Society as keenly sympathetic to the present 
Manual as their predecessors were to the old. The 
Librarian Mr. Robert Hendre Kelby is a brother of the 
late William Kelby, and no one who has met and dis- 
coursed with Mr. Alexander J. Wohlhagen, the learned 
assistant Librarian, will doubt for a moment that the 
same splendid co-operation and service which has been 
assured the present editor, should result in as successful 
a Manual today as it did yesterday. 

Another most gratifying circumstance is the wonderful 
help received from other sources. Through the courtesy 
of Mr. Samuel Verplanck Hoffman, a former President 


of the New York Historical Society, the rare and absorb- 
ingly interesting views of New York in 1854 never before 
published were kindly supplied. No earlier photographs 
of this city are known to exist. They were the work of a 
French artist and the negatives were taken on wax 
paper. This antedates almost anything we know of in 
photography not excluding the daguerreotype — which 
was not used for out door work till several years later. 
The substance on which these negatives are made is 
strangely suggestive of the present day film but not quite 
so durable. In all there are 48 of these unique photo- 
graphs all showing scenes in our own city — one of which 
portrays old Columbia College still in Murray street, and 
is the only actual photograph of these buildings known 
to exist We have selected two of these prints for 
reproduction in this issue, which are shown elsewhere in 
these pages, and will present the balance from time to 
time. The readers of the Manual therefore owe a vote 
of thanks to Mr. Hoffman for his great courtesy. 


Following Mr. Hoffman's lead came Mr. Hopper 
Striker Mott whose fame as a local historian needs no 
encomium from us. Mr. Mott knows Bloomingdale as 
the average man knows his alphabet, and the rest of the 
island almost equally as well. His advice and counsel 
have been followed in the arrangement of many details 
in this number and his personal contributions on Jones' 
Wood and the Van den Heuvel house are only the begin- 
ing of many others we hope to print. 

A special word of thanks is also due the Rev. Dr. 
Robert S. Barbour of Montclair for his interesting photo- 
graphs of West and South streets, showing the forest 
of masts which formerly were distinctive of these 
thoroughfares; and of the views of Union and Madison 
Squares showing grand old trees of a size that have 
long since disappeared. 

Dr. Barbour picked up these rare old' pictures in his 
student days in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1874. They were 

f 10 1 

konktnjr South on Biriadway and Filth Avrfiuc liom Twcntyfouitr. Sirrat, 1889. 
Ftfth Avenue Hotel on the riijht. 

made by an English firm for the foreign market exclu- 
sively and so far as we have been able to ascertain, were 
never offered for sale in New York at all. They are 
certainly of great interest. 

Dr. Barbour's aunt who died only last year, lived in 
the house at the comer of Broadway and Vesey street 
,is far back as 1S24, We print elsewhere a short account 
of her early recollections of this neighborhood, at that 
time the very edge of the City. 

Another volunteer helper is Mr, S. S. Dunham. Mr, 
Dunham wanted to write something about old Bond 
street and he came to the right office with his idea. 

Few streets have ever received such faithful portrayal, 
such indefatigable research as Mr. Dunham has bestowed 
upon Bond street. We predict that the social importance 
of that bygone thoroughfare will come as a positive 
surprise, and a pleasant one, to many of our readers, 
although some of us still retain a vivid recollection of 
its vanished glory. Mr. Dunham has written a great 
article and we hope he will keep up the good work. 


We must not forget also our good friend Mr. John 
Jay Pierrepont of Brooklyn who kindly offered to corr ect 
the proof sheets of our last number. It seemed to us 
that it was imposing upon ^nocl nature and alas! we didn't 
avail ourselves. If the offer is repeated — 

It is also a pleasure to welcome to the pages of the 
Manual the work of so talented and graceful a writer 
at Mr. Walter Prichard Eaton, whose contribution on old 
Lafayette Place, we feel sure, will be greatly appreciated 
Mr, Eaton writes us that his two old aunts who spent 
their girlhood days in this quiet neighborhood have 
furnished him with most of his facts, thus making his 
story practically one of personal reminiscence. 

the history of our old streets is growing daily in 
importance and these contributions from persons still 
living are bound to lie of the greatest value to the histor- 
ian of the future. We intend to devote considerable 


space to them in each number, and Beekman Street is 
in course of preparation. We should particularly like 
the story of Fifth Avenue between the years 1870 to 
1895— its golden age. Which of our readers can supply 

The charming prints in colors from the Pyne Collec- 
tion are also we think of extraordinary value and interest. 
And we wish also to call attention to the perfectly 
splendid manner in which they have been reproduced 
in all the quaintness and charm of their original old 
fashioned coloring. We direct special attention to this 
achievement as a tangible evidence of our ability to 
surpass the best of the old Valentine work by the newer 
and more perfect methods of present day engraving. 

We have been unable to secure the names of all the 
present owners of some of the pictures, but our thanks 
are due them nevertheless, and particularly to Mr. Percy 
Pync II, through whose kindness this feature was 


A word of praise should also be recorded on behalf 
of the paintings shown in this number depicting New 
York in the Great World War of 1917. We do not 
recall a time when the city was so lavishly decorated, 
nor when the effect was so impressive. A shnrt period 
was only available in which to secure this record and 
many thanks are due Miss Alice Heath, the artist, for 
the results obtained. As a feature of the City's history, 
these sketches will form an interesting item in its chron- 


Our large folded supplement showing the contrast 
between a view of lower Manhattan in 1876 and the same 
scene today will, we think, prove a welcome addition 
to the memorabilia of Old New York. 

The first view was taken in our Centennial Year by 
T unes Eeals from a point on the top of the then unfinished 

r 14 1 

met «MtnM»*t»Y«w. invented by M. Fultun." 

(DTir (Clcmumt oit her lining* up tltc HuJtscm passing JUt-ni ^LTuint ejection. oI^'j^m-* 

Brooklyn Bridge. It shows Trinity still the most con- 
spicuous feature in the landscape, and the Post Office 
as the highest building in sight. Today both these 
objects are completely hidden from view by their tower- 
ing neighbors. The present day negative was taken from 
a point as near to the 1876 view as is now practical 
and we think the result is remarkably good. It is by no 
means an easy feat and the photographer had a perilous 
time among the eerie heights of the cables of the Tower. 

Copies of tliis picture on heavy plate paper suitable 
for framing can be had at this office. Price $2.00, which 
includes expense of mailing. 


Although this is but the second number of the Man- 
ual, there is abundant evidence that it can be made an 
important contribution to the literature of our City. 
Owing to the peculiar nature of its contents we cannot 
hope for a very large circulation— at least so it is said. 

We do not, however, agree with this view. There 
are many people in our city who would gladly subscribe 
to the Manual, did they but know about it. As a Christ- 
mas Gift last year it was quite in demand. The advance 
sale of this year's number showed a substantial gain, 
But the expense of advertising is too great at present 
to permit of much effort in that line, so we shall have 
to rely on the goodness of our friends to obey that in- 
junction of Colonial days, "Let one tell the other." 

Any subscriber who sends us a new patron will receive 
a copy of the Lower Manhattan View, already described, 
suitable for framing, as an evidence of our appreciation. 

A copy of the Manual for this purpose will be sent 
to any address on approval upon request. 

The Editor. 

[ 1? I 

Lafayette Place 
By Walter Prichard Eaton 

Four old columned houses, shorn of their porches and 
their little front yards and iron palings, and no longer 
homes, are all that is left of the glory that was Lafayette 
riace. These four houses, of the original nine which 
constituted La Grange Terrace, or Colonnade Row, as 
it was later called, are directly opposite the old Astor 
Library' building. The last of them were abandoned as 
residences in 1915, (the present numbers are 430 and 
432), which under the name of the Oriental, a famous 
boarding house opened in 1851, clung on like Casablanca. 
It is a sad commentary on our American cities that no 
better use can be found for buildings of architectural 
charm and enduring construction than to tear them down. 
La Grange Terrace was built of marble, so well and 
solidly laid that when the southern five houses were de- 
molished a little over a decade and a half ago (they 
stood where the new Wanamaker store house is now 
erected), dynamite had to be empolycd. Architecturally, 
they were unique in New York, their American counter- 
part being the old Charleston Hotel, in Charleston, South 
Carolina. The ground story projected six or eight feet, 
and was comparatively low with pretty porches. This 
ground story was solid masonry, making the windows 
deeply recessed. It supported, in front, tall fluted 
columns which ran up two stories high and carried a 
heavy cornice of solid stone. There were still two 
other stories above this cornice, invisible from the street. 
Along the base of these columns ran a wrought iron 
rail, and the low windows of the second story parlors 
let out upon the stone balcony thus formed. Inside, the 
houses were (and two at least of those that remain, are) 
adorned with mahogany doors on silver hinges, doors 
which have not sagged half an inch in nearly a century, 
with elaborate plaster work, marble mantles, and stately 
Greek columns of wood between the large parlors. As 


LalayeMe Pluce. Th« original LuGrinse TerraCf. Tho must Iftshioiiabl* nf »H nld Ne^' YcirV residences. 

far as solidity and perfection of construction goes, these 
houses could probably not he duplicated today without 
a tremendous expenditure of money. Yet the town 
sweeps by them, and all this splendid masonry, this 
monument to the taste of an elder day, goes by the board ! 

Lafayette Place was cut through from Great Jones 
Street to Astor Place in 1826. Eastward the Bowery 
was "farthest north," and on the west Broadway practi- 
cally ended at Astor Place, From the last years of the 
18th century, the space between, at the upper end, had 
been used as a pleasure ground, called VauxhaQ Garden, 
with various forms of entertainment purveyed after 1804 
by a Frenchman named Delacroix. It had previously 
l)een owned by a Swiss florist named Jacob Sperry. He 
sold the plot in 1804 to John Jacob Astor, for $45,000, 
and Astor gave a twenty-one year lease to Delacroix. 
The laying out of Lafayette Place in 1826 of course cut 
directly through this property, and the garden shrank 
lo the easterly half, between the present Astor Library 
building and Astor Place. Shortly after, in 1830, a man 
named Scth Gecr, much to the amusement or scorn of 
many, began the erection of La Grange Terrace, on 
the west side of the new Place. Such palatial residences 
far from town were looked upon as folly ; but Geer 
persisted (incidentally causing something of a rumpus 
among the stone cutters' trade by securing his stone by 
convict labor from Sing Sing), and presently men and 
women began to come up here "into the fields" to see 
the magnificent houses, which were rising in solitary 
splendor. Probably at the same time the trees which 
later almost met over the little street were set out, and 
the rather remote spot began to assume attractiveness. 
At any rate, Geer's folly turned out to be wisdom, for 
very soon after Lafayette Place began rapidly to attract 
the rich and fashionable. 

In November, 1836, the cornerstone of the Reformed 
Dutch Church was laid, on the northwest corner of 
Lafayette Place and Fourth Street, and the building was 
dedicated in 1839. It was called "the Middle Dutch 
Church." The building was strictly Greek, with twelve 
splendid granite monoliths on the portico — the only 


monoliths in the city then, or for years thereafter. A 
poor wooden spire, out of keeping, surmounted this 
Greek temple, and years later was destroyed by fire to 
nearly everybodys' relief. The building was razed in 
the early '90's, and the monoliths destroyed — an inex- 
cusable piece of stupid legal vandalism, St. Bartholo- 
mew's church, on the northeast corner of Lafayette Place 
and Great Jones Street, was also built in 1836, a small 
congregation at first attending it. But it rapidly grew 
larger and more fashionable. Ultimately it moved to 
Madison Avenue and 44th Street, and even now is about 
to move a third time — three removals In less than a 
century. What other city on the globe is so restless? 

About opposite the centre of La Grange Terrace, 
which, of course, was occupied now by families of wealth, 
William B. Astor, son of John Jacob, presently erected 
his mansion, a substantial, block-like brick building not 
unlike those on North Washington Square. Immediately 
south was the Sands house, built by Austin Ledyard 
Sands, of severe gray granite. Both these residences 
were visible within recent memory, the Astor home in 
after years being noted as Seighortner's restaurant. In 
the Terrace, in Number 33 (the second southernmost 
house) lived Irving Van Wart, with whom his relative, 
Washington Irving, spent many winters. In Number 43 
lived the Honorable David Gardiner, whose daughter 
Julia was there married, in 1S44, to President John Tyler. 
Edwin D. Morgan, later the New York war governor, 
lived at Number 35- Next door lived John Jacob Astor, 
son of William B. Astor, Later, in the same Iiouse, the 
Columbia Law School was founded. An Astor son-in- 
law, Franklin H. Delano, lived in number 39. Farther 
north, on the corner of Astor Place, was a large house 
built by the elder John Jacob Astor for his daughter, 
Mrs. Walter Langdon. It had an elaborate ball room, 
and a garden surrounded by a high wall. Walter Lang- 
don, the younger, who married Catherine Livingston, 
built a house almost directly opposite, which stood there 
almost into this century, directly south of Brokaw's old 
clothing store. The Langdon mansion on the west side 
was demolished about 1875. All up and down the Place 


Broadway, at Rector Street, about 1880. The "Id Empire Building, in which 
Russell Sage had his office, and which also housed the Union Truet Company 

•ltd others. 

similar houses, in the two decades following the opening 
of the street, were erected and occupied by the wealthy 
and fashionable New Yorker a of the time, St. Bar- 
tholomew's Church, on the Great Jones Street comer, 
became noted as the church of "society" weddings. Din- 
ners and balls were the rule in the season, and the street 
was alive with the roll of gay carriages. The houses 
on the west had stables and gardens behind, reached by 
an alley from Broadway, and those on the east were 
reached by a similar alley from the Bowery. Meanwhile, 
Vauxhall Gardens persisted, though restricted now to a 
small area on the east side of the Place at the northerly 
end of the present Astor Library building. 

John Jacob Astor the elder died in 1848, and in 1853 
his memorial, the Astor Library, was completed, one 
third of the present structure. Two additions were later 
given by his family, in 1855, and 1875- What will become 
of the building, a rather mournful and gloomy pile, now 
that the books have gone to the central depository of the 
New York Public Library, is a question not yet solved. 

In 185 1, Israel Underhill opened in the two houses of 
La Grange Terrace, Numbers 43 and 45, a family hotel, 
for people of wealth who did not care to keep house. 
This was known as The Oriental, and was destined to 
he the last survivor of domesticity on Lafayette Place. 
Fashion was still, at that time, centered about the tree 
hung street. In 1856, the Schermerhorns, who lived at 
the corner of Great Jones Street, gave a "bal costutne de 
rigeur" of the reign of Louis XV, which certainly would 
have increased the membership of the Socialist party 
if there had been a Socialist party in those days. "Mr, 

S fFs costume" (we quote from a contemporary 

account), "diamonds included, cost it is said, $17,000." 
At Astor Place, too, stood the Opera House, facing down 
I -n fayette Place, but the McCrcady- Forrest riots in 1849 
rather pur the damper on that institution, and not long 
after it was converted into the Mercantile Library. 

The expansion of the city following the Civil War 
affected Lafayette Place seriously as a residence street, 
in spite of the fact that it was tucked away between the 
Bowery and Broadway, and was not a through thorough- 

fare. Backing up to it on 13 roadway came the theatre 
(where Wanamaker*S new storehouse and garage is 
now), which, originally a church, had a checkered career, 
finally ending up as a prize fight arena. The later addi- 
tions to the Astor library had put out the little colored 
lights and smothered the tables in Vauxhall Gardens. In 
1872 St. Bartholomew's Church moved away. In 1875 a 
loft building replaced the Langdon mansion. The five 
southern houses of La Grange Terrace became the Colon- 
nade Hotel (with an entrance, still remembered, on 
Broadway). Just south of them another house became 
the Diocesan House of the Episcopal Church of New 
York. The Astor Mansion was converted into Sicg- 
hortner's restaurant. The trees still stood, and the noble 
monoliths of the church on the corner of Fourth Street, 
but the decay of the street had obviously set in. By the 
beginning of the present century the monoliths had gone, 
the five houses of the famous terrace which made up the 
Colonnade Hotel had been destroyed (leaving a vacant 
lot which was not built up till last year), and across the 
way many of the old houses had been replaced by busi- 
ness structures, or else converted into trade and made 
ugly and almost unrecognizable. The final blow came 
with the building of the subway. Lafayette Place was 
cut through south from Great Jones Street, rechristened 
Lafayette Street, paved with noisy Belgian block, and 
used as a through artery for heavy traffic. Its doom as 
a place of residence was sealed. 

Hut the two houses now numbered 430 and 432, the 
middle two of the four survivals of La Grange Terrace, 
still bore the gold sign, "The Oriental," over the door, 
and the great Virginia creeper climbed the stone columns 
to the roof. Two daughters of Israel Lhtdcrliill still kept 
the house — almost, one might say, kept the faith. They 
kept it even when, a few years later, the Street Com- 
mission made them strip off the porches and the little 
green front yards, to widen the sidewalk. The panes 
in the windows were turning faintly purple, like the 
glass on Beacon Hill. The mahogany doors still swung 
on noiseless silver hinges. The elderly men and women 
who had come to look on the Oriental as home, and 


* It mi 

HiuU'.' v Pji k bmlI Staler) Island Kerry. ] n 74 — before construction of elevated railroad. 
Most of the aid homes on Slate Street have since disappeared, 
<".:.■•'• ty (h H S Baikour 

many a visiting Bishop who welcomed the proximity to 
the Diocesan House, still filled the rooms. And, on every 
Memorial Day, the old, torn Hag which had flown from 
♦ he house during the bitter years of the Civil War, when 
'Ae Seventh had formed in Lafayette Place to march 
to the front, draped the iron balcony rail. These two 
houses were an oasis of an elder day in the heart of the 
lower town. 

But even these two brave old ladies gave up the 
struggle at last, and retired from the racket and dust 
of truck traffic, the surrounding hum of sweat shops, to 
the quiet of the country. That was in 191 5. "The 
Oriental," is no more. The last residence has been 
abandoned on Lafayette Place, and only four dingy stone 
relics of the nine columnar houses which once made 
La Grange Terrace remain to speak to the passerby of 
its ancient glory. Not a tree is left, not a vine. 

But one vine still lives. The writer has a root of 
that great Virginia Creeper which climbed over 43 and 
45, and it is flourishing still. The war flag, too, still is 
draped from a balcony on every Decoration Day. But 
vine and balcony are far away from Lafayette Place. 
The scene when Astor walked stiffly down to Great 
Jones Street, on his way to Wall, when gay carriages 
rolled under the trees and the colored lamps twinkled in 
Vauxhall Gardens, lives only in the memories of a few 
old jwoplc. Nothing is permanent in New York but 
change 1 


Nta-Yerl, 2&y 20, if&6: 

Joy to AMERICA ! 

At 3 this Day arrived here an Exprcfs from Eofton 
with the following moft glorious News, on which 
//. Gaim congratulates the Friends of Jmerka, 
Bofton t Friday n o'Clock, l6th May, ij66, 

*This Day arrived here the Brig Harrifon, belong- 
ing to fohn Hamock, Efq; Capt. Shubael ' Coffin t 
In 6 Weeks and 2 Days horn Lcu/at, with the 
following moft agreeable Intelligence, viz. 


tf?iftmni0er % March 18. 

THIS day his Majefty came to the houfe of 
Peers, and being in his royal robes, feated 
on the tli rone, with the ufiial iblcmnity, 
Sir Francis jW/w^w.VjGem'eiTia:* ulher of the black 
rod was fent with a Mdlhgc from his Mrjcfty to 
the houfe of commons, commnmiiiig their atten- 
dance in the houfe of pcerp. The commons being, 
come thither accordingly, hi'- M ajefty was pleafcd 
to give lib Royal' Affair, to 

An ACT to Ri'ts! 3n A&, nude die lifl Scflion of Parlia- 
ment, entitled, An Aet for ^rawing and applying terrain ftamp 
Duties, and other Duties in i!it Britijb Colonics and Ptantationf. 
in Amcri(g t towards further defraying the £xpeuccs of dclend- 
tng, protcfling, and Tteuiin" the fame ; and tor mending facJ- 
PjiCs of the feiirai Attsof Parliament iclaiing to the Trade antl 
Iievci5u« of t!ic faid Colonies and Plantations, as direft the 
Manner of determining nnd recovering the Penalties and For- 
feitures therein mentioned. 

WjJiw Hi Mojtfly v/tut tt the tiwft in itm PtennpaisitJ 
itrt if Ptsptt than tvtr (Mr timm Ofl ike Hit Osmfyn ( Wl 
Rtptai wtre Jin/ tt Fa/moutb. te tr fonvardtJ ts America ■ 
in tbr Khcr Ttamft bound H America, bad OrAcrt te fail 

Uoifc lot itc 5 J,c i'-Mi*. W ' It ' nf! ' ' ' lnKI ^ Jft0,t 

Broadside, announcing Repeal of the Stamp Act 
New York, 1766, 

J 1 pr/tttr JYjaui- 
ijCepitt e/" fir 

Sky-line ti New York — 1885. The Product Exchange and Cyrui Field Building (No. I Brmuiuavl were the 

principal landmarks to be seen from the river. 

New York in the Great World War of igi? 

The entrance of a great country into a war of such a 
serious character as the one now confronting us, brought 
forth in New York one of the most patriotic demonstra- 
tions ever witnessed in the history of the city. Flags, 
banners, streamers, badges, buttons, and every device by 
which the national colors could be appropriately dis- 
played were everywhere in evidence. When the great 
War Commissions appeared, and Joffre, Viviani, Balfour, 
Udine and Marconi were actually in the streets, the 
Allied flags promptly made their appearance and the 
effect was indescribably beautiful. Luncheons, dinners 
and every sort of public appreciation was lavished upon 
the distinguished visitors and New York gave unmis- 
takable evidence of her pro-Ally leanings. The main 
thoroughfares like Broadway, Wall Street, Fifth Avenue, 
the Battery, etc., were a living mass of color. Such a 
wealth of decoration never appeared before and it will 
be a long time before it is repeated. So important did 
this seem to us that we had a number of views specially 
painted to record this demonstration. These pictures in 
all probability will soon become of great historic value, 
as we know of no others in existence. 

The views are by our own special artist, Miss Alice 
Heath. They arc an interesting souvenir of a rare oc- 
casion and are worthy of careful preservation. 

The most important concession the New Yorker has 
yet made to the war is to agree to go home not later than 
I a.m. At least, all cabarets, theatres, restaurants, etc., 
close at that hour and when you deduct the time spent 
in rising when "Poor Butterfly," the "Star Spangled Ban- 
ner," "My Country Tis of Thee," and "Dixie" are 
played, you can readily see that the poor New Yorker is 
really quite a patriotic martyr. He never knows exactly 
for which tune he should rise, so he stands for all and 
thus performs a needless amount of labor and besides 
lets his dinner grow cold. 

[31 1 

Nevertheless lie is bearing up bravely, and the outward 
signs of the city seem to indicate that "Business as Usual" 
is largely his guiding star for the present in this crisis. 

Other unusual incidents were the parade of the sales- 
men who were delegated tn dispose of the Liberty Loan 
Bonds and the fact that all sorts of merchants in the 
retail line willingly set aside room and clerks in order to 
facilitate the work of the Government in selling these 

An Old Hostelry— The Eagle Hotel 

A hotel almost forgotten by old New Yorkers, but still 
doing business at the old stand is the Eastern Hotel at 
Whitehall and South Streets. It is not generally known 
that Jenny Lind stayed at this hotel at the time she sang 
in Castle Garden, and going still further back, Robert 
Fulton was a frequenter of this hotel and Daniel Webster 
was known here too. The Eastern Hotel dates back to 
1822. It was originally called the Eagle Hotel, and has 
passed through its various phases as a fashionable hos- 
telry to the present time, when it is largely used as a 
restaurant and a place for the accommodation of transient 
travelers. Recently it has been known as the Great East- 
ern Hotel. 

Nothing New About Universal Military Service 

Compulsory Universal Military Service, which strikes 
so many of our people as being entirely foreign to our 
policies, as a matter of fact came in with the Republic. 
Our democratic ancestors recognized the fairness of 
common service for all men in a republic and although 
peaceful in their desires and non-militaristic in their 
habits they believed in being prepared, by training every 
able bodied man to do his part as a soldier should need 
arise. The first section of the act of 1792 is as follows: — 
That each and evciy free and able-bodied white male citizen 
of the respective states, who is or shall be of the age of eighteen 
years and under the age of forty-five years (except as herein- 
after rxceptcd) shall severally and respectively, be enrolled in 
the militia by the captain or commanding officer of the company 
within whose bounds such citizen shall reside. And it shall at 


C H * WMiWX 

Biodilway, noilh [ram iOih Street, 1890 showing in the distance Long Acre 
Hats, old fashioned row <rf apartments, now site of Hotel A&tor. 

all times hereafter be the duty of every such captain or command- 
ing officer of a company to enroll every such citizen, as aforesaid, 
and also those who shall, from time to time, arrive at the age of 
eighteen years, or, being of the age of eighteen years and under 
the age of forty-five years (except as before excepted) shall 
come to reside within his hounds ; and shall, without delay, notify 
such citizen of the said enrollment, by a proper non-commissioned 
officer of the company, by whom such notice shall be proved. 
That every citizen so enrolled and notified shall, within six 
months thereafter, provide himself with a good musket or fire- 
lock, a sufficient bayonet and belt, two spare flints, and a knap- 
sack, a pouch, with a box therein to contain not less than 
twenty-four cartridges, suited to the bore of his musket or 
firelock, each cartridge to contain a proper quantity of powder 
and ball ; or with a good rifle, knapsack, shot pouch, and powder 
horn, twenty balls suited to the bore of his rifle, and a quarter 
of a pound of powder; and shall appear so armed, accoutred, 
and provided when called out to exercise or into service ; except 
that when called out on company day's exercise only he may 
appear without a knapsack. 

We have returned to the fair mindedness and good 
sense of the fathers since the Great War drew us in, 
and, let us hope that their simple and sensible example 
will not be again departed from. 


"^OtJ bring a Training SoLdlrr In tJ* Cartway tfiytf&L 

* under iKc Command of sC ^ I * ( Cc*A sst jl^t//// f 
ire htrtby Required in Hii Majefty'i Name, to ji f"9r «t . 
your CdourrvpoO Thurfdiy the aid Cusnai^Z*rffo i.i/i 1 ' 1 
f/far*t£fM!**'C m Nine (/Clock in tht Morning, on che 
fecond tSw pr the Pram, with Aim* Cenipinc, accord- 
ing to Law ; xbtrerf you m not W fill ; it being Mend- 
ing to an Act of the Great and General Coutt, or A&a&:£ 
of tfut Province, requiring the fame, upon I'milty of f^fcVj 
the Suroof Tier ffj Ptaxiit, forNo^-ApixuirKe. 

In the Days of Universal Military Service, 175fi. 

[33 I 

Sketch of "Old No. 3," a Famous Old Grammar School 
in Greenwich Village 

By William S. Eddy 

In 1800 there were three ways open to the children 
of New York City by which to procure an education, 
by means of schools maintained by the different religious 
denominations, private schools and charity schools, but 
as all combined were inadequate to meet the demands 
made upon them, certain prominent citizens organized 
The Free School Society of New York in 1805, with 
De Witt Clinton, then Mayor of the City and afterwards 
Governor of New York, as President, and in May, 1806, 
it established Free School No. r and on November 13th, 
181 1, it opened Free School No. 2 in Henry Street. 

Early in 1818 the Trustees of The Free School Society 
saw the importance of establishing a school in the north- 
western part of the City and having received information 
that a room in the building corner of Grove and Hudson 
Streets could be procured from the City for school pur- 
poses, appointed a committee consisting of Thomas C. 
Taylor, Najah Taylor and John R. Murray, to make ap- 
plication for the premises, and if found suitable, to pre- 
pare them for the reception of pupils. On May 1st it 
reported that arrangements had been made and Shepherd 
Johnson, who had been trained in Free School No. 1, 
was appointed teacher at a salary of $500 per year. He 
was the pioneer of a large number of teachers who were 
trained under the direction of the Society and he con- 
tinued in its employ until 1825. 

Grammar School No, 3 was therefore opened on May 
25th, 1818, with 51 pupils. It increased in numbers so 
rapidly that at the meeting of the Board held on June 
23rd, it reported that 216 scholars had been admitted with 
a regular attendance of over 200. The room not being 


Gf«mm»T School No. 3, drove and Hudson Streets, 
Organized U18. This building, greeted ISfiO, dnlroyed by llrr February, IBfjJ. 
Courltin of Mr. Wltilam S. EJ<ty 

large enough, application was made for the use of an- 
other apartment in the same building and it was granted. 

On December 4th the Board of Trustees took the fol- 
lowing action : 

"Resolved, that, on account of the increased size of Shepherd 
Johnson's school, and the satisfactory discharge of duty on his 
part, his salary be increased to JfMOO.OO to date from the 1st of 
November last." 

The great increase in the number of pupils at No, 3 
rendered additional apartments necessary. A committee 
was appointed and in December a report was submitted 
recommending that a new building be erected on the lots 
granted by Trinity Church at the corner of Grove and 
Hudson Streets and at the same time plans and esti- 
mates were submitted for it, the estimated cost being 
$8,500. The recommendations were adopted. 

The tenure of the ground, as granted by the Corpora- 
tion of Trinity Church, did not secure it absolutely to 
the Free School Society, and at the following meeting 
the matter was reconsidered and a committee consisting 
of John R. Murray, William Torrey and Benjamin Clark 
was appointed to consult the Vestry of Trinity Church 
to ascertain if the privilege desired could not be ob- 
tained. This conference resulted in a proposition that 
if the Society would release a certain portion of the 
property on Hudson Street the Vestry would convey the 
title of the remainder in fee simple to the Society. These 
terms were deemed favorable and the committee was 
directed to consummate the arrangement. The negotia- 
tion was terminated, however, by the payment of $1,250 
on the part of the Society as purchase money for the 
whole of the lots. 

In May, 182 1, the Annual Report of the Board of 
Trustees of the Free School Society showed as follows: 

"School No. 3— Shepherd Tohnson, 540 Boys; Sarah F. Field, 
289 Girls." 

The first school building of old No. 3 was a wooden 
structure erected in 1828 on its present site in the heart 
of Old Greenwich Village, corner of Grove and Hudson 


streets, and after having been altered and repaired many 
times, it was finally replaced in i860 by the handsome 
brick and stone structure, which, with an annex built 
in 1888, was destroyed by fire on February 14th, 1905. 
In its place has been erected a somewhat smaller building 
which shelters a Girls' Grammar School which, until 
October 19th, 1916, was presided over by Miss Mary 
Frances Maguire, Principal, who was graduated from old 
No. 3 in 18&2. 

In this school's earlier days it was celebrated for its 
"sand system" which was a table provided for the young- 
est scholars. It was 15 feet long and 6 inches wide and 
was divided longitudinally into two parts, one half being 
set off so as to form a shallow tray, with an enclosing 
rail or ledge about one inch thick. The bottom of the 
tray was stained or painted black and over it was spread 
a thin coating of sand. The table was provided with a 
"sand-smoother" made of sole leather into the edge of 
which three notches were cut so that, when used, it left 
three ridges or rules the entire length of the table. In 
the sand thus ruled the beginners were taught to form 
letters, using a stick about as thick as a quill, and four 

In its day this sand system was considered a great im- 
provement and so remarkable that when General LaFay- 
ette was invited to inspect the work accomplished by 
the schools of The Free School Society, he was escorted, 
on September loth, 1824, to School No. 3 where a certi- 
ficate of membership in the Society was presented to him 
hy Vice-President Eleecker in the Girls' Room in the 
presence of many of the Trustees, the Mayor, several 
Aldermen and a large assemblage of ladies and gentle- 
men, A pretty little poetic address to the General was 
then spoken in concert by a number of the girls. In the 
Boys' Room an address written for the occasion was de- 
livered by a small lad on behalf of his fellows. About 
500 boys and 300 girls were in attendance. Thus impor- 
tant event in the school's history is now marked by a 
bronze tablet, the gift of a former graduate, Charles 
Rollinson Lamb ( of the firm of J. & R. Lamb) , who also 
designed it. Its inscription reads as follows : 


"On September 10th, 1824, 

Major-General in the 
American Army during llie 
War of the Revolution, 
Public School No. 3 
which was selected as the 
best example of ihc Public 
School System established 
by The Free School Society 
of the City of New York. 

In memory of that event 
This Tablet 
is erected by a former pupil 
of the school under the direction 
Of the Board o£ Education 
A. D. 1911." 

The following excerpts from the minutes of the Board 
of Trustees may be of interest: 
November 5th, 1824 — 

Crackers and cheese for children and carriage hire attend- 
ing Gen. La Fayette $10.60 and $27.43 

Total $38.03 

November 2nd, 1825 — 

"A handsome specimen of needlework executed and pre- 
sented to the Trustees by Elizabeth Onderdonk, a pupil in No. 
3, was ordered to be framed under the direction of the Com- 
mittee of Supplies, and hung in the Session Room (which was 
located in Public School No. 1)." 

January 6th, 1826 — 

"The Trustees directed the Committee of Supplies to pre- 
sent Elizabeth Onderdonk, who worked the La Fayette sampler, 
with a Plaid Cloak or other suitable reward." 

Old No. 3 was long regarded as one of the best con- 
ducted and equipped schools in the city. As early as 
iS8o, before electricity was even dreamed to be the force 
it has since proved itself to be, this school possessed 
quite a large electrical outfit. Teachers have served 
longer and with fewer changes than in any other school 
in New York City. 

Mr. Benjamin De Lamater Southerland, for whom the 


school is named, became a pupil of No. 3 in 1838, at the 
age of 24 he was appointed Principal of a school in Flush- 
ing, L. l n but returned to New York City in 1867 at 
which time, succeeding the celebrated Dr. David Patter- 
son, he became Principal of Grammar School No. 3, a 
position he voluntarily relinquished on account of failing 
health, on June 30th, 1902. He passed away on Decem- 
ber ist, 1905. Mr. Southerland was greatly beloved by 
his boys, he was a Giristian gentleman possessed of those 
qualifications which are essential to the successful instruc- 
tor, he loved his boys and worked indefatigahly for their 
interests — often far into the night— and although the 
strictest of disciplinarians, his efforts on their behalf were 
finally appreciated by them and his affection reciprocated. 
It can be truthfully stated that no one ever heard a No, 3 
boy speak disrespectfully of his Principal or refer to him 
in any other terms than those of the highest respect and 

His talented assistant was Mr. Andrew J. Whiteside, 
the teacher of the graduating class, having been appointed 
thereto September 1st, 1873 and resigned that position 
on September 12th, 1892 to become Principal of School 
No. 8 in King Street. 

Among its graduates who have attained distinction in 
their respective lines of work were: 

Stanleyetta Titus, one of the first woman lawyers to be admitted 
to the Bar. 

Miss Marv Frances Maguire, Principal of Grammar School 
No. 3. 

Major George W. Debevoisc, Class of '49 (still living), Haw- 
kins Zouaves, '61-65. 

Rear-Admiral George W. Melville (of Arctic fame). 

Rear-Admiral James H. Chasmer, U. S. N. 

Henry 14. Carse, Vice-President, Hanover National Bank. 

Edgar C. Hcubard, Vice-President, Guaranty Trust Co. 

Alfred C. Andrews, Cashier, Chase National Bank. 

William II Rose, Secretary, Broadway Savings Institution, 

William V. Hudson, Secretary-Treasurer, West Side Savings 

Augustus V. Heely, Asst. Secretary, Farmers Loan & Trust Co., 
N. Y., and Vice-President, Plainfield Trust Co., Plainfield, 
N. J. 

Hon. William F. Schneider, County Clerk of New York County 
for eight years. 


Hon. William J. A, Caffrcy, State Senator from Old School 

Hon, George W. Olvany, Deputy Fire Commissioner under Mayor 
Gaynor, and Counsel to the Sheriff of New York. 

Arthur T. Billings, Assistant Secretary, North British & Mercan- 
tile Ins. Co. 

John E, Wade, Principal of Grammar School No. 95. 

Hon. Isidor Sobcl, Postmaster of Erie, Pa., and President of 
Postmasters' Association of First Class Cities of the U, S, 

Joseph Kronacher, Manager, Hamburg-American S. 5. Co., Balti- 
more, Md. 

Charles R. Lamb, with J. & R. Lamb, Ecclesiastical Art Manu- 

William J. Dixon, of W. J. Dixon & Co., Hat Manufacturers. 
James R, McAfee, President, George Hayes Co. 
John H. Hudson, Jr., Certified Public Accountant. 

William S. Eddy. 

Physicians : 

Dr. Atvah H, Newman, Walter B. Brouner, Harry J. 

Ministers of the Gospel : 

Rev. Jacob Probst, Rev. Frederick H. Knuhel, Rev. George 

W. Grinton, Rev. Charles H. Cookman and Rev. William 

J. Lockhart. 

Charles A, Hale, Historian of the B. D. L. Southerland Alumni 

Association of Old School No. 3. 
And many others too numerous to mention. 

Tn 1918 the one hundredth anniversary of the School 
will be celebrated and a tablet will be erected in memory 
of Mr. Southerland by members of the School Alumni 
Association, of which there is a membership at present 
of about 300, formed to perpetuate the memory of the 
old school and its illustrious Principal, B. D. L. Souther- 
land, after whom the Association is named. 

I 45 J 

Newspaper Distribution in 1801 

The Evening Post lias an old book of 1801 in which 
the following names of well known citizens appear as 
subscribers : — 

Garret H. Striker 

Henry Doyer 

Jas. Duulap 

Daniel D. Tompkins.. 

R. Belden . 

Colonel Barclay _ 

Strong Sturges 

Tohn Cruger 

Anthony Lispenard,., 
Anthony Bleccker_ .... 
John McKesson 

Joel and Jonathan Post 

Anthony Dey _.„ 

Cornelius Bogcrt . 

Matthew Clarksou 
Thilip L. Jones.™ 
Grant Thorburn — 
Robert Swarthout 
Robert Morris 

Nathaniel L. Sturges 

Isaac Leelyard 

Robert Thome.. 

John Jacob Astor_ 

Philip Livingston 

James Carter 

Joseph Otis 

Israel Haviland 

Philip Hone„ 

181 Broadway 

Bowery Lane. 

163 Greenwich St. 

1 Wall St 

— 153 Broadway. 

142 Greenwich St. 

_ 13 Oliver St. 

30 Greenwich St. 

_ ID Park St 

125 Water St. 

_ 82 Broadway. 

Wall and William Sis. 

_._ 1° Cedar St. 
24 Pine St. 

— 26 Pearl St. 
74 Broadway. 

— 22 Nassau St, 
...... 62 Water St. 

_._ 33 Water St. 
- 47 Wall St. 

2 Pearl St. 
_ 2 Coenties Slip. 
71 Liberty St. 

195 Greenwich St. 

90 Murray's Wharf. 

_ 186 Water St 
56 Dey St. 

Newspapers were not sold on the streets or from 
stands in those days and very few in the offices. Sub- 
scribers were served with the papers at their homes. 
The distribution of the paper was not a very difficult 
one as the subscription list did not number more than 600. 

! If. I 

Broidwayai Dtry Street. The old Franklin Motel— 1630. Now the site ofihe new W«t*rn Union building. 

A Girl's Life in New York Ninety Years Ago 
Reminiscences of Catalttia Adams 

(Among the friends whose attention was attracted by the 
announcement of our desire to revive "Valentine's Old Manuals" 
hist year, was a dear old lady who spent most of her childhood 
in lower Broadway in the neighborhood of St. Paul's. She was 
then in her 94th year. She kindly Consented to dictate a few 
recollections of Broadway when it was still a region of homes 
and all around were the churches, schools and other evidences 
of its social atmosphere and while it was still an almost rural 
section of our city. 

To our inexpressible regret the memoirs were interrupted 
by that summons which we all must obey and the narrative is 
broken at its most interesting point. Slight, as it is, we think 
our readers will enjoy this first hand view of the annals of a 
quiet neighborhood now ^rown so strident and strenuous. They 
carry us back over ninety years and the contrast is so striking 
that it seems incredible that one life should have spanned it all. 
The Vescy Street house with which the story opens is shown 
elsewhere in these pages from a drawing made at the time. — 
Editor.) . 

The child I am writing of seems to be not myself, 
but an entirely different person. A timid, painfully 
sensitive child, made more so by delicate health. , . , 
I could not understand how* my kitten that I shut tip on 
a chair, making a cage of other chairs, could get out. 

I was born in Schexlack Landing, The house still 
stands in which I was born, and in which my father 
died. My first home of which I have any recollection 
was at Broadway and Vesey Street, the entrance on 
Vesey Street. 

We must have lived there some time. It was there 
I persuaded my sister to go with me and have our ears 
pierced, and gold hoops put in; then went in and told 
mother. I do not remember that she eluded us for our 
daring, neither do I remember ever, from her, a cross 
word. I often went across Broadway, and stood in 
the doorway of a house where my aunt, Mrs. Stryker, 
lived, opposite old St. Paul's, and waited there to see 
St. Paul come down from his niche to get his dinner, 
when he heard the clock strike one. ... In those days 

E 4<) ] 

Mrs. Stryker called mc Johnny McGuire. I never knew 
why. But then I had many nicknames. Mr. H., my 
stepfather, whom I remember as far back as that time, 
called me "Bobolink." On the corner of the church- 
yard opposite us an old Mrs. Lawrence had an apple 
and peanut stand. In winter, she sat in a covered box, 
something like a seaside chair, with a foot stove. Mure 
than once, she left me to tend her stand, and often gave 
me a maple sugar cocoanut cake for it- 
While we were in that house, my mother being ab- 
sent on one occasion at evening service, old Ann Gil- 
more, our nurse, was so hurt that mother should put 
me to sleep in a cold room (our sleeping room was 
never warmed), that she lighted a charcoal furnace in 
the room, which was without a chimney, and had mother 
come home but a few minutes later, the doctor never 
could have brought me to. Another time, the nurse 
gave me a thimble to play with, and, of course, I tried 
to swallow it, and was just saved. 

My father died when I was a year and a half old. 
It was the next Spring mother moved to Vcsey Street 
( 1824). The house was owned by old John Jacob Astor. 
] have an indistinct remembrance of the old man, with 
his thrifty habits, picking up, about the streets, such 
things as he did not like to have to go to waste. Our 
house was entered from Vescy Street, there being sev- 
eral shops under it on Broadway. It was in one of these 
that we went to have our ears pierced. 

Our next door neighbor was a Madame B., who kept 
a fancy store. Our backyards adjoined each oilier, our 
wood pile was against her fence. (No one had subcellars 
in those days.) I used to get up on the wood pile when 
Madame B. and her husband quarrelled, to see them 
fight it out. 

We went to school to a Miss Baynum, a prim old 
maid, in Vesey Street. On our way, we always stopped at 
Shaddle's bakery, to buy a penny's worth of round hearts 
(bolivars), always eating the scallops off before we 
reached school. I was always in disgrace in school, having 
generally the dunce cap, or the leather medal, but Ellen 
Scrougan and Johnnie Armstrong were about like me. 


Ellen would not learn her lessons. On one occasion 
Miss Baynum sent me to the City Hall to get the Chief 
Constable, "Old Hayes," thinking I would only go out- 
side the door, to frighten Ellen. But I had my fun out 
of it, for, fearing I would be called back, I ran as if 
the old boy was after me, till, meeting "Old Hayes," as 
the Head Constable was called, I stated the case to him, 
and he sent me back to say that they did not take chil- 
dren up for such things, at which Miss Baynum was 
much mortified. I can remember just how I looked in 
my nankeen Van Dyke. I looked very demure when 
Miss Baynum asked me why I went up to the City Hall, 
and only answered "Why, you told me to." She also 
once took me up there after school, and threatened me 
with being locked up. Mother could never have known 
of her punishments, nr we would not have been allowed 
to remain in her school. I was also, once, shut up in 
a new coal bin in a dark closet till I asked her pardon, 
which I waited until school was out to do. I rather 
enjoyed the fun of it. I must have been a mixture of 
mischief and cowardice. 

In one attic to which mother sometimes sent me, 
there was a great tortoise-shell cat, which made its 
home behind a curtain, and would come out and glare 
at me. One day in going up the stairs at twilight, my 
head hit this horrid cat, which Cousin Peter V. had 
hung: and, since then, I have hated cats as I do the 
Evil One. 

Cousin P. was fond of practical jokes; and, more 
than once, I have seen mother faint away, he fright- 
ened her so. He nearly frightened me out of what 
little wits I might have had. 

It was in Vcsey Street that Betsey and I had mumps, 
measles (which weakened her eyes), and whooping 
cough. We had chinchilla hats, blue shoes, and blue 
canton crape dresses. What a guy I must have looked, 
with my sallow skin, saucer eyes, and bare bones. 

The next move was to Fulton Street. Of that I have 
no recollection, except that of making mud-pies in the 
back yard. After that, we spent a year in Somerville, 
N. J. 

I 53 1 

Then we lived in Broadway, opposite John Street. 
Of the life in that house, I remember very little, but I 
do remember hiding something from my mother which 
I feared she would not like — the only time I ever re- 
member doing, deliberately, anything I thought would 
displease her. I low well I remember going down to 
the Garden Street (Exchange Place) Church and Sun- 
day School, Miss Anna Matthews being my teacher (we 
then lived in Dey Street). The ministers all wore their 
robes going through the streets, and the streets near 
the churches were all closed by chains during the services, 
so that these should not be disturbed by the passing of 

My first remembrance of Uncle Ben D. was of his 
coming to church as he just arrived from Savannah, t 
had just been printing my name in pencil on the pew 
door and I fancied that he looked very sternly at me. 
I never shall forget the Communions at that church. 
Every one went forward to the table. As they went, 
they alwavs sang what has, ever since, l>een my favor- 
ite hymn, "How Firm a Foundation." I can well re- 
member wishing that I could go forward with mother, 
and wondering if I ever would be good enough. My 
remembrance of these seasons has impressed me with 
the idea that children should be present at such services. 
The hymns sung, the impressive manner of the elegant 
Dr. Matthews, mother's kind friend, all come back to 
me, when I hear the hymns sung, as if it were yester- 

In Dey Street mother married Mr. Hine. She kept 
sister home to witness the marriage, but sent me to 
school. I did not like it. We went, at that time, to Miss 
Maynard's school, in Fulton Street, sister, as every- 
where else, at the head of her class, while all I recall 
was ringing a particular door-bell on my way to school. 
It was there that sister got into the way of taking notes 
of sermons, as the scholars were obliged to report, on 
Monday mornings, all that they could recall. 

While we were living there (Dey Street), my earliest 
friend, Eleanor D., daughter of the Mrs. D. who was a 
great Mission worker, died. Another impression of Dey 


Broadway — Trinity Church YarJ— The old Trinity anJ Equltabl* buildings, a lout 1S90, 

Street was my mother's giving away my wax doll, that 
was dressed in blue gauze, and could shut its eyes. She 
gave it to Maria V., because 1 was getting too old to 
play with dolls; but Maria was as old. There was a 
ship-bread bakery near us, where the men kneaded the 
dough with their feet. I used to stand and watch them. 
My other great entertainment was to go to all the menag- 
eries and museums, to see all the monstrosities, as giants, 
fat girls, Siamese twins, and the man without arms, who 
cut watch papers, using his toes in place of fingers. 

Our school vacations, which we spent in Somerville 
or Schodack, were for the month of July only. 

While wc lived in Dey Street there was a great turn- 
out, but I do not know the occasion. That was in 1831. 
(Probably the funeral of ex-President Monroe, on July 
7th.) Wc all wore tri-colored rosettes. Sister and 1 
were out alone, to see the parade. 

On the 4th of July, booths were placed all along 
outside of the City Hall Park railing; and, for sale, 
they had roast pig and cherry pie, and other dainties. 

Dey Street was where my grandfather lived after 
his (2nd?) marriage. The table that, for years, stood 
in the Dobbs Ferry hall was one of two that stood be- 
tween the three windows in grandmother's drawing room; 
and the old mahogany chair was there, too. I was never 
in that room, but, somehow, I knew just how it looked. 

After mother's marriage to Mr. H. we moved to Wil- 
low Street, Brooklyn. The first Summer there I was 
so sick with dysentery that my bones were through, 
and the doctors came in only to see if I were alive, A 
preparation of loaf sugar, gum arabic and castor oil 
cured me. The Misses T., our neighbors, watched with 
me many nights. Mother was too ill, in another room, 
to see me, for weeks. The Misses T. were always doing 
some kind or charitable act, and yet they, at last, were 
left very poor, and obliged to work for their living. 

The time in that house seems to have been all Sum- 
mer, for my remembrance of the days as they passed was 
of living in the peach trees in the garden and eating 
the luscious fruit, and of sitting on the fence and looking 
into the street, 


While we lived there, "occurred what is known as the 
great fire (1835). I watched it all night. I saw the 
dome of the Merchants' Exchange fall in. The sparks 
from that fire came over the river so thick that the neigh- 
Dors, in shingle-roofed houses, were obliged to keep their 
roofs wet all night, and a bill flew over, and was picked 
up on Mrs. R.'s front porch. 

Sister was at Miss M.'s wedding, and Mr. Alexander 
H. escorted her home, and expressed his desire to be- 
come a permanent escort. 

While we were in the John Street house, directly 
opposite Grant Thorbum's garden, Uncle Ben was mar- 
ried to Lucretia M., and Alanson T. to Sarah M. That 
was the first wedding at which the brides carried bou- 
quets. Mr. Thorburn sent them to the brides. His 
garden was a place of great resort, had lovely plants, a 
room full of birds, and a fountain whose basin was full 
of gold and silver fish. 

The day of Uncle Ben's wedding they all went but 
myself. I was thought too young. They went over (to 
Brooklyn?) before dark, leaving me alone in the house, 
and warning me not to open the door, to any one, unless 
it was the servant, who was out. I, in mv timidity, went 
and looked out of the side-lights until it was so dark I 
was afraid to move. I never shall forget my fears. 

I was very fond of Aunt Lucretia. They kept house 
near us while she was able. Their Marquard I was very 
fond of, and spent my spare time with him. It was a 
great grief when he died at eighteen months, while his 
father and mother were away in Santa Cruz, for her 
health, Marquard staying with her mother. 

The first pretty dress I ever remember having (not 
being one of sister's outgrown ones), was a peach blos- 
som colored silk of Aunt . Lucretia's. (I must have 
looked like a peach in it.) The first time I wore it, I 
upset a lamp over it where I was spending the evening, 
and spent the evening putting magnesia on the spots, 
and was relieved, next morning, to find them all gone. 

After moving to Qark Street I had scarlet fever, and 
was so ill that the doctor only came in from time to 
time to see if I was living. The night Marian G. mar- 


"""" New York's Fir»t Aqueduct. 

Parade celebrating ihe Irutullation Df Croltin Water in city of New York, 1842. Previous to that New York, 
a city of about 300,000 inhabitants, depended almost wholly upon wells {or watar supply 
am! the small provision made by a private corporation. 

ried Mr. C, Uncle Ben and sister went to the wedding, 
I grew suddenly worse, so that neither mother nor I 
thought that I would live till they came home, but I was 
spared. Sister, who watched me alternate nights, did 
not have any signs of it. Ann Gilmore came the alter- 
nate nights, going back to her work in the morning. 

Many pleasant summers, out of town, I recall, Never 
being strong, I was sent away. One Summer I spent in 
Pine Plains. The family were very fond of flowers, 
and I had my fill of them. They all did all they could 
for my pleasure, planning long drives and excursions. 
One drive was to New Milford, while Rev. Noah Porter 
was settled there. Some summers I Spent in Somer- 
ville, at the home of Cousin Peter V., and his mother, 
Aunt Catalina. They were next door neighbors to Mr. 
Peter E., the father of Mrs. Samuel S. So, with the 
E's and our Cousins Liz, Mary and Caroline, we had 
merry times. This must have been before I was twelve 
years old, as Aunt Catalina died about that time, and 
the three girls came to live with us, and then we had 
merry times. With the lapse of time, the years seem to 
run into one. 

Our acquaintance with the A. family began about the 
time I was sixteen. The daughters of Mr. Gad T. gave 
a party, to which sister and a Miss Matilda T. were in- 
vited. Miss T. came and asked sister to let her bring 
an escort for them both, "one of the handsomest men 
in New York." It was Nathan A. 


Original Huguenot Families 

It) the year 1664, the city was captured by the British ; 
and in that same year the well known charter of Charles 
II. to his brother, the Duke of York, was made, giving 
him the city including the island and province of New 
Amsterdam, After the cession most of the previous 
inhabitants remained; and thus the Dutch as well as the 
English become the ancestors of many of the present 
families of the city. And connected with the Dutch 
people were large numbers of the Huguenots of France 
who, to avoid the persecutions to which they were sub- 
jected, fled from their native country — some direct, and 
others to Holland — and thence, with the Hollanders to 
the island and province of New York. Among these 
Huguenots were the families of: 

Jay, Bcdient, Lispenard, 

Mimigh, De la Montague, Le Roux, 

Dubois, Angcvinc, Lc Roy, 

Chadevoique, Btdoine, Guion, 

Cutting, Til luu, Larue, 

Pelletreau, Scgoine, Gotier, 

Bouditiot, Provost, De Pcyster, 

Latoorette, Moxcpin, Delaval, 

Mcsier, De Milt, De Kay, 

Giraud, Maynard, Dqlamater, 

Destropcs, Giraud, Bodinc, 

Jedine, Collier. Meserole, 

Desillc, John Pintard, Derve. 

The Passing of the Clocks 

Two old clocks that have done service for several 
generations of New Yorkers reached the end of their 
career in this year of our Lord 1917, and their passing 
cannot but create a little heart throb to those of us who 
have been accustomed to see them day by day for ever 
so many years. One of them, the City Hall, was stopped 
by violence; the other, St. Paul's, by the inevitable pro- 
cess of nature, decay. The latter had ticked and tolled 
for one hundred and nineteen years, and at last, worn out 


Ftiurteenth Street, between Fifth and Sixth Avenues, about 1860, shnwinK old Spinier farmhouse just 
back of present Spinier Buililin E on Union Square. Entrance waa on Fourteenth Street. 

and weary just stopped like the generations of humans 
it had served so long. In 179S all our great clocks and 
bells came from England and the old works of St. Paul's 
bear the name of the famous maker of that day, "Clerk - 
enwell, London, 1798." Things have been quite reversed 
since that time and America now leads the world in the 
matter of time pieces. The old clock was one of the few 
remaining links between us and the Mother land — the 
new one "made in America" rings in the beginning of a 
closer union that will, let us hope, bring peace and good 
will to the whole world, also "made in America." 

The City Hall clock was destroyed by fire and will dis- 
appear for good. The people are willing to make this 
concession for the sake of seeing once more the beautiful 
and chaste design of the original cupola ornamenting our 
oldest and finest public building. 

A Celebrated Corner 

Considerable attention is now directed to the corner 
of Broadway and Cortlandt street. On this site 
still stands the first iron building erected on Broadway 
and occupied by Benedict Bros, the jewellers for many 

Early in the Century this corner was occupied as a 
small bakery by a Mr. Bogart. He must have been a 
picturesque figure as lie sat in front of his store in the 
afternoons, his chair tilted back taking his ease. The 
following sketch of this worthy baker is worth pre- 

Mr. Bogart, at the corner of Broadway and Cortlanrtt street, 
was the eminent biscuit maker of the city. This old gentleman 
was the model of a respectable burgomaster. He usually dressed 
in small clothes, and woolen stockings ; buckles at the knees 
and in his shoes ; body-coat, with large pockets and buttons : 
a white stock, buckled behind; a plain, neat shirt, with sleeve 
buttons ; his hair powdered ; a long queue, and a broad brimmed 
beaver hat. Thus attired in great neatness, each fair afternoon, 
on business days, after his work was over, was he seen sitting 
on the bench of his front porch or stoop, with a long pipe 
in his mouth, quietly smoking and complacently regarding those 
who passed. His biscuit and tea, made with the water from the 
tea water pump, were in great request. 


In the "Seventies" 

A half century in the life of a city is comparatively 
a very short period and yet it is sufficiently long to mark 
a very decided growth and advance in our views of 
things. No longer ago than the seventies the people of 
New York were still preening themselves on the wonders 
of the Croton Aqueduct and its beneficial effects on all 
the inhabitants. And today, without minimizing the im- 
portance and value of that public work in the least, it 
shrinks into insignificance l>eside the new Catskill Aque- 
duct, with its hundred miles of water way, its enormous 
reservoirs and more than all else its tremendous engineer- 
ing difficulties overcome. To the Old New Yorker who 
remembers all these things and who has seen them pass 
before him in panoramic array nothing is more interesting 
than to skim over the enthusiasms of a generation that 
has passed or is fast passing away. In a guide book of 
New York 1875 we find the following items: 

"The lavish supply of pure water distributed by the Croton 
Aqueduct is its chief artificial sanitary arrangement. This is 
:,\ 1 he omnwiut 01 all, rich or poor, ft is carried into every 
house, however insignificant, and distributed through it from 
top to bottom in pipes let into the walls and turned out by faucets, 
with larger pipes to carry off the waste water." 

And here is the first recorded appearance of that now 
common pest the English sparrow. In these days he was 
a pampered pet with special houses built for him by the 

"The parks and squares are delightful breathing spots. Un- 
enclosed and beautifully paved, they arc peculiarly inviting. 
They are planted with trees, and have beautifully kept grass- 
plots and admirable, walks and inviting seats. They are filled 
with English sparrows (imported for the protection of the trees 
against the caterpillars) ; and in the Madison and Union Squares 
aie ingeniously contrived minature buildings for these little 
birds, placed among the branches of the trees, which represent 
different business departments, as "The Post-Office," "The 
Custom-Honse," "The Exchange," &c„ fire, &c. and it is very 
amusing to see the little creatures enter these different edifices, 


View taken from Park Avenue at 93id Stteet — 1876. 
Looking west across the Park to the Museum ol Natural History. From an old photopTaph, 
All this region is now solidlv built up with expensive private residences. 

ihcjir bus;-, hurried air irresistaUy Rivhiff the idea that they 
really know where they were going and have a purpose in it." 

And does not this remind many of us of scenes of 
our boyhood days when grandfather put on his long linen 
duster, doffed a straw hat and with basket on arm set 
forth on his journey to the market : 

"It is miteh the custom in New York for gentlemen, and 
often ladies, to go themselves to market to make their purchases 
for the day's or week's requirements. '' 

And these old confidence games have long ago "sunk 
into desuetude." Something less crass and obvious is 
needed to deceive the present generation of New Yorkers: 

"Beware— "Of Mock Auctions in stores, and of the pleasant- 
faced man who invites you to look in,'' 

"Beware — "Of all who accost you in the street, particularly 
if they want your advice about a pocket-book they have just 
found, or a roll of money which they have picked up. Such 
persons have a very innocent inexperienced air. Distrust them — 
don't stop to listen to them." 

"Beware— "Ladies, keep your pocket-books in the bosom of 
your dress." 

Even at that time there were no great public art 
galleries such as we have today in the Metropolitan and 
other institutions, but owners of private galleries evi- 
dently admitted the public to view their treasures upon 
request. This guide book gives the following item. 

"Private picture galleries — These are far superior to any- 
thing on public exhibition. The finest are the collections of 
John Taylor Tohnston, William H. Aspinwall, Marshall O. 
Roberts, John I [ocy, Robert L. Stuart, and Alexander T. Stewart. 
Applications should be made by letter." 

Look on this picture and contrast it with a real up- 
to-date entertainment: 

"A lady may wear, at the present .time, to any "entertainment 
a h%'h-necked, long sleeved dark or black silk dress, if it be 
fresh and fashionably made. Gentlemen, at parties, must appear 
in full dress — i. c., black dress coat and pantaloons, plain vests, 
and gloves." 

Society was very correct and exacting: 

"Calls and Callers — Calls of ceremony are made between 
two and half-past four o'clock. Morning calls between eleven 


ami twelve; evening calls between eight and nine; evening calls 
may be prolonged to ten or half-past ten. Morning calls arc 
made in simple walking costume, afternoon and evening calls 
in more dressy suits, with either long or short skirts." 

A delightful old custom that has disappeared: 

"New Year's Day— This is especially a New York institu- 
tion, fur it originated with the Dutch settlers, and is maintained 
with unabated enthusiasm, especially by the fashionable classes. 
Ladies stay at home to receive calls, and gentlemen have the 
undisputed use of the thoroughfares and streets from nine o'clock 
in the morning till midnight. Houses are put in the finest order 
in preparation for the day, and every one is in their best dress, 
best spirits, and best looks ; and the most elaborate tables, loaded 
with every delicacy, are prepared. It is the great festival day 
of New York." 

Why has moving; day lost all its terrors for the mod- 
ern New Yorker? It was a day of pandemonium for 
our fathers according to this writer. Surely no greater 
tribute could be paid to the general progress of social 
life in New York than the elimination of all the troubles 
and discomforts of the first of May: 

"It is a pandemonium in New York. The poor go from the 
cellar or garret of one tenement-house to another, wealthy 
people uptown pack trunks, cases, and boxes for the country, or 
change for a more eligible location, or to obtain cheaper rates 
of rent in town. All landladies are less amiable than usual, 
and most are furious. Matrons lose their temper through the 
din and dust of the general commotion. Servants enjoy the 
privilege of reckless demolition. Young children cry, and larger 
ones help servants to break. Heads of families ache, and their 
htngs are smothered, and their throat-; ;ire choked with dust. 
Countless Micawbers pocket the curses of their enraged land- 
lords, who themselves can pocket nothing. And so the day 
wears on in every part of the city. The carriers and carmen 
reap the harvest. Eight, ten and fifteen dollars per load are 
the prices, and furniture wagons are scarce even at these rates. 
Some are engaged weeks before. At night people find themselves 
away from their old home — if one can be said to have a home 
under conditions of yearly migration — and in a strange place. 
Papa goes 'round the corner,* feeling very blue. Mama can 
find nothing she needs for the children, and the dear children 
sit about the floor in a most lugubrious and lachrymose condi- 
tion, bewailing the fall of china angels and the breaking of 
little play-things. Such is life on May-day in New York. 

Mactisun Avenue. North from Fortieth Street, Some of the <iw.,-st changes in the re-buildlng of the 

city have taken place in this section. 
Dr. Trng'd Church at the right and St. Bartholomew, with original spire, to the left. 

Which is the Busiest Street Corner in the City? 

The most reliable figures in regard to street traffic 
are those given by the Traffic Division of the Police 
Department. These figures were registered on automatic 
counters by the traffic officers and represent traffic for 
10 hours of the day, not 24, namely from 8:30 a. m. 
to 6:30 p. m. The traffic squad handles daily 15,545,745 
pedestrians in Manhattan borough alone and 2,212,874 
vehicles. Some of their figures are given below: 

Park Row and Frankfort SL „„..„ 296,200 pedestrians 

Park Row and Frankfort St— 6,700 vehicles 

Broadway and Fulton St 223,000 pedestrians 

Broadway and Fulton St - 1<W00 vehicles 

Broadway south of Fulton St. to Bowling 

Green, all crossings 1,200,000 pedestrians 

Fifth Avenue and 23rd St ..159,920 pedestrians 

Fifth Avenue and 23rd St 9,645 vehicles 

Fifth Avenue and 34th St 140,360 pedestrians 

Fifth Avenue and 34th St _ 14,360 vehicles 

Fifth Avenue and 42nd St- - 113,780 pedestrians 

Fifth Avenue and 42nd St 18,000 vehicles 

Broadway and Times Square 90,370 pedestrians 

Broadway and Times Square - 19,650 vehicles 

Columbus Circle 81,900 pedestrians 

Columbus Circle „ .„,. 39,210 vehicles 

In Brooklyn Borough 

Fulton and Court St..- 41,260 pedestrians 

Fulton and Court St 5,767 vehicles 

Flatbush and Fourth Aves _ 36,859 pedestrians 

Flatliush and Fourth Avcs.__ 13,075 vehicles 

In the Bronx 

Third Avenue and 149th St 69,640 pedestrians 

Third Avenue and 149th St _ 7,344 vehicles 

The Bridges 

Manhattan Bridge „_.._ 11,018 pedestrians 

Manhattan Bridge 11,299 vehicles 

Williamsburg Bridge .. 54,110 pedestrians 

Williamsburg Bridge 9,916 vehicles 

Queensboro Bridge 42,420 pedestrians 

Queensboro Bridge -, 14,530 vehicles 

The Brooklyn Bridge, the oldest of them all and the one 
which has the greatest traffic, is not given. 


History Told in Tablets 

A concise history of New York can be gleaned from 
the tablets which now mark nearly all historic spots with- 
in its limits and a perusal of them is by no means the 
dry reading one would suppose. We have collected them 
together in some such order as may make them more 
connected and therefore more interesting. Washington 
bulks large of course in our history and the tablets refer- 
ring to him or to the events in which he figured pre- 
eminently are ground first, and from them may be gath- 
ered a pretty good idea of the close and intimate connec- 
tion of our city with him and with the great events in 
which he was the moving and commanding spirit, ft will 
be noticed also that both at the beginning and the end of 
the Revolution New York plays a leading part. 

These tablets also bear witness to the desire of our 
forebears for the establishment and conservation of edu- 
cation and the pursuit of knowledge through letters and 
inventions down to our modern technical schools, sub- 
ways and elevateds. As we read these tablets we can 
travel the whole way in imagination from the little room 
in the Dutch schoolmaster's home down through the years 
to the Halls of Columbia and the splendid public libraries 
of the city. 

To Commemorate Washington 

Jumet Mansion, 161 St. and Edgecomb Ave. 
Washington's Headquarters. This tablet is dedicated by the 
Washington Heights Chapter, Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution to the memory of General George Washington who 
occupied this mansion as his headquarters from September 16th 
to October 21st, 1776. Battle of Harlem Heights, September 
16th. Councils of war. ^President Washington visited this 
mansion accompanied by his cabinet, Jttly, 1790. Morris House, 
1758. Jumd Mansion, 1810. Earle Cliff, 1900. 

St. Paul's Chapel j Broadway. 
In commemoration of the centennial of the inauguration of 
George Washington the first president of the United States, 
April 30, 1889. Erected by the Aisle Committee at services held 
in St. Paul's Chapel, N. Y. 



St. Paul's Chapel, Broadway. 
This tablet is erected in commemoration of the centennial 
anniversary services of the death of his excellency General 
George Washington, commander in chief of the armies of the 
United States during the war of the revolution observed at St. 
Paul's Chapel on the Broadway, New York, Decernbcl 14th, 
1S99. General Society of the Cincinnati. Sons of the Revolu- 
tion in N. Y. 

Sub-Treasury Building, Wall St. 
On this site in Federal Hall April 30, 1789, George Wash- 
ington took the oath as the first president of the United States 
of America. 

No 1 Broadway, 
Here stood Kennedy House once headquarters of Generals 
Washington and Lee. On the Bowling Green opposite, the leaden 
statue of King George was destroyed by the people July 9, 
1776, and later made into bullets for the American army, 

SI Whitehall Street. 
This tablet marks the site of Whitehall ferry the place 
■where General George Washington embarked December 4, 17K3 
after bidding farewell to his officers at Fnumces Tavern, 

Frounces Tavern, Broad and Pearl Streets. 
Fraunces Tavern — To this building General George Wash- 
ington came evacuation day, November 25, 1733 and on Thursday, 
December 4 following, here took leave of the principal officers 
of the army yet in service. Erected by the Sons of the Revolu- 

Pier of Brooklyn Bridge, Franklin Square. 

The first presidential mansion, No, 1 Cherry St., occupied 
by George Washington from April 23, 17S9 to February 23, 1790. 
Erected by the Mary Washington Colonial chapter, Daughters 
of the American Revolution. 

City Flail, West Wing, 
Near this spot in the presence of General George Washing- 
ton the Declaration of Independence was read and published to 
the army July 9, 1776. 

West and Laight Streets. 
To mark the landing place of General George Washington 
June 2% 1775, on his way to Cambridge to command the army. 

Broadway, between 43d and 44th Streets. 
General George Washington and Israel Putnam met near 
this spot during the movement of the American army September 
15, 1776, the day before the battle of Harlem. 


In Commemoration of Historical Events 

Custom House, Foot of Broadway. 
The site of Fort Amsterdam built in 1626. Within the 
fortifications was erected the first substantial church edifice on 
the island of Manhattan. In 1787 the fort was demolished and 
the Government House built on this site. This tablet was placed 
here by the Holland Society of New York September, 1890. 

Forty-one Broadway. 
This tablet marks the site of the first habitations of white 
men on the island of Manhattan. Adrian Block, commander of 
the Tiger, erected here four houses or huts, November, 1613. 
He built the Restless, the first vessel made by Europeans in this 
country. The Restless was launched in the spring of 1614. This 
tablet is placed here by the Holland Society of New York, 
September, 1890. 

Seventy-three Pearl Street, 
The site of the first Dutch House of Entertainment on the 
island of Manhattan. Later the site of the old "Sladt Huys" 
or city hall. Erected by the Holland Society, N, Y. 

William and John Streets, N.W. Corner. 
Golden Hill. Here January 18, 1770, the fight took place 
between the sons of liberty and the British regulars, 16th foot. 
Eirst blood in the war of the revolution. Erected by the 
Sons of the Revolution. 

Poll Office Building, Broadway, 
On the common of the citv of New York near where this 
building now stands there stood from 1766 to 1776 a liberty pole 
erected to commemorate the repeal of the stamp act. It was 
repeatedly destroyed by the violence of the Tories and as re- 
peatedly replaced by the Sons of Liberty who organized a con- 
stant watch and guard. In its defence the first martyr blood 
of the American revolution was shed January 18, 1770. Erected 
by the Mary Washington Chapter of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution, 1897. 

Broad and Beaver Streets. 
To commemorate the gallant and patriotic act of Marinus 
Willett in here seizing, June 6th, 1775, from British forces the 
muskets with which he armed his troops. Erected by the Sons 
of the Revolution, Nov., 1892. 

Broadway and 118(/i Street, Columbia University. 
To commemorate the Battle of Harlem Heights won by 
Washington's troops on this site September 16, 1776. Erected 
by the Sons of the Revolution. 



PHQTO »l T IN*' 

Riverside Drive, North from Seventy-third Struct. The Seventh Regiment review, Columbus Celebration. 
1893. The Hospital ts now the site of the Schwab mansion. 

Broadway and lS3d Street. 
Upon this site iind across these heights stood the main line 
of defense thrown up by Washington's army September, 1776. 
It was held till Fort Washington fell on November 16, when paTt 
of the fighting occurred at this point. Erected by the Sons 
of the Revolution 1901. 

Flalbush Avenue and Fttlion Street, Brooklyn. 
Line of defense. Battle of Long Island, August 27, 1776. 
From the Walluhout to the Gowanus. Erected by the Sons of 
the Revolution. 

Prospect Park, East Drive, Brooklyn. 
Battle of Long Island August 27, 1776. At this point an old 
road known as "Freekes Mill koad" also as the "Forte Road" 
left the Park and continued down the hill on the general course 
of First street, crossing Gowanus Creek on Mill Ponds and 
reaching the main line of American defense on the opposite 
side of Gowanus Creek. On this road our soldiers retreated 
after the capture of Gen. Sullivan and our defeat by the 
Hessians at Battle Pass, and by bunting bridges behind them 
prevented pursuit by the enemy into our lines west of Gowanus 
creek. This old road crossed the long meadow about in line 
with First street and branched into the East Drive then called 
"King's Highway" at or near Battle Pass. 

Produce Exc)wngc, Stone Street side. 
On or near this spot the first school in New York was 
opened by the Dutch schoolmaster Adam Roelantsen in 1638. 
According to the custom at that time the school was held in 
the home of the schoolmaster. Erected by the N. Y. School- 
masters' Club, 1910. 

Produce Exchange in the court wall. 
Emplacement de la premiere Eglisc Francaisc de New York. 
Original site of the Huguenot church of New York. Erected 
by the Huguenot Society of America, 1902. 

Cotton F.xchangc, Beaver and William. 
On this site William Bradford, appointed public printer 
April 10, 1693, issued Nov. 8, 1725, the^New York Gazette, the 
first newspaper printed in New York. Erected by the New York 
Historical Society April 10, 1893, in commemoration of the 
200th anniversary of the introduction of printing in New York 

Eighty-one Pearl Street. 
On this site William Bradford, appointed public printer 
April 10, 1693, established the first printing press in the colony 
of New York. Erected by the N. Y. Hist, Society April III. 
1893, in commemoration of the 200th anniversary of the intro- 
duction of printing in New York. 


23 Whitehall Street. 
On this spot lived Aimcke Jans, wife of Rev. Everardus 
Bogardus, the most famous woman in New Amsterdam in 1633. 

IIS Broadway. 

The site of the old historic Del.anccy house, afterward the 
City Hotel. The Tavern located here liail various proprietors 
by whose names it was successfully called, being among others 
known as the Province Arms, the City Arms and Bum's Coffee 
House. It was here that the celebrated non-importation agree- 
ment in opposition to the stamp act was signed October 31, 1765. 
Erected by the Holland Society, March, I8 l X). 

Mutual Life Building, Nassau and Cedar, 
Here stood the Middle Dutch church, dedicated 1 729,, made 
a British military prison 1776, restored 17 ( J0, occupied as the 
U. S. Post Office 184S-187S, taken down 1882. The Mutual Life 
Insurance Co. of New York, 

Rose and Duane Streets. 
This building was erected ou the site of the old Khiuelaiidcr 
Sugar House built 1763 and used as a prison by the British 
during the revolution. 

Second Avenue and 13tlt Street. 
On this corner grew Pctrus Stuyvesant's pear tree. Recalled 
to Holland in 1664, on his return he brought the pear tree and 
planted it as his memorial, "by which," said he, "my name may 
be remembered,"' The pear tree flourished and bore fruit for 
over two hundred years. Erected by the Holland Society. 

Of Local Interest 

5 West 22nd Street. 
In this house S. P. B. Morse lived for many years and 
died here. 

Madison Avenue, 40i!i and 50th Streets. 

Columbia College chartered in 1754 as King's College occu- 
pied this site from May, 1857, to October, 1897. 

City Hall, foot of steps. 
At this place 24th. March, 1900, Hon. Robert A. Van Wyck 
made the Grit excavation for the Underground Railway, Names 
of Rapid Transit Commission: A. E. Orr, president; John H. 
Starin, Woodbury Langdon, George L, Rives, Chas. Stewart 
Smith, Morris K. Jessup, R. A. Van Wyck, Mayor; Bird S. 
Coler, Controller ; William Barclay Parsons, Chief Engineer. 
Contractors, John B, McDonald, Rapid Transit Subway Con- 
struction Co., August Belmont, president. 


Seamen's Institute, Coenties Slip and South Street. 
This tower is a memorial to the passengers, 
officers and crew of the steamship Titanic who died as heroes 
when that vessel sank alter collision with an ice-berg. Lat, 
41°4c. J north; Ion, SO" 14' west. April 15, 1912. Erected by 
public: subscription. 

The City's Office Building 

The Municipal Building, the grandest and highest 
municipal building in the world, covers three irreguhir 
city blocks. It is occupied exclusively by the employees 
of the city, who number over 7,500 — quite a town by 
itself. The building has 26 stories, rising to a height 
of 330 feet above the street, surmounted by a tower 210 
feet high, and holding eight stories. The total height 
from the Subway arcade to the top of the 24-foot figure 
on the tower is 560 feet. The principal front, facing 
Centre Street, is 448 feet long, the rear on Park Row is 
361 feet, Lite Duane Street side is 339 feet and the Tryon 
Row side, facing the south, is 71 feet long. The foun- 
dation is 130 feet below the street level and 90 feet below 
water level. The cost of the building is about $10,- 
000,000, The Mayor's office and the chambers of the 
15o;ird of Aldermen, and offices required by close sub- 
ordinates of the Mayor and Aldermen and the Police, 
Fire and Dock Departments are still continued in the 
City Hall. 

Under the Municipal Building is the most important 
passenger transportation point in the city. Here con- 
verge the subways of the east and west sides of Man- 
hattan, the Fourth Avenue to Brooklyn and Coney Is- 
land, and the Elevated under the East River to East 
New York, Cypress Hills and Jamaica. When the en- 
tire system of subways is completed it will be possible 
to take a train here and go to any part of the Metropolis. 

The Best4mown Picture in the World 
The Statue of Liberty 

The Statue of Liberty Enlightening the World is on 
Bedloe's Island in the Upper Kay, i% miles from the 
Battery. It is reached by steamboat, which leaves the 
Battery hourly, on the hour, and returns on the half 
hour from 9 A. M. to 5 P. M. One may obtain a satis- 
factory view of the exterior and return on the same boat ; 
time from Battery and return, three-quarters of an hour ; 
if the ascent of the Statue is to be made, allow an hour 
and three-quarters. 

As it is easily the most widely known statue in the 
world and is reproduced in printed form more times 
every year than any other view of New York, it may be 
of interest to give some particulars regarding its propor- 

tions : 

Ft. In. 

Height from base to torch.. 151 1 

Foundation of pedestal to torch 305 6 

Heel to top of head 111 6 

Length of hand 16 S 

IncLx finger _ 8 

Circumference at second joint 7 6 

Size of finder nail _ 13x10 in. 

Head from chit; to cranium 1? 3 

Head thickness from ear to ear 10 

Distance across the eye 2 6 

Length of nose _ 4 6 

Right arm, length 42 

Right arm, greatest thickness 12 

Thickness of waist — . 35 

Width of month ._ _._ . 3 

Tablet, length , , , 23 7 

Tablet, thickness 2 

Height of pedestal ......... 89 

Square sides at base, each. _ 62 

Square sides at top, each _ ■ 40 

Grecian columns, above base _ 72 8 

Height of foundation „ 65 

Square sides at bottom 91 

Square sides at top 66 7 

The recent addition of electric lights outlining and 
decorating the statue make a beautiful and attractive 

The Great Crcton Water Knuniuin in City Hail Park. 
Installed to celebrate the Introduction of Croton Water into New York, Oct. 14. 1842. After * period of 75 years 
New York celebrates in 1917 the and use of the New Caukil] Aqueduct, coating nearly iwo hundred million 
dollars, the largest Einpjle improvement ever undertaken hy any municipality. 




sight. From the decks of the ferries plying to and from 
their destination and from all manner of river craft the 
splendid display is heheld nightly by great numbers of 

A Pompeii an Portico in New York 

Of all the thousands who daily pass the beautiful 
portico which stands at the entrance of Delmonico's, 
where Beaver, William and Stone Streets intersect, few- 
know or perhaps care to know that that bit of classic 
art belongs to an ancient civilization and once stood in 
the proud city of Pompeii. 

It w r as the portico of a private residence in that city 
and gives us some idea of the culture and civilization 
of an age that has long passed away. Through this 
portico passed no doubt many of the stately figures of 
Pompeii, its distinguished public characters, its merchant 
princes, its wealthy social leaders and hosts of gay youths 
and merry maidens intent on pleasure just like the youths 
and maidens of our own pleasure loving city today. Per- 
haps, too, it witnessed the panoplied displays of Rome's 
imperial power and saw the victorious legions coming 
back from their conquests in unknown lands. 

But a time came in Pompeii when that proud city 
should know humiliation and sorrow, and this same por- 
tico must have witnessed the mad, excited mobs rushing 
hither and thither to escape the terrible storm of dust 
and lava that swept down upon it in the fated year 74 
and buried it and its people forever under a heap of 

The portico was brought from Pompeii by Lorenzo 
Delmonico in 1840, and when the building at Beaver and 
William Streets was erected after the fire of 1845 this 
historic and classic old portico was built in. At a later 
period when the building was reconstructed the portico 
was put into the structure as is now stands. 


The Swamp 

A rather unique section of the business portion of the 
city is "The Swamp," headquarters of the leather trade. 
In the very early days of our city's history, this region 
was the home of the tanners, and their old time vats are 
even now disclosed when new building operations are 
undertaken. The tanners originally started in John 
Street, where they owned land in common, and one of 
their prominent men, John Harpinberg, gave the land 
on which was built the old Middle Dutch Church. The 
street was named after him. 

From John to Frankfort Street is the original 
"Swamp." It was part of the Eeekman and Leisler farms 
and was called "Beekman's Cripple Bush." At one time 
it was leased to Rip Van Dam for 20 shillings a year. In 
1744 it was sold to Jacobus Roosevelt for $1,000. The 
ground is still low, soft and wet, and the buildings rest 
on piles. At the comer of Frankfort and William Streets 
stood the Carlton House, where Dickens stopped and 
where Poe lived for a time. Through all these years the 
"Swamp" has remained loyal to its first love — leather — 
and is today the largest market for that staple in the 
world. There are now many large buildings in this 
region, notably 00 the old St. Georges' Chapel property, 
on part of which a great belting firm stands. The corner 
on which St. George's stood is now occupied by a large 
paper warehouse. All the great leather nouses are still 
in "The Swamp," and everything seems to point toward 
their remaining there, so that "The Swamp" bids fair to 
become New York's oldest landmark. 


Beaver Sueet— The old DilllMWlfcO building. Cojrn Kxchan-ge Bank, and sue of the SeUprnan building. 1 3 

The Beginnings of Our Great Postal System 

The quaint and simple instructions issued by Gov. 
Lovelace in 1672 for the guidance of the post masters 
in the early colonial days contrast strikingly with the volu- 
minous laws and regulations required for the conduct of 
our immense postal business of today. It will be ob- 
served that the post masters had other duties to perform 
besides merely caring for the pacquets and letters which 
came into their jurisdiction. 

Instructions for Ye Post Mastr 

(Gen. Entries in., 252, Sec. Office, Albany.) 

In the first place, you are to take yor oath of f fidelity 
wch the Secretary shall administer to you ; your duty 
as to the Generall is included in that Oath. 

Next, you arc to comport yor selfe wth all sobriety 
and civility to those that shall intrust you, and not exact 
on them for the prices both of Letter and Pacquetts. 

You are principally to apply yor selfe to the Gover- 
nors, especially Governor Winthrop, from whom you 
shall receive the best Direction how to forme ye best 
Poast Road. 

You are likewise to advise where the most commod- 
ious place will be to leave all the by-Letters out of your 
Road, which, when having it once well fixt, you are not 
only to leave the Letters there, but at your returne to call 
for answers, and leave a Publication of your Resolu- 
tions, the wch you must cause to bee disperst to all 
parts, that soe all may know when and where to leave 
their Letters. 

You are to give mee an Acct of your negotiation at 
this time to the end of May; be satisfied of all your pro- 
ceedings, and bee able to assist you if occasion shall 

When you think it requisite, you are to marke some 
Trees that shall direct Passengers the best way, and 
to fixe certaine Houses for your Severall Stages both 
to bait and lodge at. 


When any persons are desirous to travaile wth you, 
you are to treat them civilly, and to afford them yor 
best help and assistance, that I may heave noe com- 
plaint to you. 

You shall doe well to provide yor selfe of a spare 
Horse, good Port Mantels, that soe neither Letters nor 
Pacquets receive any Damage under yor hands. 

There are some other considerations, wch I shall for- 
beare to mention till yor returne and I receive a further 
accompt of you, and soe God bless all yor honest under- 

Ffort James ye 226. of Janry 1672. 

You are also to delect & cause to bee apprehended 
all Souldyers & Servants rutin away from these parts. 

The Oath Given to the Post Master 

(Gen. Entries in, 253, Secretary's Office, Albany.) 

You doc Swearc by the Everlasting God, that you will 
truly & faithfully discharge the trust reposed in you 
as a Post Master, and that you will neither directly 
nor indirectly detayne, conceale, or open any Letters, 
Packetts, or other Goods committed to your Charge, but 
carefully, & honestly deliver or cause to be delivered all 
such Letters, Packetts or other Goods to the Persons 
they properly belong unto, & that you will make all the 
Expedition in passing and repassing the severall Stages 
wth all speed, & to make noc more stay than necessarily 
l>eIongs to the refreshing your selfe and Horse, & in 
all things truly & soberly to comport yor selfe, so as 
belongs to the trust reposed in you, and as a Post Master 
ought to doe. 

Soe help You God. 

Although the mother country had some sort of a 
postal system it was not until 1692 that any official 
regulation of the business was attempted by the young 
colony. In that year an act was passed by the muni- 
cipal authorities establishing a post office. Previous to 
this time and even long after, the business was entirely 


6 ii , w>ws 

Broadway, South from 42nd Street— 1B85. 
The old Rossmore and Rath bun hotel*. Site of Rossmore Hotel now occupied by Brckaw Building. 

haphazard. Anyhody might be a postman. Letters 
arriving in the little settlement were delivered direct 
from the ships just as pacquets or goods were delivered, 
and the public taverns where the merchants and traders 
were known to meet were used as depositories for their 
letters. Sometimes places were agreed upon where letters 
could be left, and this custom became common enough 
to give rise to the so-called "Coffee House Delivery" — 
a very good substitute for a post office service in those 
primitive times, and no doubt the humble source from 
which has grown our present splendid system. In 1710 
the post master general of England established "a chief 
letter office" in New York and other American settle- 
ments and thereafter the business took a more regular 
course. In 1732 the need of larger accommodation was 
felt and we read in the New York Gazette of May 3 that 
"the New York post office will be removed to-morrow 
to the uppermost of the two houses on Broadway op- 
posite Beaver Street." 

The post office continued in this uppermost house on 
Broadway a good many years for we learn that at this 
place more than twenty years afterward, namely 1753, 
notice was given that the post office would be open every 
day except Sunday from 8 to 12 A. M. On post nights 
the office was open till 10 P. M. The small inland 
towns or settlements which had no regular postal con- 
nections depended on private persons going and coming 
between points. These carriers who were often only ac- 
quaintances or passing travellers were allowed to take 
the letters by paying whatever postage expenses had ac- 
crued, and thus, in time, often quite a long time, these 
epistles reached their destination. 

The Revolution worked havoc in the post office. New 
York was in the hands of the British many years and 
the exactions of the provost-marshal! were so severe 
that the post office seems to have disappeared altogether. 
Alexander Colden had been Post Master for about twenty 
years, but when the Revolution broke out we lose sight 
of him and all his works. Under the presidency of Gen. 
Washington the first American post office in New York 
was established. President Washington appointed Sam- 


uel Osgood Post Master in 1788 and we find the post 
office once more at the old stand on Broadway and do- 
ing a thriving business. 

In 1804 the post office was removed from Broadway 
to 29 William Street at the corner of Garden Street, 
where the business was conducted in a room measuring 
about 12 by 15 feet. Gen. Theodore Bailey, who was 
post master at this time occupied the upper part of the 
house with his family. He had one clerk only and be- 
tween them they managed the entire mail business of 
the bustling little town and had time besides to take an 
hour or an hour and half at midday for dinner and gen- 
eral repose. The office was closed then. At this period 
the entire Southern mail, consisting of two bags, was 
carried from Paulus Hook in a little row boat. During 
the yellow fever scare of 1822 the post office was taken 
to Greenwich village which seems to have enjoyed a 
mysterious immunity from that dread disease, and it 
remained there until the scourge abated. 

Business was increasing fast and in 1825 the govern- 
ment leased a two-story building in Garden Street (now 
Exchange Tlace), formerly used as an academy, where 
the facilities for doing business were much greater and 
room for growth was obtained. The clerical force had 
increased to eight and the business had taken an impetus 
which has never since ceased. Here it was that perhaps 
our New York crowds had their beginning, for Post 
Master Bailey was persuaded to erect a shed over the 
sidewalk to protect the people from the rain and snow 
when they collected at the windows for the sending and 
receiving of mail. 

About this time a building was being erected which 
was to eclipse anything, from an architectural point of 
view, that had been accomplished hefore in New York, 
with possibly the exception of the City Hall — and that 
was the Merchants' Exchange in Wall Street. This build- 
ing was finished in 1827 and was no disappointment to 
the inhabitants of the city. Nothing would suit the busi- 
ness community but that the post office should be situated 
in thi^ splendid building and consequently it was re- 
moved from the old wooden building in Garden Street to 



Broadway, 1S95 — The advent of the sky-scraper — Union Trust. Manhattan 
Life, and Surety buildings being the first to carry out the steel construction 
idea on a large scale. 

this new location, where it occupied a part of the base- 

In the great fire of 1835 the Merchants' Exchange 
was destroyed. The post office was removed temporarily 
to Pine Street. Heretofore it had been the desire of 
the commercial and financial interests to keep all the 
public buildings in close proximity but as the city ex- 
panded and business interests spread it was not always 
feasible nor indeed necessary and the idea fell into dis- 
use. The city had by this time extended as far uptown 
as Washington Square and vicinity, which was being 
rapidly built up. The business part of the city, however, 
was still below the City Hall and only the retail business 
had moved up as far as Canal Street. The great magnet 
of business at that time was Wall Street, just as it is 
today, and around it rotated all other interests as they 
do at the present time. Front, Water and Pearl Streets 
were occupied by wholesale merchants, and strange to say, 
most of these wholesale businesses, especially the coffee, 
sugar and commission houses, still monopolize this dis- 

It very soon developed that the temporary post office 
in Pine Street was entirely inadequate for the business 
it was required to handle and a building large enough 
for the purpose was not to be found, and the authorities 
were at their wits' end to know what to do. The only 
building which could pretend to meet the requirements 
was the Rotunda in the Park, and the Common Council 
considered it the part of wisdom to offer that building 
to the Federal Government. The Post Master was quick 
to accept, the necessary alterations were made and in a 
short time the post office was moved into this odd-looking 
building, occupying a place in the park for the first time. 
Had the citizens of New York known that this initial 
venture to use the park for public buildings was to 
result in later years in the erection of the ugly building 
w T hich now occupies the best section of the park lands, 
they would certainly have objected strenuously and pre- 
vented it at any inconvenience or cost to themselves. Let 
us hope, however, that the day is not very distant when 
this later invasion of the peoples' sacred domain will be 


rectified and this beauty-spot of New York restored to 
its original condition and so kept for all time. 

In these days they spoke of the park as uptown, and a 
genuine "kick" was made by the business interests of 
Wall Street and its dej>endencies. It was altogether too 
far away. Meetings of protest were held, vigorous reso- 
lutions passed, committees formed to take drastic action 
and a hub-bub such as New York had never seen was 
stirred up. A committee of the leading merchants of 
the city adopted the following resolutions: 

That tins meeting wholly disapproves of the removal of 
the postoflice to the rotunds; that, in the opinion of this meeting, 
great inconvenience and injury will he inflicted on the mercantile 
community hy its location even for a short period at so great a 
distance from the Center of business. 

That a committee of seven be appointed with full power 
to proceed to Washington to communicate with the postmaster 
general, and with his consent and in conjunction with him to 
make all necessary arrangements for transferring the establish- 
ment from the rotunda to a site as near as possible to the 
new custom house, as soon as suitable premises can be secured 
and generally to adopt such proceedings as circumstances may 

The citizens living and doing business irt the neigh- 
lx>rhood and further north were duly roused and took 
umbrage at the idea that their interests and importance 
were to be put aside and ignored utterly, and they, there- 
fore, put on their war paint and went out against the 
enemy. Meetings of the "citizens" were called to counter- 
act the moves of the "merchants" and the two factions 
locked horns. The newspapers of the day contained this 

All that arc friendly to the permanent location of the post- 
office in the park or its vicinity are requested to meet in their 
respective wards on January 19, at 7 o'clock, for the purpose 
of selecting five delegates to represent each ward at a general 
convention to meet at the Broadway house on the 23d inst. 

The big men of Wall Street hied themselves to 
Washington but they did not succeed any further than 
getting a branch office opened at Exchange Place and 
William Street, and this only after two years' effort and 


Broadway (west side) from Warren to Reade Streets, 1BJ6— showing the famous old IrvinK H :•!«!. 

Delmonieo's and Chemical Bank. 
From the rare tfthogrjph in coiur by Stephenson — artginai owned by the ^htmicai Rank. 

In the mean time the burnt district was being built 
up with ha rids time and subslantial building, Marble and 
granite were presaging the era of magnificence and size. 
The splendid building which is now the National City 
Bank was erected and many fine brick buildings were 
put up where formerly little shabby old wooden struc- 
tures stood. 

Until 1845 the post office was in the Rotunda. This 
building, originally designed for panoramic exhibitions, 
was by no means an ideal place for the post office business. 
However, it was the only available building, and notwith- 
standing continual complaints the business remained here 
for ten years. Post Master Coddington made alterations 
and additions to the building, which overcame the dis- 
advantages to some extent. He added a two-story ex- 
tension which gave more room for the fast growing 
business but nothing anyone could possibly do could meet 
the requirements. This building was the first used ex- 
clusively for a post office. 

In 1844 the Middle Dutch Church in Nassau Street 
was for sale and the location was one to satisfy the mer- 
chants. It was also considered large enough for post 
office purposes. The government leased the property 
for $5,000 a year rental and finally purchased it for 
$200,000. The site is worth today about $5,000,000. 
These figures give a very lively idea of real estate valu- 
ations and the enormous fortunes which have been made 
possible to lucky investors in such sections of New York. 
In this old church, after the necessary alterations were 
made, the post office was housed for about 30 years. 
It was 1845 when the post office was finally removed 
from the Rotunda to this historic old building and old 
New Yorkers can remember the transformation of this 
sacred old pile into a center of commercial activity as 
one which was not altogether to their taste. However, 
we had to make the best of it and certainly, from a busi- 
ness point of view, it was an immense improvement on 
the Rotunda. 

Business in New York leaps forward with such 
bounds that no one can safely predict what the conditions 
may be in a few years. The Dutch Church was ready 


for the scrap heap within a short time and complaints 
arose about the inconvenience and inadequacy of the 
building. The people, however, had to grin and bear 
it because there was no site to be had that would suit. 
Toward the end of the sixties the agitation for a post 
office commensurate with the size and importance of 
the city became so insistent that the city authorities of- 
fered the government the plot of ground in the City Hall 
Park, and the government speedily and eagerly accepted 
it. This aroused strong opposition which was expressed 
in public meetings and by agitation in the press. It has 
continued until the present day. A good many lovers of 
Old New York will never cease to make themselves 
heard in condemnation of this perversion of their beau- 
tiful park. Give us back our park, they say, and take 
away the monstrous pile that stands there now and is an 
eye sore to the multitudes that surge about it every day. 
The building is ill ventilated and uncomfortable within 
and the exterior is unsightly in the last degree. There 
are no reasons now why it should not be removed. Sites 
have been found for the new Hall of Records and the 
Municipal Building and it is quite possible to find a site 
for a handsome and practical building in the neighbor- 
bond of its present location which would serve the re- 
quirements of the large and important interests of down- 
town business men. New York has endured this in- 
fringement of its precious park land for a whole genera- 
tion — since i87Sj when the post office was opened, and 
now that opportunity offers the people are going to de- 
mand that their park land be restored to them. There 
is now no good argument that it should not, the important 
down town business can be accommodated better, much 
better, elsewhere. 

The magnificent building of the Post Office, occupy- 
ing the block on Eighth Avenue, between 31st and 33rd 
Street is the largest for this purpose in the world. No 
mistake has been made in this splendid building. It is 
beautiful to look at, magnificent in size, appropriate in 
design and comfortable and convenient in all its appoint- 
ments. Here for a generation at least the enormous busi- 
ness of the New York Post Office will center. The con- 


Cvuotis relic of the upper 
Wise aide when Marihat- 
tjnvillc ma i village with 
a railroad station. This re- 
gion is now covered with 
Fatr.uru.-i, etc. The ahuve 
interesting view shows not 
only tlit station but the 
locomotive, passenger and 

baggagecar. Anuthervery hh*t*:» fob ntam s mitunL. «iw yo*k m jor »• miiiim 
interesting feature is the 

turn table and receding JHstlliatta it (Cnllrpc u.ih ^milmlfiui Station, 1855 

street car '* Manhattan to 
Harlem" just at the right. 

i'.mrtfrt-. jWr-. R. Frld*nki<£ 

trast of this magnificent building and its enormous busi- 
ness, with the little dingy office in Garden Street gives 
New Yorkers a lively conception of the marvellous trans- 
formation which has taken place in this wonderful city 
of ours. 

[105 j 

WILL I A M TR YO N, Esquire, 

Captain. Genetali ami Go\\woi En CNu-t" in sW |J * i riw t»wc ot" ir^'-^iv/.anJ the 
Territoiscs doixndiiv 1 thwrwi iai .Vtara*/. tfrMcdli n .nnl VSv Admiral of the time. 


fYTHEkKAS i bate iwmmjJ in* AftM^** R' V' fi^-i-m.-^ ■■ ! * Cbwt ji ^JwAi the TifttKy> 

" ihinl Day cf Lll, Lit dm Wim 

A Proclamation, 

For fupprefsing REBELLION tun. SEDITION, 

WHtMM rwq MwJbVA< - J..*- r— CJ^i., «j Mm4nm Tfc.lfc.Ha m ^ w 
; 1 ■■ Ilk » .i r h.h muiIH^u ilm hii ntenclW „,| 
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Wm. TRV'o N 

...... j,-.o.^. c t? Z) Sa« the A' / a 

First niillctin (1775), cnnccrniiiB the Revolutitm, orderiiifi the 

citizens to cease their rebellious actions. 


Bleecker Strtpt. No, 309 (formerly S.93), the residence of Thomas Paine in his 
last veiir s, author of "Comfnnn Sense," a pamphlet that, had much to do with 
solidifying public opinion on the necessity for the Revolution. 

Our City Hall 

This building is considered by architects and artists 
one of the most successful examples of the Colonial 
School existing in our country today. It was completed 
in 1812, and succeeded the old Federal Hall, standing 
on the corner of Wall Street and Nassau. It remains 
as originally built, except for the cupola, which has un- 
dergone several changes. In 1854 the classic simplicity 
of the first cupola gave place to one having a four-faced 
clock, which necessitated the raising of the dome about 
eight feet, and a few other minor changes. This was 
done to satisfy the public demand for a municipal time 
piece, and although the new cupola was not so chaste 
as the first, it was still a very beautiful and appropri- 
ate structure. In 1858 this cupola was destroyed by fire, 
during the celebration of the opening of the Atlantic 
cable and the question of restoring the original simple 
and classic design of the old Scotch architect, John 
McComb, came up for discussion. The public, however, 
were bent on having a clock and the cupola was restored 
very much as it had been befure the fire. Recently, and 
at a rather inopportune time, just when the city was 
entertaining its foreign visitors from France and Britain 
the cupola was again destroyed by fire. The opportunity 
presents itself once more to restore the cupola in all 
the beauty and simplicity of its original design. The need 
for a clock is no longer felt, as there are many in the 
downtown section of the city and the public, if its de- 
sire leans strongly to the aesthetic and classical, may 
see the beautiful structure of 181 4 appear again. 

The City Hall is built of white marble, but the rear 
wall is of freestone, for the builders of 1812 surmised 
that the city would never go beyond this. Today the 
city limits are sixteen miles north. The Mayor's room 
is on the first floor. Under one of its windows on the 
outside is a tablet recording: "Near this spot, in the 
presence of General George Washington, the Declaration 


of Independence was read and published to the American 
Army, July 9th, 1776." 

The halls of the Council and Assembly are on the 
second floor, and may be visited. The Governor's room, 
originally intended for the use of the Governor of 
the State, is on the second floor. Across the hall is a 
statue of Thomas Jefferson by David d'Angers, a replica 
of the one in the Capitol at Washington. The Gov- 
ernor's Room, which is open to the public from 10 to 
4 daily (Saturday to noon), contains Trumbull's full- 
length equestrian portrait of General Washington, and 
a series of portraits of New York's Governors and other 
worthies. That of Governor Dix, by Anna M. Lea, rep- 
resents him as author of the historic dispatch sent by 
him as Secretary of the Treasury to Wm. Hemphill Jones 
in New Orleans, January 29, 1861 : "If any one attempts 
to haul down the American Flag, shoot him on the spot." 
An easel bears a Washington portrait woven in silk in 
Lyons, France, at a cost of $10,000. Here, too, are pre- 
served the desk and table used by President Washington 
during his first term. The table is inscribed in letters of 
gold: "Washington's writing table, 1789." The fine old 
mahogany furniture is that which was used by the first 
Congress of the United States in Federal Hall, in Wall 

In front of the City Hall stands the Macmonnies 
bronze statue erected by the Society of the Sons of the 
Revolution in memory of Nathan Hale, a Captain of the 
Regular Army of the United States of America, who 
was executed as a spy during the Revolution. 

Old Castle Garden 


The circular building which is now the Aquarium was 
originally a fort, Castle Clinton, built for the defense of 
the city against the British in the War of 1812 ; and the 
spot where it stands was then an island 200 feet from 
the shore. When in 1822, Congress ceded the property 
to the city, it was converted into a place of amusement 
and was named Castle Garden. It became the home of 
opera, and was a place for great public gatherings. Here 


Madison Avenue, si 45th Street 
The original Manhattan Athletic Club Building and north end of the old 
train-shed of the Grand Central Depot — I8SS- Remodeled for the Tiffany 
Studios, and nnw being demolished to make way for trie mo*t important new 
building of this section. 

on Lafayette's return to America in 1824, six thousand 
persons assembled to greet him. Here in 1835 S. F. B. 
Morse, the inventor of the telegraph, publicly demon- 
strated by means of a wire coiled about the interior of 
the Garden, the practicability of controlling the electric 
current. Here in 1850 Jenny Lind, the Swedish singer, 
made her American debut, under the management of 
P. T. Barnum. The Prince of Wales and Louts Kos- 
suth arrived here. From 1855 to i8ox> Castle Garden 
was an immigrant bureau, through whose portals mil- 
lions of immigrants entered America and as such is well 
remembered by many persons. It became the Aquarium 
in 1896. 

The most recent event of historical interest and one 
which is destined probably to become the most important 
of any that has taken place on this historical ground is 
the landing here of the French Commission headed by 
Gen. Joffre and M. Viviani ; and a few days later of Mr. 
Arthur James Balfour and the other members of the 
British Commission on a visit to the city. On both occa- 
sions the crowds were massed in thousands to welcome 
those famous men, and old Castle Garden and the Battery 
were gay with flags and bunting. The city has seldom 
witnessed a more brilliant and inspiring scene than the 
procession of these visitors through the fiag-bedecked 
city streets from the Battery to the City Hall. Lafay- 
ette's welcome in 1824 was a great event and he was 
greeted with enthusiasm, but the reception of the great 
Marshall of France, "the man who stopped them at the 
Marne," far eclipsed in genuine affection and enthusiasm 
any thing of a public character that has ever happened in 
New York before. When we remember that Joffre may 

down in history as the hero of what may be considered 
the greatest battle of all time, we cannot l>e surprised at 
the interest and enthusiasm of his welcome. 


Historical Exporations. in the City of New York 
By Reginald Pdham Bolton 

Our work of exploration upon vacant areas in the 
upper part of the island of Manhattan has heen systemati- 
cally pursued during the past twenty years by a party 
of enthusiasts led by Mr. W. L. Calver, and including 
Messrs. John Ward Dunsmore, Charles Thurston, Oscar 
Barck, Dr. Edward llagaman Hall, and other volunteer 
assistants, who from time to time have become interested 
in the subject, 

It has been realized by those who have joined in this 
work that the opportunity of discovery of buried remains 
was but brief, as the building of streets and residences 
had proceeded in the Washington Heights district with 
great rapidity. This process has, however, aided the 
work materially since the heavy excavations for the 
opening of public streets and for construction of dwell- 
ing have often afforded the means of discovery of traces 
deeply buried below the surface. Persistent attention 
has, however, been necessary, and quite as much time 
has been spent in searching observation of the surface 
as in the actual work of excavation. 

Our object has been throughout, the true purpose of 
archaeologic research, the establishment of the methods 
and purposes of the successive occupants of the region, 
with the comparison of the materials and the forms of 
construction which have been found at different points. 
The relics recovered have derived an added value by the 
careful record which has been maintained of the locality 
in which they were found, first by the comparative in- 
formation thus preserved, and secondly, by the personal 
interest aroused in the visitors to the collections by the 
association of these objects with well-known streets and 

In this connection, the recording of the positions of 
discoveries, and their plotting on maps, has been a part 
of the work which has been thought to be desirable in 


Ninth Avenue at 3!at Street, looking east. 
Excavations for the Pennsylvania Railroad tunnels and station 

the interests of a permanent future record. Maps cover- 
ing the entire district were started so long ago as 1902, 
and have been gradually filled with information of this 
character. They were prepared by tracing Randel's sur- 
veys of 1817-1819, which covered the Washington 
Heights and In wood district in much detail. On these 
sheets the modern street system was then plotted and the 
areas have been indicated on which Indian remains were 
discovered, the Colonial farm tracts boundary fences 
were traced together with sites of abandoned buildings, 
of fortifications as found by Randel and as now remain- 
ing, of camp sites and of isolated finds, the whole form- 
ing a group-record of the history of the locality as writ- 
ten upon and below its surface. 

The photographic record has also received substan- 
tial attention, though limited by the means at our dis- 
posal. A small camera has been Mr. W. L. Calver's in- 
variable accompaniment whether on scout, field or mu- 
seum work. In the hundreds of views taken are those 
showing work in progress, the methods pursued and the 
results discovered, many of which, reproduced in lantern 
slides, have afforded entertainment and interest to a 
great many people in audiences throughout the City, and 
to the children of many of its public and private schools. 

The interest has spread to the public press and has 
resulted in the preparation of numerous articles of his- 
torical subjects, which have reached interested readers 
in remote parts of our country and has brought us 
valuable correspondence from students and authorities 
in foreign countries. 

We are often asked if our work has been supported by 
some society. We have had only the sympathetic encour- 
agement of the American Scenic and Historic Society, 
and the valued personal aid of its experienced secretary, 
our good fellow-laborer, Edward Hagaman Hall. But 
the larger society of the interested public who by visit, 
by correspondence and by attendance at addresses, has 
been our chief source of inspiration, evidencing by their 
eager appreciation the value of the labor, and affording 
at the same time an abundant recompense in their en- 

f 11?] 

thusiasm, interest and encouragement, and in many sin- 
cere and we hope lifelong friendships. 

The scope of our work has included the remains of 
aboriginal, Colonial and Revolutionary occupation of the 
locality, and the search has led us afield into West- 
chester County, up the Hudson and into Staten Island. 

Indian Remains and Colonial Material 

Indian remains on Manhattan are located readily by 
the presence of oyster shells, in beds in pockets and in 
pits, the most characteristic being burials, under a pro- 
tecting covering of shells, of human and dog skeletons. 
These have been found in the Inwood regions, at several 
places on the Nagel and Dyckman farms. The dog 
burials are a local feature, probably a tribal ceremony 
since the animal was buried complete, always carefully 
curled round at the bottom of a shallow pit and packed 
above with shells and occasional scraps of pottery. The 
variety of materials of which the local Indian artifacts 
were made is indicative of the trading habits of the 
Wcck-quas-Kceks who inhabited the region. 

The objects collected up to 1909 have been acquired 
by the American Museum of Natural History, and those 
gathered since that date have been donated to the new 
Museum of the American Indian (Heye Foundation) 
now being erected on Washington Heights- 
Colonial material is usually found in the rubbish pits 
or vaults of the ruined dwellings. These arc located by 
observation of the richness of the soil and its effect on 
growth of weeds. In such explorations we have come 
across much castaway material often in excellent con- 
dition, including Colonial china and porcelain and pottery 
ware, the restoration of which, by the use of plaster-of- 
paris, has afforded occupation in winter evenings and is 
a fascinating pastime. Thus we were able to restore to 
complete form some excellent china ware found in a stone 
vault at the rear of the site of the Lewis Morris resi- 
dence near Willis Avenue bridge, which house was prob- 
ably destroyed in the Revolutionary War, These and 
other objects from another nearby site, possibly that of 
Jonas Bronck's dwelling, are placed on view in the col- 



■"lintfd for " Vjfcr.riiit'1 MMQlt HI 1011— V«rk — Cef fi\jht 



lection of the Bronx Society of Arts and Sciences at the 
Lorillard Mansion in Bronx Park. The site of the old 
Oblienus farmhouse at West 176th Street yielded some 
excellent Bristol china, handpainted, together with earth- 
enware and pottery of early American manufacture. 

Discoveries on the Dyckman Farm 

The explorations on military sites naturally presented 
the most difficulty and at the same time afforded the 
keenest inducements, since they have had to he located 
by a process of deductive reasoning aided by the use of 
the steel boring rod or sounder with which practice has 
enabled the workers to feel several feet below the sur- 
face objects foreign to the soil. It was the use of this 
tool that determined the nature of the dug-out huts con- 
structed by the troops on the sheltered hillsides of the 
Heights, The rod striking the levelled floor is the guide 
to the long buried excavation, and in the case of the 
Ardcn Street Camp of the Hessian "Body Regiment," 
twenty of these huts were found by its use, from which 
many objects were taken illustrative of the life of the 
mercenary troops, such as bayonets, broken weapons, can- 
teens, coins and accoutrements. 

In the great camp on the Dyckman farm, at Seaman 
and Prcscott Avenues, a persistent course of exploration 
has located, up-to-date, over fifty such dug-out huts, out 
of a probable extent of a hundred or more. 

In many of these the stone fire-places were found still 
standing, the hearths buried under deep layers of ashes 
of their long abandoned fires, and the floors blackened 
with the burned timbers of their roofs and walls. Around 
the hearths and in dumps or cess-pits outside the hut 
entrances the reckless soldiery had cast or lost hundreds 
oi objects, which tell the story of camp life. The mili- 
tary buttons of the British troops in particular afford 
definite information as to the date of occupation of the 
huts, and determine their practically continuous use every 
winter season during the period of the Revolution. 

Of such interest has this camn become that with the 
aid of ilic generous donors of the Dyckman House, we 
were enabled to remove the fireplace and hearth of one 

1121 j 

of these huts, and to reconstruct out of ancient lumber 
a typical officers' dug-out dwelling in the Park at the 
rear of the old farm house. In this are placed many 
of the rough objects which are found in the abandoned 
huts, some of which, such as nails, hinges and straps, 
were utilized in its construction. Its rough table is set 
with the china and glassware, the knives, forks and * 
spoons, oyster and clam shells of many a camp meal of 
those long bygone days, and the whole affords a unique 
picture of the military life of that period, and a permanent 
record of our fascinating work. 

Since ihe above article was written the New York Historical 
Society has elected Mr. Reginald Pelham Bulton and Mr. W. L. 
Calver members in recognition of thtir valuable work, — Ed. 

The Alley Festa 

In the Alley Festa, New York produced a spectacle 
somewhat foreign to our eyes, and our art colony about 
Washington Square from whom the Festa took its incep- 
tion have shown themselves to possess all the originality, 
boldness of conception and initiative which belong to a 
young and virile art. The intention was to reproduce 
in the Alley and its vicinity the effects of an Italian fair. 
To the layman it seemed more than this. The oriental 
brilliance and variety which pervaded the entire spectacle 
almost persuaded one to believe himself in Constanti- 
nople or perhaps even Bagdad, and the splendid trap- 
pings added all the more to the realism of the scene. 

Many of the studios were turned into shops, the Alley 
school house into a ball room, and others into booths for 
various entertainments. Mrs. Henry Payne Whitney's 
studio was filled with toys and frocks, and Gertrude 
Atherton essayed the part of a fortune teller. Mrs. 
Rot>ert Bacon and Mrs. Cadwalader Jones each had 
an open air entertainment. Mrs. W. K. Vanderbilt, Jr., 
Mrs. H. P. Whitney, Mrs. Otto Kahn, Mrs. Lydig, Mrs. 
Chas. Dillingham, Mrs. Lydig Hoyt, and Mrs. Maynard 
welcomed Mayor Mitchell when he opened the Festa, and 
dined with him afterwards in the al fresco restaurant. 
A number of the star actresses who were in town — among 

them Marie Dressier and Elsie Janis — gave performances 
in the Alley theatre. 

Perhaps the best part of the Festa is its results. It 
was produced for the benefit of the Red Cross and Allied 
War Relief funds and in this particular was a great suc- 
cess, something like $100,000 having been made for these 
charities. The sale of Liberty Bonds was also a feature 
and these were taken to the amount of over half a million. 
The art colony of New York have done their bit — and 
done it well. 

Early Population Figures 

In 1656, the population of the citv was 1,000; in 1664. 1,500; 
in 1673, 2,500; in 1690, 4,302; in 1731, 8.62K; in 1771, 21,163; 
in 1773, 21.876; in 17S6, 23.614; in W0, 33,121; in 1800 ; 60,489. 

In 1683, the city consisted of 6 wards; in 1806, 10. 

New York's Most American Borough 

The proportion of Aliens to American-bom is given below : 

Queens ll.l percent of Aliens 

Richmond 13.1 

Brooklyn 19.3 

Bronx 19.8 " 

Manhattan 31.1 

Queens is therefore the most American borough and the 
question arises why? 

I 125 ] 

NE W- TO R K, Ochbtr 8 ( 1759. 


Juft pubtifhsd, aatl Co be fold by H Gaine," Printer and Dock&lkT, al Jim 
Printing-office at the Bible and Crown, in Hancvcr-Squire, in New- York, 

by v. I.'.'j. ,.iL and retail : 

HUTCHIN's Improved; 

Being an Almanack aiid Ephemmi foe ihe Year 176c, en 1 ifftrem P'Ji from any c/ef pub- 
liihcd in ihis Government, illurtntfd with it beiutifiJ Cult, etxh rep relenting the Tamit- 

tions of the dirYcierit Months in the Year. Il HQrUaiHf, 

The Mor.ioniuf ifcc Sun and Moon ; the true Places and AfpcJS of the Pwveis : the Riling 
and Selling of ihe Siui ; and ihe Ruing;, Selling ami Sourhingof ihe Moon. Alfo, die Lunations, 
Conjunctions. EcIijmc*. Judgment of. the Weartur. Ailing and Selling of the Planets, Length of 
DayundNighi,, Cowls in New-Jerfey Ind New-York. And the following fekfl Pi™ of 


1. The PiCTDur of 1 Coi«tii«- 8. No Puitt no /Vr/i i or irtdufty it 40 

a. Vnrrr.'s. Atldrefsto ilf nci'lts. J J in /W. 

3- Mint in •<*■.. iixctF wiih few M- 0, On Reasoh. 

rArVrrf. 10. On [lit Love of Money. 

+. Pumr not nude forMAN. 4r ^ It- Advice 10 ihe Ladies. 

e. On Tad T It top. (K^5 ti. The Farmer's Wife and the KjvtIl.' 

6. N,iri;fE iv. II prcvaJI. h £ t] The Ccnrenred Fanner. 

7. The Fun and HaIic.' A Fable. [ * The Englilh man's Wifli. 

Ljkei\i»e the falloi'.in:; excellent and pec/mid* Pieces in Profe, wlnth merit ihe PeruCit of Young 
ami Old, in v rial S[.:[icn-. of i-tfe frjcvrr they may be placed, via. 

1. RcriECTiONi on Vas,iti- by ihe 6. Of ArrticAi 101 to Bviisesi- 

Mirauil Of HlSfW. £ ? 7- A RjAMM of Mr. AiUif^'. «. D«*. 

a. On Conrt»TMiv]T. W B. A RirncT com of Si* Walter Ra- 

3. On KOKATITVPr.' 55 LEiSH'ton [he fame Subjefl. 

On fid 1 T I T M bt . it o. D.'ir> of OW™ 10 their Parents. 

On the Loi l of our Cous tev. 10. lWv of Parents to their CHlLDiElf, 

Likrwifc iJ* folSpwir™ ufrM Recciprs, which may be of the grtalcrt Utility, 
1 A Cure for ihe Rheumaufm. 

A Curr for the: moil maligna™ Fevers ; and, 
3. A Cuic Lor Irrt Cough. 

Gcf-.dii i'ic ahovc, jwill (ind in ihis Almanack, fnrtruftions whereby any Pertori who U Ute 
on: ai Ni^ht, may k;wv the Hour by the Shuddair of the Moon on a Sun-Dial. Alfo a New 
\Lihu.l oilutihinj C-lhctons, by M<»rl of Ovens is praftifrd in Egypi. An Account of Que- 
bec, vrhh iht many Anempi, by" the E-ngtiiaa for its Reduction . ihe Fairs in New-Jerfry 

ibifai Pcnrifylvama . — [he Rou^ ik-fij the Cruitinnll, a-, wctl avlh^lr frnm the M-julli ijl ihe Ri- 

icr St. Lawrjm-c 10 the Miflirippi. An AcrouM of ihe Ritetof ihe Silage Boat? and WAggom 
ihic ply h ti lW t B [be City of New- York and Philadelphia, with the Days they fet r>jt and arrive. 
\ Lid uf hn Britanmek Mijdiy 1 Fonei now m Nenih.A:iKra:i. A Lid of the New-Tork Pri- 
^i;cert- A new Meihodof making Fliv as fuft ns S.Ik 1 and how to make 5 f A It c H raut of 
i'ci.'tjri j nnh many gthcr uftfuJ Remark!. In flwrt. no Paini hive been fparrd 10 render thai 
Almanack ; So OiM lis intumbcnl m every Pcrian [0 be careful to call for Hut Call 11,aJ, for Ihe Yeir 1760. 

Specimen of printing by Hiifrh Gainc the first Irish printer in 
New York, 1759. 


"*'"* Th« Bronx — 1825. 

Lydiff's Mills at Weil Farms, now part of the Bronx Park — The walls of this old mil! art still to h* seen 

just below the boatbon&e in the Park. 
From o 'art lithograph hj> the Fmtck ortiit, Milicrl, in the collation of ,Wn, Philip M. Li/dif. 

Camp Life of the Soldiers of New York 
During the Revolution 
By W. L, Calver 

Thirty-three years of exploration work conducted by 
the writer and his companions in the camps of our Revo- 
lutionary War period has brought to light a mass of first- 
hand information relating to the camp life of the soldiery, 
their utensils of a domestic character, their arms and 
missiles, their objects of personal use or adornment, and 
particularly a knowledge of the equipment of the officers 
and the men. 

Scanning the surface of the ground, or digging deep 
into the dug-out huts and refuse pits, working in season 
and out of season through a third of a century, finding 
innumerable personal mementoes of the British troops, 
and of the old continentals, or their French allies, there 
comes to one naturally, at length, a desire to know just 
what appearance the individual corps presented, hut when 
we look about us for correct models of the participants 
in the struggle we learn that there is a woful lack of early 
or contemporary art, depicting faithfully regimentals of 
the various units of the several armies with which we 
have become familiar. 

A correspondence extending through a period of 
twenty years with the leading military antiquarian of 
Great Britain, and other correspondence with British and 
French military antiquarians and artists — not to mention 
a personal intercourse with American artists — convinces 
the writer that the first true pictures of the War of In- 
dependence troops remain to be painted. A mass of crim- 
son and scarlet with a goodly sprinkling of cross bells 
and grenadier caps formed the basis for an historical 
painting in the 19th century, when the object in depict- 
ing a "redcoat" was only to arouse our contempt. Today 
with the old animosities forgotten and a desire for the 
true and correct uppermost, the critic looks for precise 


details of equipment and the artist who can supply these 
will make his mark. 

The old ways of arriving at details, that of copying 
earlier models, or making up a figure from prescribed 
regulations, were faulty, in that old figures were gener- 
ally fanciful, and that the regulations were not always 
carried out. What the officers and men really wore then 
are those bits of equipment which the old camps give up 
today. When we find a solid silver sword belt plate of 
the 28th British regiment in a camp at Inwood, and find 
the letters J. E. scratched upon the back of the plate 
we know positively that Lieut, James Edwards of the 
28th foot wore such a sword shoulder belt plate. When 
the British Military Antiquarian asked us to put our price 
upon this memento we began to realize the historical 
value of authentic 18th century military objects at the 
present day. We did not place a high value upon a 
soldier's bronze belt plate of the 38th regiment which we 
found at the Fort Washington barracks site, until one 
of our American military artist friends told us that he 
had taken out his gold watch and chain and offered them 
for a similar belt plate of the 38th found at Concord. 

We were not surprised — in fact we took it quite as a 
matter of course — when we found pure silver buttons of 
officers in British camps. We would not hope for any- 
thing similar in an .American camp, yet wc have found 
within the present season buttons equally elegant in a 
camp of the Massachusetts troops in the Hudson High- 

The recovery of the various badges, belt plates and 
military buttons of the eighteenth century troops have 
proven an inspiration to the little coterie of present day 
military artists and in time we may hope to see pictures 
of real soldiers of the War of Independence. 

A few years ago in an effort to obtain correct views 
of our French allies the writer applied to one of his 
military antiquarian friends Captain Maurice Bottet of 
the French army — who at that time was stationed at Ver- 
sailles. Captain Bottet recommended his friend Aquillas 
L. La Cault as the, artist capable of producing a real 
live soldier of 178 1, with every detail of equipment cor- 


I' j '■■ " : &!?< ■ '■* MisujI." I.-'JIS -Srw Yuri, i 



Wall SueeU looking west h'jm Wilhstn Slre^l. IBS! 

rect. LaCault responded to our appeal with a set of 
aquarrelles which are gems in their way. Of these we 
present two specimens a soldier of the "Royal Bondon- 
nois" — regiment No. 13; and an officer of the "Royal 
Soissonnois" — regiment No. 41, of the year 17S1. These 
are representative of French regiments which were en- 
camped to the north of the city in 1 781, and which par- 
ticipated in the attacks on the British outposts at Kings- 
bridge in the summer of that year. 

Lacault's "En Reconnaissance 1805" exhibited in the 
salon of 1908 attracted much attention, not only for the 
fidelity with which his horses and riders were depicted, 
but for the correctness of the details of the equipment 
of both. 

Near View of Washington's Inauguration 

Mrs. Eliza Susan Morton Quincey, wife of Josiah 
Quincey, and an eye witness of Washington's inaugura- 
tion gives an intimate touch to this important historical 
event which is very charming. She says : 

"I was on the roof of the first house in Broad Street which 
belonged to Captain Prince, the father of one of my school 
companions, and so near to Washington that I could almost hear 
him speak. The windows and the roofs of the houses were 
crowded, and in the streets the throng was so dense that it 
seemed as if one might literally walk on the heads of the people. 
The balcony of the hall was in full view of this assembled 
multitude. In the centre of it was placed a tabic with a rich 
covering of red velvet, and upon this, on a crimson velvet 
cushion lay a large and elegant Bible. This was all the para- 
phernalia for the august scene. After taking the oath of .office, 
a signal was given by raising a flag upon the cupalo of the 
Hall for a general discharge of the artillery of the Battery 
All the bells in the city rang out a peal of joy, and the assembled 
multitude sent forth a universal shout. The President again 
bowed to the people and then retired from the scene such 
as the proudest monarch never enjoyed. Many entertainments 
were given, both public and private, and the city was illuminated 
in the evening." 

When Washington was in New York 

"There is scarcely anything talked of now but General 
Washington and the Palace." This is what Mrs. Wit- 


liam T. Robinson wrote to her friend, Miss Kitty Wistar, 
of Brandywine in 1789, when the first President was in- 
stalled in the mansion prepared for him in Cherry Street. 
It was commonly referred to as the Palace, although 
President Washington himself never alluded to it as such. 
No doubt it was an extraordinarily fine house for that 
time, and had all the household magnificences known to 
the struggling little town of these early days. The Presi- 
dent himself was aristocratic and rather domineering, but 
notwithstanding these imperial traits he had a fine equi- 
poise of mind which kept him in line with republican 
simplicity. He only smiled at the superficialities which 
put him in a class with royalty. 

The fact is that the city was a rather shabby little town 
with narrow and dirty streets running in irregular lines, 
and zigzagging in every direction. Most of the houses 
were little low buildings, constructed mostly of wood 
with no pretentions whatever to architectural style. 
There is an old print of Broadway even later than 1789 
which shows the buildings on that leading thoroughfare 
to be simple brick or frame houses of irregular size and 
shape. In spots of course the little town had its finer 
quarters, but to an inhabitant of modern New York with 
all its splendid residences and fine streets the little old 
New York of Washington's times would be a sorry spec- 

If the President went anywhere afoot in the early days 
of the Republic he would encounter all sorts of obstacles 
on the streets, not the least of these being the live stock 
which swarmed everywhere. Dogs were numerous, and 
pigs were allowed to roam the streets on account of their 
usefulness in devouring the garbage which our forebears 
unconcernedly threw out on the streets. These were the 
original street cleaners and the precursors of our modem 
white wings. Our modern streets also present a marvel- 
ous contrast to the rough and often unpaved streets of 
Washington's time. The hills and valleys of these un- 
paved streets made walking a strenuous and even dan- 
gerous exercise, and any one who ventured out after dark 
staggered along in imminent danger of a fall. The lights 


Pb.idnl In* " VMUH^I M*n«J." I9]ll-Nr- Y a*k- - i. -virifbi 



were few and far between and the little flickering lamps 
did not help much to dispel the darkness of the night. 

There were slaves in New York in these days — a 
strange commentary on human nature — for the master 
hands who had just won liberty for themselves did noth- 
ing to free the real slaves that were bought and sold in 
the market place of the town. Let us not be too hard on 
our slave owning forefathers, however — they could not 
accomplish all they desired at once, and the seeds of lib- 
erty they sowed then fructified later into the great lib- 
eration of the Civil War. 

It was not customary to remain up late o'nights, nine 
o'clock being considered a good time to retire. There 
were few attractions for the ordinary citizen in the even- 
ings and a walk around the Battery for the better class 
of people was thought to be quite a good time. Washing- 
ton himself in his diary referred to several walks around 
the Battery as a recreation. The poorer folks did not 
wander far from their own door steps and too many 
of them— especially the men portion — found their chief 
amusement in the near taverns, of which there were 

The town pump was an institution of importance. It 
was the chief water supply for the entire community. 
Here the housewives or the young people of the family 
came to draw their supply of drinking water, and here 
too, much of the gossip of the little town was exchanged. 
The pump stood in Chatham Street and was fed from a 
pond located a little further north, near where Canal 
Street is now. 

It was customary to deliver water to those who could 
afford to pay for the service and this water was ad- 
judged to be of a superior quality. It was delivered in 
barrels and on account of its better quality was spoken 
of as "tea water." It is a strange fact that in our own 
day this old custom of delivering water in original pack- 
ages has been revived — and water too which is claimed to 
be of . a higher grade — grade A, so to speak. 

The great social event was the levee held by the Presi- 
dent every Thursday afternoon to which the public was 

[ 135 1 

welcome. On these occasions the President, who was 
always rather fastidious in regard to dress, presented a 
very handsome figure in black velvet coat and knee 
breeches, with white waist coat and immaculate linen. 
I lis knee buckles and those of his shoes were always in 
shining condition, and on his head rested the customary 
wig which people of consequence and position wore in 
those days. A sword was invariably at his side on all 
such occasions. On less formal occasions he left off the 
sword, but otherwise was just as scrupulously attired. 
He relaxed somewhat from the austere manner of his 
formal levees and became for the time the affable and 
genial gentleman, conversing with vivacity and even in- 
dulging in pleasantries with the fair sex. 

On Sundays all was quiet and extremely decorous 
about the Presidential mansion. Frivolity, which rarely 
invaded the home of the first President at any time, was 
banished from its precincts absolutely and an air of 
solemnity filled the house. The President was a regular 
church-goer and joined the Sabbath morning throngs that 
could be seen wending their way to their respective places 
of worship, the lines of pedestrians covcrging toward St. 
Paul's chapel, where the President occupied a pew spe- 
cially set apart for his use. It was a picturesque sight 
to sec these simple folk in their quaint dress and primi- 
tive ways walking in twos and threes through the little 
narrow streets leading to the churches. There were few 
slackers in the early days of the Republic and morning 
worship was a solemn duty that brought everybody to 
church that could possibly go. 

In these later and more opulent days we can scarcely 
realize that the people of New York in Washington's 
time were in a sad and poverty-stricken condition. They 
had just passed through the severities and privations of 
war. They had not recovered from the great fire of 
1776 which had destroyed so much of the best part of the 
town, and the commercial and other interests were only 
beginning to take on new life with the prospect of settled 
conditions. It was a time of adjustment and the begin- 
ning of a new period, and the presence of the great man 
who had led the nation safely through all the turbulent 


Broadway, lu Bowline; Green and. Slpatnthip Row 
Standard Otl building in cours* of const ruciiun. »baui 189a 

and stormy years was specially valuable in giving the peo- 
ple new heart and new inspiration. 

The Vale of Cashmere 

There are other spots Just as eloquent of peace and 
beauty, places that rival the Shakespeare Garden in old 
association and wealth of bloom and blossom. The Vale 
of Cashmere in Prospect Park and particularly the Rose 
Garden at the far end is one of them. Here is a retreat 
that is ever sheltered from the noise and excitement of 
our modern life. Only the twittering of birds and the 
soft music of the fountains break the stillness of this 
little paradise, and a wealth of roses on every side fill 
the air with their perfume. Here you can sit and dream 
the idle hours away and imagine, for the time being at 
least, that there is no unrest or discomfort in the great 
world outside. No better retreat for the longed for Sab- 
bath quiet could be found. 

There is one other spot in Prospect Park where the 
Sunday quiet may be enjoyed. It is the Garden of Wild 
Flowers, sometimes called the Old Fashioned Garden, on 
the eminence looking down into the plaza where stand the 
monument of Lincoln and the rare old trees guarding 
it. There the flowers grow in profusion, of every shape 
and color and size, in rich clusters of gold or scarlet or 
purple, with here and there a long graceful stalk bearing 
aloft its single flower in solitary loveliness and beauty. 
One may wander through the irregular paths of this maze 
of wild flowers, resting occasionally on the rustic benches, 
or in the little raised summer house in the middle of the 
garden and enjoy the repose which nature alone can 

1 13<) ] 

Jones's Wood 

By Hopper Striker Mott 

Most of the property in this tract, mellowed by 
romance and favored by nature, was beautifully wooded, 
the trees towering to a great height and from the owners 
the territory took the name of Jones' Wood. The hillock 
known as Dead Man's Rock marked its beginning some 
75 years ago. In later times the site of this landmark 
became ignoble in police annals as the boundary of 
Battle Row. This region was the last fastness of the 
forest primeval that once covered the rocky shores of 
the East River and its wildness was almost savage. In 
the infant days of the colony it was the scene of tradition 
and fable having been said to be a favorite resort of the 
pirates who dared the terrors of Hell Gate and came 
here to land their treasures and hold their revels. The 
gifted pen of Irving* has described it as "a new creation" 
to the eyes of voyagers from the settlements, for no 
signs of human thrift appeared to check the delicious 
wildness of nature which here revelled in all her luxuriant 
variety. The hills along the river were adorned with 
the vigorous natives of the soil : the lordly oak, the 
generous chestnut, the graceful elm, — while here and 
there the tulip tree reared its majestic head, the giant of 
the forest. Where later were seen the gay retreats of 
luxury, ■ — ottr author muses,— -villas half buried in twi- 
light bowers, whence the amorous flute oft breathed the 
sighings of some city swain, — there the fish-hawk built 
her solitary nest on some dry tree that overlooked her 
wateiy domain. The timid deer fed undisturbed along 
these shores now hallowed by the lover's moonlight walk 
and printed by the slender foot of beauty; and a savage 
solitude extended over these happy regions, where now 
are reared the stately towers of the Joneses, the Scher- 
mcrhorns and the Rhinclanders, Its shores were re- 
nowned for its fisheries and under the shadow of its rockv 

•Irving'! His. of N. Y., Chap. IV. 



^; H r ii»Hni 

View o( Joni'3' Wood in 1839, ai Annual Games New Yo:k Caledonian Club. 
Comics^ of Ncu! Yaik Caledonian Clui. 

bluff and overhanging oaks the youth of a former genera- 
tion cast their lines and waited for bites. 

In the "opening years of the last century" the wood 
became "a place of delight" to the pleasure seekers from 
the distant city. The property was very attractive for 
the purpose and the views from the shores highly interest- 
ing and varied. The above quotation is taken from two 
contemporary writers but failure has met the endeavor 
to ascertain data of such early date. The place, how- 
ever, was a conspicuous landmark and as such became a 
subject of contention during the endeavor to acquire a 
large city park. The advisability of acquiring land for 
that purpose was raised by Ambrose C. Kingsland, the 
Mayor, in a message to the Common Council tinder date 
of May 5th, 1851. (Pro, Board of Aldermen. XLli ,-32). 
The people and their representatives were divided between 
this locality and a more central one. A preamble and 
resolutions of the Common Council against Jones's Wood 
and in favor of Central Park were presented in the Senate 
at Albany on June 17th, 1853. {Com. Adtr. June 18th). 

The same paper of June 23rd contained the report of 
a Select Committee of the Senate dated the 21st, in 
favor of the acquisition of the former site and stating 
that it contained an area of 156 acres. Senator Cooley 
on the following day submitted an elaborate written 
minority report in opposition thereto and in favor of a 
central location. On July 1st Senator Beekman stated 
that, although he understood that the owners of Jones's 
Wood were opposed to its being selected, he thought "the 
great plea of public necessity" required its acquisition. 
Cooley defended the minority report on the ground that 
the prevalence of rowdyism was such that the wives and 
families of visitors to the park would not be safe, five 
or six miles away from the inhabited parts of the city. 
The riots, murders and scenes of disorder at Hoboken 
proved this to be true. A further objection was that, 
after the ledge of rock (between 40 & 50 feet high) was 
leveled, the water front could be used for commercial 
purposes and was needed for the development of the 
metropolis. The pending bill to appoint commissioners 
of condemnation was opposed by Senator Morgan in that 


its terms completely deprived the city authorities of all 
power in the matter and sought to sweep away the 
property of the owners without redress. He called 
attention to the remonstrances of Mayor Weslervelt, 
Comptroller Flagg, the owners and the petitions of ten 
thousand citizens of New York against it, and stated 
that only Beckman, the Senator from the Fifth, was in 
favor, intimating that he was influenced by his ownership 
of realty in the neighborhood {Commercial Advertiser 
July 2). 

Later in the month President Pierce arrived in order 
to open the Crystal Palace and on the 16th, in answer 
to a circular invitation on behalf of the Committee on 
Encroachments on the Harbor, a large number of citizens, 
public functionaries and representatives of the army and 
navy assembled on board the steamboat "Josephine" at 
the U. S. Barge Wharf, foot of Whitehall Street, to 
accompany him on an excursion around the Bay. He 
was met by Palatiah Perit, President of the Chamber of 
Commerce and Walter R. Jones, President of the Atlantic 
Mutual Insurance Co. After sailing around Governor's 
Island and past the Navy Yard the boat proceeded up 
the East River, while luncheon was served. (Evening 
Post, July 19th, 1S53). 

Haswell states that one of the objects of the trip was 
to allow the members of the Board of Aldermen to 
examine the Jones's Wood site from the water side. The 
reports in the Post, Herald and Commercial Advertiser, 
however, make no reference thereto. If this was a 
reason it evidently had little weight with members of the 
Legislature present for on the following day an act was 
passed in favor of a Central Park, and Beekman's bill, 
vesting in the Corporation the selection of Jones's Wood, 
was lost, — ayes 12, nays 10 — after a long debate. Later 
in the day the vote was reconsidered and the bill passed. 
(Commercial Advertiser, July 22). This act (Chapter 
618) authorized the purchase of the land lying between 
3rd Avenue and the East River, from 66th Street to 
75th Street, including Hamilton Square. Much opposi- 
tion immediately arose to the project for it was recog- 
nized that, however attractive might be the location, it 


The Empire Skating Rink. 
Third A •.►:•.»* at 63rd and 64th Streets, with vignette view of the exterior, Afterwards used Tor the 
exhibitions of the American Institute Fair. The figures of well-known citizen* are shown. 
From a unique old print in the collection of \ir, J. Clarence Dai)iC4, 

was inaccessible and dangerous because bounded on one 
side by the swift current of a deep stream. The Alder- 
men, accordingly, on Oct. 10, directed the Mayor &c. 
to employ counsel to delay proceedings in order to apply 
for amendment or repeal of the law. (Pro. Bd. Alder- 
men. 89). As a result the act was repealed after that 
action had been recommended, March 6, 1854, by the 
Committee on Land and Places of the Board. 

Now that the project had been abandoned the owners 
advertised in the Times of October 16th 1855 the sale 
by A. J. Bleeckcr, 7 Broad Street, of four hundred of 
the lots, bounded by 69th and 75th Streets, comprising 
a part of the "beautiful property so well known as Jones' 
Wood," which lots were in "original hands" and free of 
encumbrance. The records of the Caledonian Club, 
organized in 1856, refer to the resort as a "convenient 
and pleasantly situated park between 65th and 70th 
Streets on the East River" and, after holding its first 
annual games on the Elysian Fields, Hoboken, it settled 
on the Wood for its second event which took place 
there on Thursday, Sept. 23rd, 1858. 

In that year Valentine Mager (pronounced Major) 
was the proprietor of the Jones's Wood Hotel, which 
occupied the Provoost Mansion at the foot of East 71st 
Street. In the Times of April 25th, he solicited a con- 
tinuance of the liberal patronage he had received and 
stated that he had greatly increased his grounds by 
"taking in fifteen acres more." He presumed to add that 
"it is on the whole the only place on the Island where a 
person can enjoy or make himself comfortable." Access 
was had by the Second and Third Avenue cars which 
ran within three minutes walk of the hotel "and persons 
who reside in the lower part of the city could enjoy a 
fine ride." 

On December 16th 1859 Mager acquired by lease a 
piece of land in the block between 69th and 70th Streets 
Avenue A and the river from Edmund H. Pendleton 
and he added thereto in i860 large slices of the interests 
of other heirs in nearby property, viz: Jan. 16th the 
entire block between Avenue A and the river and 70th 
and 71st Streets under lease from Lewis C. Jones; Jan. 


5th the block between ist Avenue and Avenue A & 68th 
& 69th Streets from James Cruikshank, agent for Estate 
of James S. Jones and also lots No. 95-103 in block be- 
tween the same avenues, and 70th and 71st Streets; he 
also leased lots No. 1-26 in block between Avenues A and 
B, 68th and 69th streets, and lots No, 124-127 in block 
between these avenues and 69th- 70th Streets. On die 
same date Rebecca Jones leased to him lots No. 244-251 
on the s. s. 70th Street between Avenue A and the river 
and Lewis C. Jones lots No. 548-550, 552 & 553 on s. s. 
69th Street, No. 252-258 on s. s. 70th Street, No. 474-476 
on n. s. 69th Street, and No. 413, 414 on the n. e. corner 
1 st Avenue and 70th Street. Likewise on the same day 
Woodhury Langdon leased him lots No. 542-544, 551, 557- 
167, 177-184, 415, 418, 468-470, 479, 480, and Alice Jones 
lots No. 545-547, 554, 237, 243, 419-423, 168-176, 471-473, 
477 & 478. All the above indentures of lease said Mager 
conveyed on February 24, i860 (L. 831:9), to Isaac 
Sommers for $11,000 together with all the stock, fixtures, 
buildings, fences and erections there on and a certain 
other lease "to be given by William C. Schermerhorn as 
by reference thereto will more fully at large appear." 

During the Civil War the place was in constant use by 
the military. Some of these events follow: on August 
27th 1861 the 69th Regiment excursion took place, at 
which time the steamer "General Arthur" ran from Peck 
Slip every hour, calling at Gouverneur, Broome and 
Tenth Streets and at Pier 45, East River, for a fare of 
five cents. In July 1862 it was the steamer "G. E. Frazer" 
which ran to the resort. On August 20th the Literary 
and Social Association gave a "grand festival" there, the 
proceeds to be devoted to the relief of sick and wounded 
soldiers. The Herald states that Sommers, "the worthy 
proprietor of the hotel and the favorite grounds," was 
everywhere, contributing to the enjoyment of the as- 
sembled thousands. The State Quartermaster General, 
General Arthur, was unavoidably prevented from being 
present but Generals Sickles and Eusteed with other 
notables attended and were received with flattering en- 
thusiasm. The amusements of the dance, rendered irre- 
sistible by the musfc of two very excellent bands, were 


■ II L I * .* . 

i i iiji^ULjLjiLI 


Sixth Avenue, Filly-Hnhth to Fifty -ninth Sural. The old RidiriK Academy, when the youth ei M*:ihattan 
learntd the rquesutan an. iR"G_ The bill-hoard ■nnnunres a concert, by Theodore Thomas, 
the original popular musical conductor IS'e .v York. 

continued until a late hour. The same paper but of 
August 25th noticed that three festivals would be held 
at the Wood that week ; viz : those of the Turnverein, a 
"family picnic and social" under the direction of Prof. 
McPherson and on Thursday the annual excursion of St. 
Mary's R. C. Church in Grand Street. In this connec- 
tion the reporter noted that, up to this time, about forty 
festivals had been held, being a larger number than any 
summer for three years past; the success of this place 
of amusement showing little signs of decrease. Each 
September on its advent found the Caledonian Club at the 
Wood. The sixth annual games held on the tenth, was, as 
usual, a marked success. A very large and particularly 
select party, numbering several thousands, were assembled 
to witness the sport and it required all the rolling stock 
of the Second Avenue Rail Road to carry the visitors to 
and from the grounds. A splendid double silken, bullion 
bound banner was presented to the club by the ladies of 
its members and their friends. Sommers was in per- 
sonal charge of the refreshments and the festivities under 
the direction of Chief D. McLellan, Second Chieftan 
Thomas Barclay, Third Chieftan George Gilluly, and 
Clansmen James Cumming and John McLellan. 

Sommers, "proprietor of the hotel and park," an- 
nounced on May 1st the opening of the season of 1862. 
Always a favorite place for excursions and festivals he 
would strive to render it even more attractive. The Herald 
of the 19th, stated in a reading notice that the Wood on 
the opening day "was visited by several thousand of our 
Teutonic friends, as there they could, without molestation, 
ramble about on the grass or join in the many little inno- 
cent amusements that are customary to these grounds. 
The usual number of amateur rifle shooters, scuppers and 
lager beer drinkers were present and were accommodated, 
and the hotel having been newly fitted up the visitors 
found everything they required ready to hand." On Au- 
gust 13th, "the gallant Seventy-Ninth (Highland 
Guards)' 1 held a festival and events under the auspices 
of the Thistle Benevolent Association, Bums Club and 
the New York Caledonian Club, in aid of the widows, or- 
phans and disabled soldiers. 


The opening of the season of 1863 took place on May 
10th, and was signalized by a very large crowd. Target 
shooting, scups, hobby horses and the thousand and one 
other amusements were in full operation. The weather 
was lovely and the rains had brought forth the leaves on 
the early trees with some degree of profusion. Because 
of an explosion which occurred at the Powder Magazine 
and Cartridge Factory, located at the foot of 78th Street, 
Sommers advertised on May 15th, for fear of misappre- 
hension, that his resort extended no further north than 
71st Street. The disaster was however uncomfortably 
near and caused severe loss to the buildings in the Wood. 
And then we have the Pfingst Montag celebration on the 
26th. A procession was formed and marched from 
Orchard Street, through Canal, Bowery, Second Street, 
Avenue A and Tenth Street at the foot of which the vari- 
ous societies embarked on steamboats. The above list 
of events certainly proclaims the popularity of the resort 
at this period. 

One of the famous picnics of later days was held on 
August 24th 1S72 by the printers. The affair was at- 
tended chiefly by attaches of newspapers — editors, re- 
porters and comjmsitors. "Hig Six" was out in force. 
Horace Greeley, the Presidential candidate of the Liberal 
Republican-Democratic coalition, was there in the evening 
and made an address which was among the last that he 
ever delivered, as he died three weeks after the election. 
Thus a dash of historic interest was added to the picnic. 
Charles M. Harvey of St. Louis, Mo. related the above 
particulars under date of August 17th 1912 and continued 
in the Sun as follows : 

"Before that date I had heard Greeley talk several times 
on several subjects but I never saw him in such a happy mood 
as then. Regarding the political outtook he was bubbling over 
with confidence. Nearly all his hearers, Republicans and Demo- 
crats alike, were his supporters in his campaign, and he believed, 
as most of them did. that he would carry the country in No- 
vember. As he was among old friends his address was in a 
familiar conversational strain. He was interrupted by questions 
frequently but the answers always came promptly and good 
naturcdly. When he recognized the ijucstioncr, as he often did, 
he would mention him by name. Neither before nor since did 
I ever see a large assemblage permeated with such a spirit of 


East River khlpoirg. 1874. Looking Ea::t alonR Sonlh Street, trnm S'mlh Kerry. 
Last d«y» ol Ihetamous Y»nk.«» Clipper Ships, Sometimes their bowspii:? wnuld i-xtttnd across the lutel. 

Cftu/t«v fir. R> S Raihear 

geniality and comaraderic as that gathering showed after Greeley 
made his appearance there." 

This year found John F. Schultheis the proprietor of 
the park. He had purchased lots from Dorothea, the 
widow of Erhard Schutz on Oct. 1st, known on the par- 
tition map of the Louvre Farm dated June 25th 1855 as 
Nos. 542-554 (L. 1267:675) and on December 18th 1873 
lots No. 532, 540 and 541 for $8,366 from the executors 
of Peter Schermerhorn ; lots No. 529, 533, 534 and 535 
for $13,625 from Edmund H. Schermerhorn; lots No. 
530, 538 and 539 for $6966 from William C. Schermer- 
horn and Anna E. H., his wife and Nos. 531, 536 and 
537 for $8,541.67 from John Jones Schermerhorn, then 
residing in Paris, all said lots being in Block G, thereby 
acquiring half the block lying on the south side of 69th 
Street between Avenue A and the river. (L. 1291 : 155, 
158, 162, 165.) Stone's History of New York: p. 491 
states that in 1872 the Provoost mansion, which had 
served as Jones's Wood Hotel, was a delapidated ruin. 
David Provoost died in 1781, aged ninety and was buried 
in the family vault cut in a rocky knoll in the woods 
near his house (Gazette and Weekly Mercury, Oct. 29.). 
The marble slab which he caused to be placed over it in 
memory of his wife, and winch later commemorated him 
lay neglected, adds Stone, over the broken walls. The 
year 1873 marked the last of the old Wood for lots were 
being sold by the heirs and trees were being felled to 
allow of improvement The Caledonian Club had con- 
tinued each September till then to hold its games there 
but was compelled in 1875 to confine its celebration to 
the Coliseum and there its final annual event was held 
in 1893. 

The earliest map on which the buildings at the Wood 
are shown is Perris and Browne's Fire Ins. Survey, 1862, 
The blocks between 68th and 70th Streets are marked 
"Jones's Wood Coliseum" and a building near the river 
"Platform." A "shooting range" was on 70th Street 
near the latter. The platform was used for outdoor danc- 
ing and a closed building for the same purpose stood on 
the lower block. Dripp's Atlas of 1868 fails to show 
any buildings but Bromley's of 1879 and Robinson's of 


1 886 do. The diagrams thereon agree. The Coliseum 
occupied the full front of the hlock on Avenue A be- 
tween 68th and 69th Streets and covered much of the 
lots towards the river. Schultheis erected this Coliseum 
about 1874 which he advertised as the "new building," 
and was 20 feet wide and 1000 feet long. The "playing 
ground" inside was 160 by 400 feet in size and there 
was "comfortable accommodation for 14000 visitors' 
seats." Kastner and Beach of 290 Broadway were the 
architects. On the Bromley and Robinson maps the 
block between 69th and 70th Streets is marked Washing- 
ton Park and in its rear are a number of outbuildings. 
Stone's History states that in addition to these a number 
of tents were pitched in the woods for use during the 

Jones's Wood, the general and inclusive term for the 
neighborhood, was razed by fire in 1894. At break of 
day on May 1 6th the East River bluffs from 67th to 71st 
Streets were practically swept of buildings, the confla- 
gration reaching its height at 4.30 A_M. 

It was the fiercest battle that the department had been 
called on to fight for many years, and only good manage- 
ment prevented it from crossing to the west side of Ave- 
nue A. The area of ravage covered about eleven acres. 
Its origin was near the kitchen in the north east corner of 
the Coliseum block close to Schultheis's stables and the 
Jones mansion in which lived at the time John F. Schul- 
theis, Jr. Flames were first noticed in a turret of the 
Coliseum. The fire swept so furiously that engine No. 
39, the "Silver King," had to be abandoned and was 
burned. On this block (68th to 69th Streets) there re- 
mained standing but the kitchen chimney and the grove 
in front of the dancing platform over the river. The 
trees around the summer houses were so charred that 
they resembled telegraph poles and the heat destroyed 
the shrubbery and flowers. On the Washington Park 
block only the north shed west of the carrousal and the 
entry buildings were left. The Schermerhorn house 
was saved by a couple of hundred feet. Sixty-seventh 
Street, in which it stood, had not yet been cut through. 
It entirely escaped damage although a tree fifty feet 

f 156] 

Trinity Church-Vard Ironi the r*»r_ About 1875. showing i>!d building on 


north of it was killed by the blighting heat. The fire 
was stopped before it reached the arbors and the merry- 
go-round. The buildings on both blocks were owned by 
Schullheis who placed his loss at $300,000, part of which 
included the bowling-alley and from fifteen to twenty 
thousand dollars worth of Rhine and other wines, and 
30 valuable rifles owned by the New York Scheutzen 
Corps. Only a small amount of insurance was carried. 
The above story is taken from the account published in 
the l imes of May 17th 1894 which added that "60 
years previously the Jones place was famous for its 
orchard which produced a little red apple, the flavor 
of which lingers in the reflective palate of many staid 
citizens who in the 'fifties thought a predatory excursion 
there worth all the risk that was run. The Provoost 
family vault lies under the ruins of yesterday's fire." 

Schultheis then took the Casino on Ft. George Hill and 
there again the demon of fire followed him. 

No vestige of the Wood now remains and so passes 
into history a region hallowed in memory for its early 
charm and its later identification with the amusement of 
former generations of pleasure-seeking New Yorkers. 

Jan Cornelia Van Den Heuvel* and his Residences in 
Lower Broadway and at Bloomingdale 
By Hopper Striker Mott 

In 1790 there came to New York Jan Cornelius Van 
den Heuvel, a Hollander, to whose name some writers 
have prefixed the title Baron. A refugee from the ravages 
of yellow fever at Demerara, he decided not to return 
and settled here. 

It is asserted that he had acted as governor of that 
Dutch colony. If so he served his country in the same 
capacity as did Stuyvesant at Curacoa over a century 
previously. Demerara is now known as Georgetown, 
on the Demerara River, in British Guiana. Curacoa, by 
the way, lies off the coast of Venezuela about 850 miles 

* This seems to be the only family of the name which came to New 
Nethtrland, A cable, dated Feh. 15. 1915, to the jVem Yori .Tun, Stated 
tbit ex-Minister Vatidenheuvel had been appointed Belgian Envoy tu the 
Vatican — evidence the name still exists in Belgium. 


in a direct line from Demerara. 'There Van den Heuvel 
owned two plantations which helped him in his business 
career in the new home as a Dutch West India merchant, 
in which occupation he made a fortune. He first re- 
sided at 87 Liberty Street, but in 1800 removed to the 
north west corner of Broadway and Barclay Street to 
a house known as No. 229 on a lot 46.4 feet front and 
141. J deep, which now forms a part of the site of the 
Woolworth building. His integrity and capacity were 
such that, although a new arrival and hardly to be con- 
sidered to be in touch with American affairs, he was 
elected in i8or a director of the U. S. Branch Bank, 
when Cornelius Ray was president and Robert Lenox, 
Nicholas Low, John Murray, Gabriel W. Ludlow, Wil- 
liam Laurence, Thomas Pearsall, David M. Clarkson, 
Peter Schermerhorn, Thomas Buchanan, John Laurence 
and Moses Rogers were his associate directors. {Long- 
worth's City Directory, 1S01 : 69.) At this time his 
garden divided his residence from that of Charles Star- 
tin, at 233 Broadway, who in 1793 was a merchant at 
1 1 Wall Street and later had been a sort of A, T, Stewart 
in his day at 225 Broadway, on the Astor House site, but 
died in 1804. His widow continued to live in the resi- 
dence. The garden which occupied the lot known as 231 
Broadway became in 1812 the site of the residence of 
David Mumford, the President of the Columbia Insur- 
ance Company. This was a model house and furnished 
in better style than any other at that date. Citizens 
"from the remotest parts" says the record, which meant 
as far out of town as Chambers Street, felt such pride 
in it that they came to visit it. Next to the Startin resi- 
dence stood at No. 235 the beautiful house owned and 
occupied by Philip Hone when Mayor, which he de- 
scribes in his diary and regrets exceedingly to leave 
when business invasion caused him to remove to Broad- 
way and Bond Street. The Mayor sold his residence 
March 8, 1836, for $60,000. The Commercial Advertiser 
of June 30 of that year announced that "that old and 
famous establishment," the American Hotel, had been 
further extended by connecting therewith "the large and 
elegant house vacated by Fhilip Hone, Esq." The hotel 


c » I MHttJ 

Broadway, looking north ai 90th Street: thin section was known as "Tweed's Boulevard" as originally 
laid out. All the trees seen in this view were removed during the construction of the subway. 

They should be restored. 

thereby "embraced the whole front sweep of the block 
between Park Place and Barclay Street." All these lots 
were purchased by the Woolworth interests. The Van 
den Heuvel plot fell to the Hamilton family and at the 
time of the sale was covered by a 7-story business struc- 

Mr. Van den Heuvel had the misfortune to lose his 
wife shortly after his arrival. Justina Henrietta Baerlc 
accompanied him to this country and died on Monday 
March 25th 1793. Iti 1792 *he had purchased from the 
heirs-at-law of James McEvers part of the de Lancey 
property lying between the Bloomingdale Road on the 
east, the land of John van Cortlandt on the north, that 
of Teunis Somerindykc on the south and the Hudson 
River on the west, containing 45 acres and four perches, 
more or less, which was sold to said McEvers by Charles 
Ward Apthorp by deed dated October 30th 1767. (L. 
228: S8.) According to the deed there were "houses, 
outhouses, kitchens, bams and stables" on the property. 
This citation and the further fact that Major General 
Schuyler Hamilton who was born in the mansion July 
25, 1822, is quoted as authority for its Revolutionary 
history, lends weight to the statement that it was built 
by Apthorp, instead of by Van den Heuvel as has been 
assumed. Mrs. Van den Heuvel left her surviving, be- 
sides her husband: 

I, Isaac Guysbertus Herman van den Heuvel, who resided at 
at the Hague (L. 157: 149). 
II. Jacob Adriaen van den Heuvel, an attorney, who lived 
with his father at 229 Broadway (City Directory). 
Ill Charlotte, who married Colin Macrea, of New York, and 
IV. Margaret, the wife of Ralph I. Ingersoll, of New Haven, 
Connecticut (abstract of title in possession of the 
Astor estate). 

Their mother having died intestate, her husband in 
order to perfect the title in fee in himself obtained from 
the above named heirs-at-law releases which were exe- 
cuted during 182 1 and are recorded in Ls. 157 at pp. 
146, 147, 149. 512, 363. 

Mr. Van den Heuvel married (2) Charlotte, the daugh- 
ter of Charles Ward Apthorp, a near-by neighbor, and 
the former owner of the site of the Bloomingdale seat, 


and died in 1825, says Walter Barrett in "The Old 
Merchants of Ne7v York." The abstract of title to 
the property puts it a year later. His will l>ore date 
March 20th, 1822, and therein he made certain provisions 
for his wife, including the gift to her of the use of his 
farm and mansion at Bloomingdale 50 long as she should 
remain his widow. 

This item, however, was nullified by her previous de- 
cease which event is recited in the last codicil, dated 
February 8, 1825. This property by the later opening 
of streets became bounded by Broadway and West End 
Avenue, between 78th and 79th Streets. The will further 
divided his estate into 9 parts and bequeathed it among 
his children, share and share alike. Those by the first 
wife are mentioned as above stated. Those by the second 
marriage were; 

V. Maria Eliza, who married John Church Hamilton, the 
son of the Statesman, 
VI. Charles Apthorp van den Hcuvel,* 
VII. Justine, wiLe o£ Gouverncur S, Bibby, and 
VIII. Susan Annette, who later married Thomas S. Gibhes. 

The remaining ninth went to his grandchildren, Jus- 
tine Sawyer and Eliza Ann van Bevervoorden, children 
of his deceased daughter, Maria Eleanora van West- 

For the more easy settlement of his affairs he gave and 
devised to his executors Jacob A. van den Huevel, John 
C. Hamilton, Samuel Ward, Jr., Charles McEvers and 
Francis B. Winthrop, all his realty in trust to sell at 
public or private sale, as soon as practicable. Winthrop's 
appointment was revoked by codicil in 1823. The will 
was proved May 9th, 1826. (L. 60 Wills: 222.) 

On May 1st, 1827 said trustees and executors con- 
veyed the entire property fronting on the river and ex- 
tending easterly to the Bloomingdale Road and of width 
as specified in the deed to Francis Price for $25,758.85. 

* Charles Aplhorp van den Heuvel m. Mary Morris, daughter of 
Thomas Morris, son of the signer of the Declaration, and died in Conn, 
in 1833. She died at 106 East 12th Street in 1835. Their daughter. 
Charlotte Augusta Van den Heuvel, after her mother's death, lived alone, 
except for her servants, in the family home until she died there on Tan. 
10th, 1910, aged 36. She is said to he the last linial descendant of Robert 
Morris, the Signer, of whom she was a great grand-daughter. 


(L. 225: 212.) He and his wife Jane executed a con- 
veyance of that part of it containing 20 lots lying be- 
tween the Road and nth Avenue (West End Avenue) 
and 78th and 79th Streets on which the mansion was 
located to Robert T. Dixon for $3,121.25. This instru- 
ment predated that to them (Ap, 20th 1827) but was not 
acknowledged until May 30th after title had been ac- 
quired. (L, 223: 27.) In October 1834 said Dixon 
conveyed the block to Sarah Dixon for $4,000. (L. 485: 
439). A strip of frontage along Broadway which had 
been a part of the bed of the Bloomingdale Road became 
vested in her by the Commissioners of opening said 
Road who found in 1852 that she was the owner. De- 
nominated a single woman, she sold the entire block of 
lots to George W. Poillon by deed dated May 2nd 1853 
as numbered on the "Map of property known as Burn- 
ham's Hotel, surveyed by Isaac T. Ludlum, March 3rd, 
1853." Consideration $27,500. (L. 641: 267.) This 
map by the way is not of record. It was not until 1879 
that the Astors acquired possession when Poillon and 
his wife Rachel Ann conveyed the block to John Jacob 
Astor for $100,000. (Deed dated Nov. 12th, 1879. L. 
1513: 282.) So much for the title. An error relating to 
the Astor ownership needs correction. As Thomas Stan- 
ton Gibbes who married one of the van den Heuvel 
girls was the father-in-law of John Jacob Astor, it is per- 
haps natural that the story should have spread that in 
this manner the family acquired title. It is evident from 
the above recital that this statement is erroneous. 

The mansion was remarkable for its magnificence 
among the many beautiful places of Bloomingdale. It 
was originally two stories high with a gable roof and 
the walls were of solid stone. As bricks nine inches 
square were found when the building was razed it has 
been thought that they came from Holland. The front 
stoop, which faced the Bloomingdale Road, was reached 
by four brown stone steps and at the porch entrance stood 
four white columns of white cedar hewn from logs of 
trees grown on the estate. The first floor rested on 
great beams of black oak from which the bark only had 
been removed. To make them uniform in thickness the 


whole length and to overcome the natural taper of the 
tree, the small ends were built up with a series of wedges. 
All the laths were split, not sawed, and the nails and 
hinges hand made. The flooring was of maple, in pieces 
22 inches wide and 2 inches thick. 

As one entered the house he was confronted with a 
wide graceful staircase, the steps of which were low 
and broad, with turned and carved balustrade of colonial 
type. The main floor had a broad arched central hall 20 
feet wide paved with marble slabs which in its later 
days had been cut off to form another room. A draw- 
ing room opened into this hallway on one side and op- 
posite was located a lofty dining room. The upper floor 
had four large rooms and over these in the gable were 
sleeping apartments. Fine fireplaces and handsomely 
carved mantels embellished many of these rooms. The 
tiling around them was composed of squares having on 
each a Scriptural subject. Heavy window sashes, solid 
inside shutters, window seats and carved cornices and 
mouldings added to the interior evidences of antiquity 
and the small square panes of the Dutch type gave stress 
to this fine example of early architecture. 

Washington's forces rested here in the retreat from 
Brooklyn but were obliged to abandon it upon the ad- 
vance of the British whose posts skirmished with the 
rear guard of the American army on the Bloomingdale 
Road. The staff chaplain with the Continental forces 
during this engagement, the Rev. John Gano, was min- 
ister of the fust Baptist Church of New York. It is 
stated that by his earnest prayers and patriotic councils 
he did much to encourage his countrymen in the struggle. 
On the return of peace he went back to his accustomed 
field of labor and a much depleted congregation. {Green- 
leafs Hist, of the Churches, 227; Annals Amer, Baptist 
Pulpit, S prayue, 64.) 

David Clarke's wife and sons occupied the property 
when the house was torn down in 1905. She vouches 
for the assertion that there was found in the attic an 
old red military coat which pupils who transgressed the 
rules of the 82nd Street Public School (No. 9), opened 


lof VnltMlne** Minuil," |'JJ(— N*a York — CupvniM 



6 H L lipids 

Van den Hauval House, afterwards Burnham's Tavarn, now site at great Apthorpe Apartment House. 
Broadway between 7g(h and 79th Streets. 

in 1827, were obliged to don. No worse punishment 
could befall a boy than this. 

Some years ago William Waldorf Astor, after his ex- 
patriation, called at the old house to see where his grand- 
mother had spent her childhood, and as a souvenir had 
a large Dutch weather vane which ornamented the barn 
taken down, and removed it to England where it now 
indicates the direction of the wind upon the stables of 
his estate. 

The village tavern at Harsenville — no one knows when 
it started its career. Many stories, some as far removed 
as 1800, have been preserved about it. We know who 
its landlord was at that early date and that William 
Burnham, its boniface in the thirties, removed from it 
to the Van den Heuvel house in 1839. Here at a rental 
of $600 per annum Burnham and his family of young 
children, some of whom had been baptized in the village 
church as early as 1830, came and thus began the famous 
sway of the Burnhams in Bloomingdale. Its location was 
superb. The river view, ever entrancing, was especially 
so here, for the palisades were higher and cast deeper 
shadows during the long evenings, and the rear piazza 
was always thronged. Just overhanging the stream 
perched a charming little summer house approached by 
a pathway leading through the garden and under the 
forest trees. But it was not only in the good old sum- 
mer time that the place attracted. Every one was on 
runners in those early days and many are yet alive who 
experienced the warmth and hospitality of the resort, 
the writer among them. The place lingers in my mem- 
ory. The swinging sign which proclaimed it "Burnham's 
Mansion House" hung at the road entrance, which then 
divided and wound in semi-circular fashion up to the 
front door, where many a stepper of national reputation 
dashed up and many joyous parties enlivened the occa- 
sion. Spirituous refreshments were to he had, such as 
sangarees, Tom and Jerry, New York brandy punch 
and mulled wine for which latter the place was noted. 
There was as much fashion in drinks as there is now and 
a discriminating taste in Madeira was then a gentle- 
manly accomplishment. The bar was located in a small 


connecting house, which many will remember stood on 
West End Avenue, and was used as a carpenter shop at 
the time the site was cleared. Brig. Gen. Schuyler Ham- 
ilton stated that the ball room was on the second floor 
at the south end of the mansion over the dining room. 
In the early fifties a fire burned off the gable story and 
when rebuilt the walls were carried up straight, thus 
making two stories of stone and one of wood. This ac- 
counts for the appearance of the house in its later days. 

This quotation from "The Last Days of Knicker- 
bocker Life in New York" (Abram C. Dayton, 1882) 
will fittingly close the story of this famous old tavern : 

"Thousands of middle-aged, men and women of today recall 
the many gambols they enjoyed in childhood on Burnham's Lawn; 
they cannot fail remembering with vividness the smile of wel- 
come they received from the kind old host and his motherly 
wife who were always at the door 'to welcome the coming, speed 
the parting guest.' The girls will not have forgotten the large 
square parlor where the cake and lemonade were dispensed after 
the hearty run to and from the summer house on the bank, or 
their protracted stroll through that old-fashioned garden, with 
its box borders and its profusion of gay native flowers. The 
boys will never forget 'while memory lasts' George, James C 
and William, three as devoted sons and delightful hosts as ever 
can be met : modest, spirited, well-trained American boys, who 
could gracefully acknowledge a kindness and with true dignity 
resent an insult. Burnham's was fitly styled the family house 
of the drive. On each fine summer afternoon the spacious 
grounds were filled with ladies and children who sauntered at 
their leisure, having no fear of annoyance and confident of 
perfect immunity from insult. The honest, high-toned reputa- 
tion of the host and his family acted as a most efficient police, 
and was indeed a terror to the evil disposed. The large family 
circle save one daughter have all paid the debt of nature. James 
C. ( l Jim,' as he was familiarly and widely known) was the latest 
survivor. With his death the reputation of the old stopping 
place vanished and though for subsequent years its doors re- 
mained open as if to invite the passers-by to enter, its prestige 
was gone, its glory had departed, and it became a thing of the 

Burnham's became the successor of Cato's on the Post 
Road. This was started as a tavern in 1712 and taken 
over by Cato in 1781, It was in 1828 that this old darky 
fell a victim to the charms of Miss Eliza Johnson, and 
shortly thereafter he retired from business. An ad- 


':' > ■■'. Hi Warren Sum lro:n the Park. showing inn aid irtir. and 
enlrmice gale one of ihr earliest known nui-drwiT phoiuRraphs nt our city, 
by V. Prevent. ISM. 

venturer who called himself Baron von Hoffman made 
quite a stir in New York about 1823, where he had been 
courted and caressed in fashionable circles until detected 
as an impostor. "A fish can as veil live out of de vater 
as I can live out of de ladies," was a favorite remark of 
the bogus baron, who came very near winning the hand 
of a noted New York belle and heiress. After his dis- 
appearance the Evening Post noted that he was living at 
Morrison's Hotel, Dublin, "quietly luxuriating in the blaze 
of his fame," and in one of his poems Halleck includes 
this verse : 

Yet, long upon Harlem's gray rocks and green highlands, 
Shall Burnham and Cato remember the name, 

Of him who away in the far British Islands 
Now lights his cigar at the blaze of his fame. 

The Columbia War Hospital 

The Columbia War Hospital is a unique institution. 
It is designed to care for the sick and wounded soldiers 
returning from the trenches or those invalided to New 
York from camps. The hospital is organized on mili- 
tary lines both as regards the administrative and medical 
organization. Physicians and surgeons who propose to 
enter the military service of the United States during the 
World War can receive their training and education at 
this hospital. 

The hospital was made possible by an act of impulsive 
generosity on the part of Mr. Daniel G. Reid. Dr. Alex- 
ander Lambert, president of the Medical Society of the 
State of New York and brother of Dr. Samuel W. 
Lambert, dean of the College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons, who worked out the plans of the hospital and 
was also seeking the necessary funds, laid the facts 
before Mr. Reid and he immediately contributed the 
amount required to complete and equip the plant, $175,- 
000, making the laconic remark, "Now, get busy." The 
hospital was finished in record time. Dr. Adrian V. S. 
Lambert, who was also active with his brothers in the 
project, is the medical head of the hospital. 

It is built on Old Columbia Oval in the Bronx, the 
Trustees of the University giving the use of the ground. 


Irish Pioneers of New York City 
By Hon. Victor J. Dowlmg, LL.D. 

Among the North of Ireland emigrants to New York 
are many who figured prominently in the religious life 
of the colony. Rev. Charles Inglis, afterwards Rector 
of Trinity Church, came here as a missionary in 1759. 
In 1766 Philip Embury arrived, and helped to found the 
John Street Church. He is among the pioneers of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church in America. In that year 
Paul Runkle, Luke Rose, Jacob Heck, Peter Barkman 
and Henry Williams, all referred to as Irish Palatines, 
landed. Charles White and Richard Sause, prominent 
in Methodist circles, came from Dublin in 1766, and 
later, John McClaskey and Paul Hick. 

Major Henry Dawson left Dublin in 1760 and resided 
here for many years, serving as Clerk of the Common 
Council for twenty-six years. 

Among the freemen of the city we find the following 
significant names: 1740, Bardrolomew Ryan; 1741, John 
Ryan and John Lamb; 1743, Patrick Phagan, John Mc- 
Gie, John Christie, John Brannigan, John Connelly, An- 
drew Cannon, William Blake; 1744, Andrew Carroll, 
Anthony Glin; 1745, Benjamin Daly, John Carr, Bryan 
Nevin; 1746, Donald McCoy, Hugh Rogers; 1747, Tim- 
othy Allan, Hugh Mulligan, James Welch, Hugh Gill, 
John McGoers, Jr., Alexander McCoy; 1748, Philip 
Hogan, Matthew Morris; 1749, Alexander Connelly, 
physician. In 1761 the poll list included seventy-four 
characteristic Irish names. 

Immigration from Ireland to the colonies in general 
did not become noticeable until 1 718. It was then a 
steady influx, though not very large in numbers, until 
1755, when it fell off and remained of less amount until 
after the Revolution. At the outset, the Irish families 
immigrating were almost entirely Presbyterians. The 
first Presbyterian clergyman in New York was Rev. 
Francis McKemie, born in Ireland, who arrived here in 


D II ■ Mii»h 

Soulh itrert - 1876. Typical vi«w tA lb* famous old clippar ships thai lined ina Ea&t Ri*»r front, th* 
bowsprits projecting icroita the rlreet — present location of the Jeanetle Park at Coamiea Slip. 

1707. He was a brave and fearless man, whose pulpit 
utterances led to his trial for libel, upon which he was 
acquitted. The large Catholic exodus did not begin 
until after our Independence had been achieved. 

A prominent citizen of New York in the eighteenth 
century was Sir Peter Warren, born in County Meath 
in 1702, and the uncle of the famous William Johnson, 
also born in County Meath in 1715, whose life is a 
romance. Warren was a very heavy real estate holder in 
the city, owning 260 acres here, much of his holdings 
being of land which since has become enormously valu- 
able. Warren Street is named after him. He was a 
prominent social figure in Colonial life. Among the 
names of those who were active in commercial life in 
New York City, prior to the Revolution, are many Irish- 
men, who figured as some of the most successful and 
reputable merchants of their time. Such were the two 
Wallaces, Alexander and Hugh, who were in business 
from 1750, Hugh being the second President of the 
Chamber of Commerce ; Miles Sherbrooke, one of the 
founders of the Chamber in 1768, and a member of the 
Committee of Correspondence, the advance guard of 
the Revolution ; Patrick McDavitt, an auctioneer in Kings 
Street, from 176S; Alexander Mulligan, an importer of 
Irish goods, beef, linen and other commodities; Her- 
cules Mulligan, a merchant tailor; Oliver Templcton, an 
auctioneer ; Daniel McConnick, also an auctioneer. Dur- 
ing the time of the Revolution and following it, we find 
the names of Michael Connolly, dealer in lumber; Wil- 
liam and James Constable, in the West Indian, China 
and Indian trade; the Pollacks, Carlisle, George and 
Htlgh; John Haggerty, an auctioneer; William Edgar; 
John Clover; John W. and Philip Kearney, commission 
merchandise; John and Nathan McVickar, linen drapers; 
Alexander McComb, a fur dealer and then a land specu- 
lator, who invested heavily in city real estate; and Mi- 
chael Hogan, in the commission and shipping business, 
who owned, and in memory of his birthplace in County 
Clare, named the northern part of his holdings, Clare- 
mont. All these men were representative, flourishing 
men, who stood as high in puhlic esteem as any of the 


residents of the city of that day. They were all either 
Irish by birth or by immediate descent. How many of 
their poorer fellow-countrymen were then here we have 
no means of knowing, but it is significant that while the 
Jews had a synagogue here from 1730, there was no 
Catholic place of worship from the time when Dongan 
had Mass said within the Fort until the year 1786. 

Lieutenant-General John Maunsell was born in 1724, 
the son of Richard Maunsell of Limerick, a member of 
Parliament from 1741 to 1761. Commissioned as an en- 
sign in 1741, he was at the sieges of Louisburg, Quebec, 
Montreal, Martinique and Havana, during which time 
he rose to be Captain and finally in 1761 Major of the 
60th or Royal Americans. He was gazetted for gallantry 
Lieutenant-Colonel of the 83d Regiment October 31, 1762, 
and was thereafter transferred to the 27th Foot (Iniskil- 
lings). He had received for his services a grant of land 
adjoining Major Skene's at Whitehall (old Skcnesbor- 
ough). Coming to New York City, he married for his 
second wife Elizabeth Still well, widow of Captain Peter 
Wraxall, at Trinity Church, June 11, 1763. He lived here 
with his wife at Greenwich, in the Ninth Ward, in prop- 
erty belonging to Oliver DeLancey, until he sailed for 
England with other loyalists in May, 1755, leaving his 
wife behind him. Returning for her in 1776, he then 
went to Kinsalc, in Ireland, where he had received an 
appointment which he had requested in order to avoid 
serving against the Colonies. October 19, 17S1, he was 
gazetted Major-General on half pay in the Irish Estab- 
lishment. Living in London until 17S4 he resided in 
New York continuously thereafter, his city house being 
at 11 Broadway. He was made Lieutenant-General Oc- 
tober 12, 1793. He owned a farm of 60 acres on Harlem 
Heights, between Morris and Watkins places, the site 
now being divided by St. Nicholas Avenue. He died 
July 27, 1795, and was buried in the Bradhurst vault in 
Trinity Cemetery. 

Another striking figure of pre-Revolutionary days, and 
an aggressive, if unpopular one, was Hugh Gaine, the 
printer. And it is strange that after Bradford and 
Franklin, the two great figures in the early history of 


Knuith Avenup. WrM iir] Twirnly -ihlrd Slrsul, IS76. The olJ Y. M. C> A. buJIdlr >; and Dr. Crushy's church 

r«c«ntty domolishrd. 

printing in America should be those of Irishmen — Gaine 
in New York and Matthew Carey in Philadelphia. Gaine 
has been a much-abused man and was very unpopular 
during the Revolutionary period, but he is an example of 
a successful business man. Born at Belfast in 1726, he 
was apprenticed at an early age to James McGee, a 
printer there. He emigrated to New York in 1745 "with- 
out basket or burden," and secured employment with 
James Parker at wages of $1.25 a week. He went into 
the business of bookselling in 1752 in partnership with 
William Weyman, a former apprentice of William Brad- 
ford. A characteristic advertisement of the period is 
the following: "To be sold by Weyman & Gaine at 
their House on Hunters' Key, next door but one to Mr. 
Perry's, Watchmaker; Bibles of different Sizes, with 
and without the Common Prayer ; gilt and plain Common 
Prayers of most sorts, Church and meeting Psalm 
Books, History of the New Testament, History of the 
Five Indian Nations, Account of the Earthquake at Lima, 
Ovid's Metamorphosis, Virgil, Cornelius Nepos, Mari- 
ners' Compasses, Scales and Dividers, Writing paper by 
the (juire or Sheet, also choice good Bonnet Papers." 
On August 3, 1752, Gaine alone commenced the publica- 
tion of the New York Mercury at the same store, the 
subscription being twelve shillings per year, and adver- 
tisements of a moderate length were published for five 
shillings each. He sold books and stationery as well 
at this time, and his was one of two stores where theatre 
tickets were sold. After various migrations the business 
was finally located at the Bible and Crown in Hanover 
Square in 1745. During a bitter controversy caused by 
the attempt of the Presbyterians to curb what they 
thought was the undue dominance of the Episcopalians, 
a letter in the form of a petition ostensibly coming from 
the Irish residents in New York, was sent by a com- 
mittee for insertion in the Mercury, to be published 
anonymously; but the letter was in bad English, 
misspelled and full of ridiculous exaggerations — all pur- 
posely done — and Game refused to print it as a reflection 
on the Trish nation, of which he was proud. The Mer- 
cury, in 1758, in announcing the fall of Louisburg, printed 

a wood cut diagram of the fortress — an unusual piece 
of enterprise for the times. That printers did not then 
consider advertising the principal features of their papers 
may be inferred from his apology in an issue of 1759: 
"We hope those of our customers whose advertisements 
are omitted this week will not take it amiss, it being oc- 
casioned by the agreeable advice received from the Fleet 
and Army at Quebec." In this connection it may be 
noted that in i/55 ne had offered for sale "A very few 
brass mounted Broad Swords, late the property of his 
Most Christian Majesty; so that the purchaser, in case 
of a French war, will have the advantage of his enemies, 
as he can encounter them with their own weapons." He 
offered for sale at various times corkscrews, razors and 
wafers; playing cards, blacking balls and liquid blacking; 
boots, pumps and shoes; hogs' fat, shaving soap and 
German flutes; a parcel of choice Irish butter, lottery 
tickets and patent medicines. 

Many hooks issued from his press, including a series 
of almanacs. But his bookselling and newspaper fur- 
nishcd his chief source of wealth. His paper was deliv- 
ered in the city by messenger. We find him advertising 
in 1780. "Wanted, a Person that will engage to deliver 
this paper to the Customers in Town for twelve months 
or longer. Good encouragement will be given. He need 
not attend more than four hours every Monday." Print- 
ing paper being scarce, he continually advertised for rags 
to be brought to him for purchase and in 1760 he com- 
menced advertising in this form: "Ready money for 
clean Linen Rags to be had at H. Gaines'." In 1773 a 
paper mill was established at Hempstead by him and two 
of his friends. 

Among the important printing done by his press was 
"The Votes and Proceedings of the General Assembly," 
whereof the first volume appeared in 1764, the second in 
1766. Appointed Public Printer by the colony, January 
15, 1768, he also became the official City printer. General 
Gage's famous proclamation of June 12, 1775, was printed 
by him, the work being done here that it might remain 
a secret in Boston until published, Up to this time Game 
had given every proof of being in sympathy with the 


oat urn 

Broadway, north (run) Bowling Green, 1990. The Old Sun ns House and 
British consulate; demolished to make way lor a new subway. 

cause of freedom, so that he was forced to fly to Newark 
when the British occupied New York in 1776. The 
authorities seized his printing plant here and published 
the New York Gazette therefrom, using his name for a 
time as proprietor. Tiring of his exile, he evidently 
made terms with the invaders, for he returned to New 
York and his business was restored to him, the first issue 
of the resumed paper dating from November ir, 1776, 
leaving behind him his press at Newark, which was 
promptly seized by the patriots and a paper printed there- 
on for some time. From this time on he was a thorough 
going Tory, and was the subject of particularly virulent 
attack from the Americans, the Pennsylvania Journal 
in 1777 for example enquiring: "Who is the greatest liar 
upon earth? Hugh Gaine of New York." But he lived 
through the turmoil and after freedom was obtained, he 
continued doing business. In 1788, against violent pro- 
test, he received the contract for printing the paper 
money for the State of New York. He was Treasurer 
and Vice-President of the St. Patrick's Society, a vestry- 
man of Trinity C hurch and an active Mason. He owned 
a country home at Kings Bridge Road, and a large tract 
of land at Canajoharie. He bought and sold land in 
the city, there being records of twenty-four parcels of 
land sold by himself or his executors. 

Gaine died April 27, 1S07, at the ripe age of eighty- 
one, and was buried in Trinity Churchyard. Two of his 
children had pre deceased him, and three survived, as 
well as his second wife. His executors were his son-in- 
law, John Kemp, and his friends, Richard Harrison and 
Daniel McCormick, the latter already referred to. His 
lines had not fallen in pleasant places during the Revolu- 
tion and his abandonment of the patriot cause was never 
entirely forgiven, but as a business man his integrity was 
never questioned. 

1 ias] 

First Presbyterian Church 
200th Anniversary 

The First Presbyterian Church on Fifth Avenue, be- 
tween Eleventh and Twelfth Streets, which has been 
called the mother of all the Presbyterian churches in the 
New York Presbytery, celebrated the 200th anniversary 
by a series of meetings, beginning December 3, iyi6, and 
continuing throughout the week. The occasion was also 
taken advantage of to celebrate the silver jubilee of its 
pastor, Dr. Howard Duffield, who is one of a long list of 
distinguished men who have served this church. To Dr. 
Dufneld is credited the work of securing the church to 
lower Fifth Avenue by his efforts in obtaining the large 
endowment necessary to accomplish this object. 

The old First Church fills a large place in the history 
of Presbyterianism in New York and consequently this 
celebration brought together representatives from most 
of the historic and civic organizations of the city and 
clergymen from all the other Protestant communions. 
Gov. Whitman, John G. Hibben, President of Princeton 
University, Bishop David H. Greer, and Bishop Luther 
B. Wilson were among those who took part in the cele- 
bration. An interesting account of the church was given 
by Dr. Dufneld, who recounted the leading facts of its 
history from the time six citizens met in the home of 
William Jackson in Pearl Street in 1 7 16 down to the 
present time, when the church has a membership of 

The church in Wall Street which we are so familiar 
with in old prints was erected in 1719. Jonathan Ed- 
wards, who had such powerful influence in the religious 
life of the country, was its most noted pastor. George 
Whitfield also preached in this church and it was used 
as a prison by the British during the Revolution. The 
present church edifice in Fifth Avenue was erected in 


Broadway, 1867. The New York Hospital. 
Thomas Street w*s tut through the centre of this historic building. Note the Husk blocks in foreground of 
the street. The only photugiuph of this view now in existence. Loaned Av Mr. E. L. Henry, the painter. 

Scotch Presbyterian Church 
160th Anniversary 

Another anniversary celebration in the Presbyterian 
fold was that of the Scotch Presbyterian Church in 
Central Park, W. This church was organized in Cedar 
Street in 175O and worshipped there until 183d, when it 
was moved to Crosby and Grand Streets. In 1853 [he 
church in 14th Street was built and occupied. Many old 
New Yorkers can remember when it stood there, while 
14th Street was yet a very handsome residence street. At 
this time Mr. O'Neil, the owner of the great department 
store just around the corner on Sixth Avenue, was one 
of its leading members, and in the congregation were 
many old Scotchmen of the Covenanter t3'pc. Now, 
however, one could not distinguish it from any other 
evangelical church. The Anniversary celebration was at- 
tended by many eminent clergymen and well known citi- 

Old John Street Church 
150th Anniversary 

The same week in which St. Paul's celebrated its one 
hundred and fiftieth anniversary also marked the cele- 
bration of the same occasion for old John Street Metho- 
dist Church. On the same site it occupies today this old 
church, which is called the cradle of Methodism in 
America, has stood for a century and a half, and is re- 
vered hy all New Yorkers. Often it is referred to in 
print and conversation as "dear old John Street Church." 

It is an offshoot from Trinity, its founders being mem- 
bers of that church at the time John Wesley and his 
followers were still in communion with the Church of 
England. It was in the house of Philip Embury, in Park 
Place, that Methodist services were first held, and here 
was the inception of John Street Church in 1766, At 
first the church was a small, unpretentious wooden build- 
ing, quite in keeping with the plain, earnest worshipers 


of these early Methodist days, and it has not changed 
its character since then at all, for although larger and 
mere Substantial than the original, it is only a plain brick 
building, without exterior l>eauty, and quite the place one 
would expect a great religious movement like Method- 
ism to take its start. It is contemporaneous with St. 
Paul's and bids fair to fill a place in the future life of 
the city as important as its more famous and more his- 
toric companion, The one hundred and fiftieth anni- 
versary was celebrated with great enthusiasm and 
brought together many of the most notable clergymen 
of all denominations, Rishop Samuel Dwight Chnwn, 
of Canada, and Dr. S. Parke's Cadman, of Brooklyn, 
dwelt specially on the subject of the Allies and com- 
pared their spirit to that of the colonists in 1776, just 
about the time when this old church was founded. 

All Saints' Church and Slave Gallery 

There is an old church in New York where slill may 
be seen the "Slave gallery" — a not uncommon appur- 
tenance to churches of the early days. Very few New 
Yorkers even know that such things ever existed, so far 
have we traveled from these dark ages — but there, in 
the old church at Henry and Scammcl Streets, All Saints' 
Church, is the tangible and visible evidence of this fact. 
It was the custom of some slave holders to send their 
human chattels to church for instruction in humility and 
obedience and in this gallery they were gathered to- 
gether, entirely separated from their white masters. This 
is the only remaining slave gallery in this part of the 

There are other antiquities in the old church which 
are interesting and historic — the only remaining "three 
decker chancel," consisting of reading desk for clerk, 
high pulpit for clergyman, and the small old altar be- 
hind; the original organ and the only remaining Colonial 
window in New York. There is also a collection of 
Dutch antiquities and manuscripts from 1624. The 
Netherlands Art Museum of the church, containing much 
interesting material, is under the direction of the vicar, 
the Rev. Kenneth Sylvan Guthrie. 

[100 J 

Broadway — St. Paul's Church, the Park, and Abtoi House in JS5S, 

Saint Paul's Chapel, 1766 — 19 16 
lSQth Anniversary 

St. Paul's Chapel was one hundred and fifty years old 
October 30, 1916, and held an appropriate celebration 
on the occasion. Mayor Mitchell headed a procession 
consisting of the Sons of the Revolution, and the So- 
ciety of the Cincinnati, which met in Fraunces Tavern 
and inarched from the historic landmark to the famous 
old church which has filled so large a place in the his- 
tory of our city and is held in such high esteem and 
affection by the people. President Wilson was repre- 
sented by Col. E. M. House, and Gov. Whitman by Col. 
Lorillard Spencer. The pew Washington occupied when 
he worshipped here was decorated with American flags. 

Memories of Washington, Lafayette and other heroes 
which cluster around this historic old church were re- 
vived and it was recalled that in the days when Washing- 
ton worshipped in St. Paul's he used to walk from his 
residence in Cherry Street to the church and mingle 
among the people like any other good citizen. St. Paul's 
was then tree embowered and looked out on the spark- 
ling waters of the Hudson, unobstructed by high build- 
ings and undisturbed by the noises of modern street 
traffic. Great indeed have been the changes witnessed 
by this old church, but St, Paul's itself remains un- 
changed and preserves for us, amid the fast shifting 
scenes of the years something of the flavor of an age 
that is dear to old New Yorkers for its quaint simplicity 
and yet severe and unyielding rectitude. 

The text from which Bishop David H. Greer preached 
on the Sunday of the celebration epitomises better than 
anything that could be written the feelings of New 
Yorkers toward this old church. It was the same from 
which Dr. Samuel Auchmuty preached on the dedication 
of the chanel October 30, 1766: "Draw not nigh hither; 
put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place wheron 
thou standest is holy ground." 

{193 ] 

For the Benefit of the Poor, 

Thucfdny, December io, 1 753. 

At -the New Theatre in Naftau-Street. 

This Evening, will be prefented, 
(Being the lajl Time of ftrfsrming till lie Hsltdayi,) 

A COMEDY, called* 


Sir Jrfwfjwr Lr^rxJ, by Mr. M.ilueie, 

■Suiint, hi Mr Itrir, 

r, by Mr. Sn^kiwi. 

Srv i.K Sj _!. t.'i Iny Mr H^lbni. 

F6rtjt£ht k liy Mr, CU\l.\<x. 

JfHBf, Ivy Mr: Milla 

3w4'h^a y by Mr Aikuck. 

A*ii'>:\ tf, hy Mr?. I Lltim. 

Jfrj, FartMkl, bt> M™. Ktf>f- 

P»ir. by Mr.. A.W1<. 

^Vk. by M.r. H-rllw. 
Nttrjt, by Mrs. CTirklou. 

End of Aft- l/f, Sinping by Mr. rfdc&cl. 
End of AcS !iV, Siujinjr liy Mrs. iaw. 
Li Ait- z/ 1 , a Hon:;ii]n by Mr Hulttt 
End of .AS +fi, a Clrv.iu by Mrs. Live. 

To which ivill be ,-icldcd, 1 EaJI.iJ, F.ircc, calkd, 

FLORW, or, Hob in the Well. 

by Mr. Rillim, 

tHmS/i ii Mr. AJi«li. 

Sir ViiWH Tift. b) Mr. tljelrjbii. 

Jiwijrj, lijr M.iltrr L. Hillam: 

OJJU.i, ky Mr. Milltr. 

.-v Ms; L' 

<fK* I7 Mill H.i'Un. 

Pj-jco.- flOJ, 6s. PIT. G.lLLZX'f, s, 

NoPctions urbatewr to be<KlmiUsJ iJiiiid Ux e« 'M 

Play bill from the first theatre in New York in Nassau Street, 


The One Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of the 

Chamber of Commerce, 1768 — 1918 

The Chamber of Commerce is one of New York's very 
oldest institutions. In fact it is older than the Republic 
itself. Organized in 1768 when the city was in its in- 
fancy, it was the natural outgrowth of the rapidly devel- 
oping commercial interests of the city. Although New 
York had attained considerable importance as a com- 
mercial center it had nut yet given evidence of becoming 
the pre-eminent and imperial city of the Continent. It 
may be supposed, however, that some of the members 
of that early Chamber of Commerce must have had 
dreams of the future greatness and importance of the 
little bustling town which was spreading so rapidly on 
both shores of Manhattan island- 
In its inception the Chamber of Commerce was only 
a group of business men — what we would call today a 
public-spirited body of citizens — associated together the 
better to conserve and promote the interests of the city. 
Most of the members were leading business men, or men 
prominent in the social or public life of the community. 
The familiar names of John Cmger, Elias Desbrosscs, 
Samuel Verplanck, Isaac Low, Anthony Vandam, Philip 
Livingston, John Alsop, and William Walton appear in 
the membership. They called themselves the Society of 
Merchants and declared their purpose to he to discuss and 
consider public affairs and to take such action as would 
promote the commercial and business interests of the city. 
Although the Society exercised its functions from the 
first, it was not incorporated until March 13, 1770, when 
the Royal Charter was granted to it as the Chamber of 
Commerce of the City of New York. 

Already disturbances had occurred which presaged 
the Revolution and the excitement spread to the members 
of the organization, some of them being sympathizers with 
the movement. The majority, however, were opposed 
to independence and strongly expressed their sentiment 

[ m 1 

in favor of the mother country. Commercial communi- 
ties are naturally conservative and New York was no ex- 
ception. However, when the die was cast and the Co- 
lonials triumphed no more loyal body of men could be 
found and during the distracting and uncertain times 
between the attempted formation of a Confederation and 
the ultimate achievement of a Constitution the Chamber 
of Commerce was a bulwark of strength to the young 
and struggling government. 

In all the great crises of the Nation the Chamber of 
Commerce has been a powerful stabilizer and support. 
In the reconstruction period after the war of l8l2 and in 
the same period after the Civil War the influence of the 
Chamber of Commerce was of paramount importance in 
re-establishing normal conditions in the commercial and 
financial affairs of New York and in fact of the nation. 

The Chamber of Commerce has always been composed 
of practical business men representing every phase of 
business life, and its prestige and power have conse- 
quently been able to accomplish many things which other- 
wise would have been neglected or perhaps not accom- 
plished at all. Many of our great public works have been 
initiated by the Chamber of Commerce and no small part 
of our laws affecting commerce atid industry have been 
shaped and directed by the practical minds of its members. 

One of the most interesting and serviceable contribu- 
tions of the Chamber of Commerce to our business life 
is the custom, now quite firmly established, of including 
as a guest of honor at its annual banquet a cabinet of- 
ficer — usually the Secretary of the Treasury — whose 
speech is regarded as a semi-official statement of the 
policy of the Administration in relation to the financial, 
commercial and industrial affairs of the country. The 
interest in this speech is nation-wide and its effect in 
clarifying the business atmosphere and stabilizing condi- 
tions in the commercial and industrial world, for a time 
at least, is extremely beneficial. Another service of 
importance the Chaml>er of Commerce has rendered to 
the city is the collecting and preserving of records, sta- 
tistics and information covering the entire period of its 
existence and making a unique and interesting story of 


Broadway, IMS — ihfc historic «ld Astor House, built in 1832. The horse-cars on Broadway had jest been 
installed by Jake Sharp. The Wnolworth Tow*r now occupies, ihe block above. 

the wonderful growth of New York from a small trad- 
ing post to the proud pre-eminence of the first city of the 
world. The present handsome building of the Chamber 
of Commerce is one of New York's most beautiful and 
classic structures. The successive steps of the evolution 
from the little room in Fraunccs' Tavern where it was 
organized with a score of members to this palatini build- 
ing with a membership of over a thousand is in itself a 
revelation of the wonderful growth of wealth and power 
in this city. 

The luncheon given to the British and French War 
Commissions during their visit to New York in May, 
1917, was marked by a tactful reference to its great age 
by the guest of honor, the Rt. Hon. Arthur J. Balfour. 

It is to be hoped that some suitable history of the 
Chamber will be issued to its members in commemora- 
tion of its 150th Birthday. 

Where Theodore Roosevelt Was Born 

The house m which the former president was born 
stood until quite recently at No. 28 East 20th Street. 
This once beautiful home had degenerated into an ordi- 
nary restaurant and a sign bore the legend "Come and 
dine in the house where Theodore Roosevelt was born." 
It has entirely disapi>eared now and soon will stand in 
its place a handsome building for business uses. An 
interesting fact developed during the dismantling of the 
house which shows that all sentiment is not dead in this 
money making age. Two bricks were selected out of the 
wreckage to be transmitted to Col. Roosevelt as a me- 
mento of the spot where he first saw the light of day. 
No doubt these bricks will be a much cherished addition 
to the collection of souvenirs the Colonel already pos- 

The home in which the Roosevelts' father and mother 
first lived after their marriage stood on the corner of 
14th Street and Broadway, as is still seen in many of the 
old engravings of Union Square in the late '5o's and '6o's. 

f 199 J 

Early Days in the 1800's 

A well known citizen of New York, the late Dr. Has- 
well, enjoyed a span of life much beyond the allotted 
Biblical period of three score years and ten. He kept 
a diary from 1816 to almost looo. We present below 
a few excerpts describing incidents which reflect the life 
of his day and have a peculiarly fascinating interest for 

1819. May 25. A party left Tompkinsville, S. I., in a post 
stage, at 3 A. v ... for Philadelphia, and returned at 8 P. M. This 
was an endeavor to illustrate the great despatch of the route. 
Fare, eight dollars each way. 

1819. A piratical vessel was seen off Sandy Hook. 

1819. There were not in this year ten private carriages 
proper. Many years past I essayed to recapitulate the number 
of citizens who possessed them, and I could not exceed seven, 
atid to meet some one or more I nviy have missed, I put the 
number as first above. 

1820. In March of thi* year was built the steamer Savannah 
— of 80 tons, old measurement, said to have had folding water- 
wheels, which were taken out and laid on deck when not in use, 
presumably when she was under sail alone. She sailed to Savan- 
nah and thence to Liverpool, where she arrived on June 20, 
the first steam vessel to cross the Atlantic Ocean. 

1820. A daily paper recited, as a matter of interesting in- 
formation, that in Paris there were street shoeblacks, and the 
announcement gave rise to much speculation and even wonder- 
ment, for at this time the industry of boot and shoe blacking 
was confined to persons usually occupying a low-rent cellar, who 
called at your residence in the forenoon, received your boyts 
and shoes of the previous day's wear and returned them cleaned 
in the afternoon, terms one dollar per month. 

1821. April 22 the packet ship Albion, hence to Liverpool, 
was lost off Tuskar Island, with her captain, Williams, and 
forty-four others, being the greater part of her passengers and 
crew. As this was the first disaster of the kind, and as the 
population of the city was small, the occurence was a leading 
topic of conversation among all classes, and a subject of natural 
reference for some years afterward. 

1821. Tammany Hall, then at the corner of Park Row and 
Frankfort Street, was advertised by its proprietor as a very 
salutary location, being on high and open ground, and airy. 

1821, October 18. The Advocate, edited by Monleraj M. 
Noah, published a notice of a man with a hand-orf^an, accom- 
panied by a woman, as having appeared" in the public streets 


C i+ v Micro 

59ih Street and Central Park, west from the old PJaza Hotel at Fifth A ver.ue. about 1888. 

and the question was asked, Who are they? The Potter's Field 
{Washington Parade, now Washington Square) was levelled; 
the Use of it as a place of interment being abandoned in favor 
of a new plot of ground bought for the purpose, bounded by 
Fortieth and Forty-second Streets, Fifth and Sixth avenues — 
now occupied by the Reservoir and Bryant Park. This plot, 
containing 128 building lots, was purchased for $8,449. In the 
matter of public groups, the necessities of the poor have greatly 
ministered to the advantage of their more fortunate brethren; 
Washington Square, Union Square, Madison Square, and Bryant 
Park, all owing their existence as pleasure-grounds to prior 
use as pauper burial-places. About this time an ordinance was 
enacted prohibiting the interment of human bodies below Grand 
Street, under a penalty of $250. 

1822. At No. 269 Broadway, near Warren Street, there was 
the confectionery shop of Peter Cotte, who occasionally received 
a bunch of bananas, which he displayed outside to the wonder 
of a great proportion of our citizens, juveniles, and country 
people. He procured them from some venturesome officers of 
a vessel trading from Havana. 

1822. December 31. The iron railing for the Park arrived 
from England, and in order to avoid a duty on the manufacture 
it was complete only in parts. Four marble pillars to the gate- 
ways at its ^ southern terminus were erected and surmounted 
with scroll iron work supporting lanterns, and also made the 
depository of coins, etc. Samuel L. Mitchell, M. D., delivered 
an address on the occasion. 

1823. Hoboken at this date, and for many years after, 
certainly as lately as 1840, was of a summer day the favored 
resort of our own citizens seeking fresh air, greenfields, and 
shady walks. 

1824. Should a boy wish a base-hall bat, if anything better 
than a casual flat or round stick was required, negotiation had to 
be entered into with some wood-turner to induce him to lay 
aside his regular work and produce one. 

1824. Clerks never ventured to wear their hats within the 
precincts of their employment, neither did they or other young 
men of the day fail to remove them on entering an office or 
dwelling, keu mutntus. 

1£23. September 23, in some of the principal streets, the 
laying of gas-pipes for public service was begun, and on the 
30th Samuel Lcggctt, the President of the Gas Company (New 
York), gave a reception at his house, in commemoration of 
the event. 

1823. At this period the public promenades in the city were 
restricted to the Battery and to the bridge leading to the Red 
Fort, foot of Hubert Street, simple breathing- places, without 
even seats or refectories of any description. The general public 
went to Hoboken. 

1824. About this period night-latches for the outer doors 
of residences were introduced. 


The Sunday Quiet of New York 

Many visitors to the city like a quiet Sunday and 
strange as it may seem, there are opportunities — many 
of them — where this inclination can he satisfied. The city 
of New York itself is as quiet on Sunday as any country 
village. The striking thing ahout New York is the still- 
ness of its streets, and those sections of the city that are 
most crowded and noisy on week-days are almost entirely 
ahandoned and as still as a. country bye-way on Sunday. 
If any one wants to get a sensation of loneliness and 
solitude let him take a walk down Broadway on a Sunday 
afternoon. But the kind of quiet our supposed visitor 
wants is that which is conducive to thought and restful- 
ness in surroundings which harmonize with that state of 
feeling. There are many places eminently adapted to 
such a purpose and these right in the heart of the city. 
Take for instance the Shakespeare garden in Central 
Park. Here is a suggestion from a writer whom we have 
not been able to identify but it so nearly expresses our 
own thought on the subject that we are glad to place it 
on record. 

The Shakespeare Garden 

"Perched on a knoll in the midst of Central Park is 
the Shakespeare Garden, sweet and bright even now 
when the Autumn is old, with rosemary and rue and all 
of the dear, quaint blooms that are mentioned in Shake- 
speare's plays. Little paths wind among its bright beds, 
and though from its modest eminence you may see the tall 
arrogance of skyscraping apartment houses, and can, if 
you listen, hear the quick, smooth purr of motors below 
on the roadways, yet it is a glad and pleasant spot to light 
upon in your Sabbath wanderings, and you are trans- 
ported many years in time and many miles in space when 
you pass through the little green gate which gives you 


Bruadway, tlurlh from Aitor Plate, 1H63, prior to the erection of any telegraph poles. 

Bond Street 

By St urges 8. Dunham 

Bond Street, extending from Broadway to the Bowery 
at a point where those two thoroughfares are less than 
a thousand feet apart, is an unknown region to many 
present day denizens of New York, hut eighty years ago, 
when Broadway ended at Union "Place" and the Astor 
House was new, when water was peddled in barrels at 
a cent a gallon and gas cost $7 per thousand feet, Bond 
Street was one of the best known streets in the city 
and none stood higher in favor as a place of residence. 
In its short stretch there dwelt at one time or another 
between 1820 and 1850,. the mayor of the city ; the town's 
most popular physician; the pastor of one of the largest 
and wealthiest churches ; a senator of the United States ; 
one of the city's two representatives in Congress; an ex- 
secretary of the treasury; a major general in the army 
who became one of our most distinguished soldiers and 
a candidate for the presidency; and two members of a 
firm of bankers who in the financial world of their time 
exercised an influence unequalled on this side of the 

In the words of "Uncle David Valentine," Bond street 
"was projected about 1807." Why it was so named has 
not been ascertained, but it seems not unlikely that a 
famous street of the same name in London had some- 
thing to do with the choice. In Elliott's 18 12 directory 
the sole resident of Bond street is Samuel Hallett, prob- 
ably the Samuel Hallett who had a carpenter shop in 
the Bowery near Bleecker Street. Beyond this we know 
nothing of Mr. flallett, but perhaps he worked at hi* 
bade on the more pretentious house that later rose on 
the site of his own dwelling. At any rate he is entitled 
to such fame as may flow from the fact that he was one 
of the pioneers of Bond Street. 

The social history of liond street begins about 1820, 
when Jonas Minturn built the marble-front house that 


still stands at No. 22. Within five or six years came 
John J. Morgan, John Griswold, James Gore King, Dr. 
Gardiner Spring, Knowles Taylor, Jonathan Prescott 
Hall, Samuel Ward, and Benjamin DeForest. By 1835 
the residential pre-eminence of Bond street was un- 
questioned. It yielded nothing to its rivals, Lafayette 
place, St. John's park, Second avenue, Great Jones street 
and Washington square; and if these were longer in 
favor it was because there was no Save New York com- 
mittee in those days and the undesirables were then, as 
now, eager to seize upon the best. 

Architecturally Bond street was much the same as 
other residence streets of the period. Except for a few 
at each end of the street the houses were of the familiar 
three story-and-basement type with dormer-windowed 
attics. Some had marble fronts, but the most of them 
were brick, There were less than sixty of these old 
houses, of which twenty-six remain — Nos. 2, 4, 6, 8, 22, 
23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 32, 34, 36, 38, 40, 41, 43j 46j 47. 
48, 49, 51, 52, 53 and 55, One of them, No. 8, retains 
something of its former dignity, perhaps because it was 
among the last to succumb to the irresistible encroachment 
of trade; though No. 23, the very last to yield, is as 
dilapidated and shabby as the rest and its fire escape is 
as rusty and unsightly as the others. 

The Bond street trees were famous. There were two 
in front of each house, and in 1857 they were so tall and 
dense that from the roadway only the stoops of the houses 
could be seen. Tuckerman, in his biography of Dr, 
Francis, says that "the lamps, gleaming amid the leaves, 
reminded one of Paris." It is needless to remark that 
no such reminder of Paris will be found in the Bond street 
of the present. 

Before 1850 Bond street showed unmistakable evi- 
dence of decline. By 1855 it had robbed Park place of its 
long held distinction as the favorite street for dentists' 
offices. Two years later it was the scene of one of the 
most gruesome and sordid crimes in the annals of the city. 
In i860 a few of the old residents still lingered, but the 
glory if not the fame of Bond street had vanished forever. 
Today it is the habitat of cheap manufacturing, and the 


Bioadway betuw ltd Str-et!. North frc^jn tht* Broadway Central it- 1870, 

names on the doors have a sound that would have startled 
the owners of the names that embellished the same portals 
three-quarters of a century ago. 

On the north corner of Broadway stood the famous 
Ward house, a plain but dignified structure of brick with 
white marble trimmings, not unlike the houses now stand- 
ing on the north side of Washington Square. Samuel 
Ward, its owner, was the head of the banking house of 
Prime, Ward and King, and as such was the most in- 
fluential financier in America, enjoying a position of 
power and influence equal to that of the late J. Pierpont 
Morgan seventy years later. In the financial panic of 
1837 he played a like part to that of Mr. Morgan in the 
panic of 1907. In 1819 Samuel Ward lived at No. 1 
Marketfield street, on the north side, next to the corner 
of Broad street. There, in a house that vanished many 
years ago, was born his gifted daughter Julia, author of 
the immortal "Battle Hymn of the Republic." A year or 
two after Julia was born he moved to No. 5 Bowling 
Green, the old "Steamship Row" of later days, where 
be had as neighbors such men as John Hone, Elisha 
Riggs, and Stephen Whitney. Mrs. Ward was Julia Rush 
Cutler, She died in the Bowling Green house in 1824, 
and two years later her husband took his family, a son 
and three daughters, to No. 16 Bond street. Here he lived 
till 1833, when his mansion at the corner of Broadway 
was completed. In this house he died in 1839, his death 
being hastened by the overwork and strain incident to 
the financial depression of the time. 

The Samual Ward of whom we have been speaking 
was the second of that name in New York. His father, 
Samuel Ward, senior, was a distinguished officer in the 
Continental Army and after the Revolution settled on 
Long Island. In 1829 he moved to the city and took the 
new house at No. 7 Bond street, where his daughter Anne, 
unmarried, kept house for him and her three brothers, 
Richard R. f William G., and John, Samuel Ward senior 
died in 1832, and about 1840 John and Richard Ward, 
with their sister, went to No. 32 Bond street and in 1844 
to No. 8, while their brother William went to 14 Carroll 

[211 ] 

Place, on the northeast corner of Blcccker and Thompson 

The mansion of Samuel Ward II. was known in the 
Ward family as "The Corner." In the directories of the 
period it is always given as " Bond c. Broadway" and 
though the entrance was in Bond street it was, strictly 
speaking, a Broadway and not a Bond street house. Ad- 
joining it in Broadway on the north was the "windowlcss 
house," which in the sixties excited so much curiosity 
among i>ersons who were ignorant of its history. It was 
the picture gallery of Samuel Ward, built to shelter his 
art collection, the first private building erected for such 
a purpose in America. 

Samuel Ward was a trustee or director in many of 
New York's public institutions and societies. He was a 
director of the Bank of Commerce, and a trustee of 
Columbia College; director and president of Stuyvesant 
Institute; and president of the New York Temperance 

Some years after the death of Samuel Ward "The 
Corner" passed out of the possession of his heirs, and 
later was the residence of Joseph Sampson, an eminent 
merchant in the India trade. In 1873 the house was razed 
to make way for a commercial structure. 

Across the street was No. I, the home of the cele- 
brated Dr. John W. Francis, whose "Old New York, or 
Reminiscences of the Past Sixty Years," is at once the 
delight and the despair of the extra-illustrator. Dr, 
Francis was an authority in the medical world, and it is 
said that for years he enjoyed the largest and most lu- 
crative practice in the city. He was a character and a 
personage, and was known simply as the Doctor, very 
much as we speak of the Colonel today. He was the 
last New York physician of standing to continue the 
practice of bleeding. The story is told (in the Life of 
Julia Ward Howe, by her daughters Laura E. Richards 
and Maud Howe Elliott) that at a dinner party at his 
house he suddenly left the table and summoned his wife 
to an adjoining room, where he proceeded to bleed her. 
In answer to her piteous protestations he stated that he 
l>erceived she was about to suffer a stroke of apoplexy 


A recent photograph of numbers Twenty-three to Twenty-nine Bond Street. 

These houses built in 1830. 
Wm. C. H. Waddell lived at number Twenty-seven until IMS, when he 
moved to the Weddell Mansion. Fifth Avenue and Thirty-seventh Street, site 
now occupied by Stick Church and Franklin. Simon £ Companv. 
Cour!cs\> of Mr S S- Dunham 

and deemed it best to avert it ! Mrs. Francis, whom the 
Doctor married in 1829, was Eliza Cutler, a sister of Julia 
Ward Howe's mother. She was "Aunt Eliza" to the 
Ward children, and Dr. Francis, the Wards' family physi- 
cian, was "Uncle Doctor." For several years after their 
marriage Dr. Francis and his wife lived at "The Comer," 
the Doctor keeping his office at 67 Chambers street, hut 
in 1837 they went to No. 1 Bond street and the Doctor 
moved his office to the ground floor of Samuel Ward's 
picture gallery, No. 662 Broadway. "The Doctor," says 
Frederick S. Cozzens, "is one of our old Knickerbockers. 
His big, bushy head is as familiar as the City Hall. He 
belongs to the 'God bkss you, my dear young friend' 
school. He is as full of knowledge as an egg is of meat." 
Dr. Francis lived at No. 1 for twenty-three years. In 
i860 he went to 37 (now 113) East 16th Street, where 
he died on February 8, 1861. This house disappeared 
only a few years ago. 

After Dr. Francis left No. 1 it became the office of 
the newly established Department of Public Charities 
and Correction and was retained as such until the erec- 
tion of the Department's building at the northwest corner 
of Third avenue and Eleventh street. About 1870 Nos. 
i, 3 and 5 Bond street were demolished to make room for 
the building that now stands on the site, erected for the 
American Watch Company. 

Prior to Dr. Francis* occupancy No. I had been the 
residence of Thomas L. Smith, a merchant, whose place 
of business was at 52 Wall street. He came to Bond 
street from Prince street, corner of Crosby street, in 1826. 
Following Thomas L. Smith the house was taken in 1834 
by John H. L. MacCrackan, a merchant of 85 Pearl 
street, who prior to that year had lived at 66 Greenwich 
street, in the old house that still stands on that site. John 
H. E. MacCracken's comfortable fortune, his literary at- 
tainments (he published a number of popular articles 
in the magazines of the period) and his fine conversa- 
tional powers, enabled him to hear a distinguished part 
in New York society. From No. 1 he went to No. 44, 
but in 1845 moved to 33 St. Mark's Place. He died in 


i8s3 at Sierra Leone while on a business trip to that 

No. 2, directly across from the home of Dr. Francis, 
still stands. In 1829 it became the residence of Judge 
David S. Jones, a distinguished jurist, who in 1828 lived 
at 37 Great Jones street. He was a son of Samuel Jones, 
often called the "father of the New York Bar." Judge 
David S. Jones' grandfather, Thomas Jones, also a dis- 
tinguished lawyer, married Anne de Lancey, a daughter 
of James de Lancey, then Chief Justice and Lieutenant 
Governor of New York. From her brother she received 
a plot of ground between the Bowery and the East River, 
and on this plot Judge Thomas Jones erected the estate 
known as Mount Pitt. Later he lived in a spacious and 
elegant mansion fronting Great South Bay. This house, 
known originally as Tryon Hall, was built for him by 
his father in 1770, and here Judge David S. Jones was 
born in 1777. While residing at Massapequa he was 
county judge. Coming to New York before 1810 he 
speedily acquired a large and remunerative practice and 
took rank as one of the ablest, most active, and most in- 
fluential members of his profession. From 18 13 to 1816 
he was corporation counsel. For many years he was trus- 
tee and legal advisor of Columhia College, the Society 
Library, and the General Theological Seminary, He was 
also a director of the Phenix Bank. In 1835 he returned 
to Long Island to live, though still practicing in the city. 
In 1840 he came back to town and resided then at 79 
Third avenue. He died in 1848 at his residence in Fif- 
teenth street, near Third avenue. His son William Alfred 
Jones was an author and from 1851 to 1865 was librarian 
of Columbia College. 

After Judge Jones' departure from Bond street, his 
old residence became the "fashionable boarding house" 
of Mrs. Lois Street, who had for some years conducted 
a similar establishment at 36 Broadway. She had ample 
experience in the business, for as early as 1809 she and 
her husband kept a boarding house at 67 Pearl street. 
Mrs. Street maintained her house in Bond street till 1844, 
and then went to 47 Lafayette place, the northernmost 
house in "Colonade Row" which was for many years the 


Broadway — Vesey to Barclay Street — 1830. 
Old residences of Messrs. Lydiff, King, Stuy veaent, and J. J. Astor. Site of the famous old Astor House. 
Ftem a irausing by L. Oram. — Coliedlon of Mr. Robtrt Cotltt. 

home of "The Churchman." Among Mrs. Street's board- 
ers was Gabriel Wisner, a wealthy Front street merchant, 
who was a director of the City Bank for a long period. 
He was with her when she "kept" at 36 Broadway. An- 
other was Martin Mantin, consul of Sicilly and the Papal 
States. After Mrs. Street's departure No. 2 became the 
residence of John W. Schulten, a Broad street commis- 
sion merchant. 

No. 3, next door to Dr. Francis' house, was for more 
than thirty years the home of one of New York's most 
famous clergyman, the Rev. Dr. Gardiner Spring, pastor 
of the Brick Presbyterian Church for sixty-three years. 
Dr. Spring's first sermon as pastor of the church was 
preached on Sunday June 3rd, 1810, in the old Brick 
Meeting House at Nassau and Beekman streets, which 
stood on the site, 41 Park Row, of the building formerly 
occupied by the New York Times. At a service held in 
1S50 to celebrate his fortieth year as pastor it was stated 
that during that period Dr. Spring had preached 6,000 
sermons, had received 2092 persons into membership in 
the church, had baptized 136 1 persons, and had married 
875 couples. Before he went to Bond street, in 1826, 
he had lived at 33 Beekman street. In 1857 the present 
Brick Church, on the northwest comer of Fifth Avenue 
and Thirty-seventh street, was built, and shortly after- 
ward Dr. Spring moved to 6 East Thirty-seventh street, 
where he died August 18, 1873. Dr. Spring was for many 
years a trustee of Columbia College and of New York 

At No. 4 lived Nathaniel Weed, an old Pearl street 
drygoods merchant, who came to Bond street in 1829 
from 86 Warren street. He and his brother Harvey con- 
stituted the firm of N. & H. Weed. Their store was at 
191 Pearl street. Both were born in Connecticut, the state 
that furnished old New York with so many boys that later 
were numbered among her eminent merchants. Nathaniel 
Weed was for many years president of the North River 
Bank, and it was during his incumbency that the Bank 
erected the dignified and commodious old building of 
brown stone, still standing though now sadly dilapidated, 
on the northeast corner of Greenwich and Dey streets. 


He was also a director of the American Exchange Bank, 
organized in 1838, and was vice-president of the Chamber 
of Commerce. His brother Harvey was a director of 
the Merchants' Bank and of the Equitable Insurance 
Company. In 1845 Nathaniel Weed left Bond street 
and took the easterly half of the large double house of 
granite that can yet be seen at Nos. 3 and 5 Great Jones 
street. When the Weeds retired from business, about 
1855, Nathaniel went to his native town of Danbury, 
Connecticut and Harvey went to Newburgh, N. Y. No. 
4 Bond street next became the residence of Daniel Oakey, 
importer, of 33 Beaver street, corner of Broad street, 
who moved to No. 4 from 103 Chambers street in 1845, 
and about 1849 tri e Bond street house was taken by Alex- 
ander L. Holgate, merchant, whose place of business was 
at 74 Pine street. 

No. 5, next door to Dr. Spring's house, had distin- 
guished occupants. The first was Albert Gallatin, a mem- 
ber of Congress, Secretary of the Treasury for twelve 
years under Presidents Jefferson and Madison, and min- 
ister to France for eight years under Madison and Mon- 
roe, Returning to America in 1823 he declined a seat in 
Monroe's cabinet and in 1824 he declined to be a candi- 
date for vice-presidency, to which he was nominated by 
the Democratic Party. John Quincy Adams appointed 
him Minister to Great Britain. Returning to America 
in 1827 he took up his residence in New York, living 
then at 113 Bleecker street. In 1828, at the suggestion 
of the first John Jacob Astor, he was made president of 
the new National Bank. In 1829 he moved from 
Bleecker street to No. 5 Bond street. In 1843 he was 
elected president of the New York Historical Society, 
which office he held until his death in 1849 at the age 
of eighty-eight. 

In 1833, No. 5 became the residence of one of Amer- 
ica's most distinguished soldiers, Winfield Scott, then a 
major-general and second in command of the army. He 
became commander-in-chief upon the death of Major- 
General Alexander Macomb in 184T. When General Scott 
left New York in 1835 his house in Bond street was taken 
by William Kent, judge of the Circuit Court and one 


Kighlh Street and Fourth Avenue— Aberle's Theatre, formerly the Chuich 
of St. Ann. Present site of the new Wanamaker Building — 1880. 

of the leaders of the New York bar. His fame, however, 
is overshadowed by that of his father, the great Chan- 
cellor. Trior to talcing the Scott house, Judge Kent had 
lived two years at No. 39 Bond street. For a number of 
years he was a trustee of New York University. In 1840 
he moved to Fourth avenue, near Fifteenth street, and No. 
5 Bond street was then taken by the Pell family (prev- 
iously at 13 St. Mark's place), who remained there for 
upwards of fifteen years. 

No. 6 Bond street was the home of one of old New 
York's "solid and substantial" citizens, Andrew S. Nor- 
wood, merchant, of the firm of Norwood and Austin, 146 
Pearl street. He came to No. 6 from 622 Broadway in 
1829 and in 1840 moved to 165 Twelfth street, now 15 
East Twelfth street. A few years later he moved to 199 
(now 325) West Fourteenth street. Andrew S. Nor- 
wood was one of the jurors at the trial of Samuel G. 
Ogden in 1806 for complicity in the Miranda filibuster- 
ing expedition, and in 1807 was one of the founders and 
incorporators of the Presbyterian Church in Cedar street, 
now the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church, his associates 
being Ebenezcr Stevens, Selah Strong, Elisha Leaven- 
worth, John Aspinwall, Archibald Gracie, Benjamin 
Strong, Theodore Ely, William W. Woolsey, Joseph Otis, 
Stephen Whitney, Hezekiah Lord, William Adams, 
David Hosack, Nathaniel L. Griswold, Robert Weir, John 
Trumbull, and Lynde Catiirj. lie was also heavily in- 
terested in shipping, being owner of a line of Havre 
packets. He was a personal friend of Lafayette and 
was invited to the wedding of the illustrious General's 
daughter at the Chateau La Grange. When Carlisle Nor- 
wood, son of Andrew S., was attending school in France 
he was often a visitor at the Chateau. Carlisle Norwood 
was an enthusiastic member of the old Volunteer Fire 
Department and joined Engine Company No. 28 when he 
was eighteen years old. Later he was a member of 
Engine Company No. 21. In 1836 he organized and was 
made foreman of Hose Company No. 5, which speedily 
became recognized as the best disciplined company in 
the service. Hose Company No. 5 and Hook and Ladder 
Company No. 6 occupied the ground floor of old Fire- 


men's Hall, 127 and 129 Mercer street. Among the mem- 
bers of No. 5 were John Watts De Peyster, who became 
a major-general in the Civil War, and the famous Henry 
Carroll Marx, better known as "Dandy" Marx. Carlisle 
Norwood is described as "the very ideal of a fireman; 
that is, his activity was never surpassed, his perceptions 
were quick, and his judgment cool, clear, and steady. 
He believed that the 'post of honor was the post of 
danger,' and exemplified the truth of the proverb in his 
own person, sharing in all the exposures and perils in- 
cident to the life of a New York fireman. The fact is, 
his heart was in the business, and it enlisted all his sym- 
pathies and awakened all the native energy of his char- 
acter." He was at one time Fire Warden of the Fif- 
teenth Ward, and repeatedly refused to be a candidate for 
Engineer of the Department. In the '70' s he was Vice- 
President of the St. Nicholas Society, and President of 
the Eagle Fire Insurance Company. In 1840, when his 
father went to live at 15 East Twelfth street, Carlisle 
Norwood went to the southeast comer of Houston and 
Wooster streets, then 488 Houston street. In 1850 he 
was deputy register under Cornelius V. Anderson. 

Following the Norwoods, No. 6 Bond street was taken 
by "the celebrated lawyer, Francis Griffin," who was a 
son of "Old George Griffin," a ponderous but able lawyer, 
famous for his "blue side-winged spectacles and his broad 
shoes built for comfort." At that time George Grif- 
fin lived at 20 Beach street, facing St. John's park. 
Francis Griffin was the son-in-law of Andrew S- Nor- 
wood. His first wife was a daughter of Comfort Sands 
and half-sister to Robert C. Sands, the writer. He lived 
at No. 6 Bond street as late as 1850. 

No. 7 Bond street was first occupied by Samuel Ward 
I., the Revolutionary colonel, his three sons, John, Rich- 
ard R., and William G., and their sister Anne, who took 
the house in 1829. William G. Ward was a brigadier 
general of the National Guard in the late '6o's. Prev- 
iously the three brothers had been at 40 Broadway. After 
the Wards left (as related in connection with the Ward 
Mansion), No. 7 was taken by Charles M. Thurston, a 

1 224 J 

Front street merchant, who remained in possession till 
the middle '50's. 

No. 8 was for more than twenty years the home of 
Julia Ward Howe's favorite uncle, John Ward, whom 
Tuckerman calls "the most honest of New York's bro- 
kers," He was a bachelor, and after the death of Samuel 
Ward II., in 1839, Uncle John made himself the father 
of his orphaned nephew and nieces "with a devotion that 
was constant and beautiful." He was "one of the 
worthies of Wall Street, and uncle, by courtesy, to half 
of New York." He was a man of strong personality, 
and physically was tall and of stalwart build. He wore 
a brown wig, was an inveterate smoker, and was de- 
votedly fond of an ill-tempered little dog that no one 
else could experience any fondness for. After a residence 
of thirty-seven years in Bond street John Ward died at 
No. 8 in 1866. His brother, Richard R. Ward, retained 
the house and died there in 1873, having resided in Bond 
street for forty-four years. 

The first occupant of No. 8 was Knowles Taylor, who 
came there in 1830 from No, 20, to which he had moved 
in 1824 from 20 John street. He was an importer, and 
was the son-in-law and partner of Jonathan Little, mer- 
chant, in business at 216 Pearl street. The firm was J. 
Tittle & Company. His brother, Jeremiah H. Taylor, 
also a merchant, was deeply religious and was an active 
member of St. George's Church in Beekman Street when 
Dr. Milnor was rector. Knowles Taylor himself was 
treasurer of the American Home Missionary Society, an 
organization founded "to assist congregations that are 
unable to support the Gospel Ministry." In 1833 the 
Society disbursed $52,808.39. He was also a director 
of the Bank of the Delaware and Hudson Canal Com- 
pany, the Union Bank, and the Neptune Insurance Com- 
pany. When Knowles Taylor moved to Fourteenth street 
in 1839 No. 8 was taken by William Edgar Howland, a 
son of the famous Gardiner G. I lowland and a partner 
in the old firm of Howland and Aspinwall, 54 and 55 
South street. In 1844 he went to 43 Bond street, in 
1845 to No. r8, and a few years later to a residence 
farther up town. 


No. g Bond street was the residence of Richard I. 
Tucker, commission merchant, from 1827 to 1846. Prior 
to 1827 he lived at 39, Fearl street, only a few steps from 
his store at 29 South street. His two sons, Thomas W. 
and George L., were prominent in the fashionable life 
of the city. Tom Tucker, as he was usually called, was 
a lawyer and was one of the most popular men in New 
York. Among his intimate friends were Ogden and 
Charles Hoffman, Willis Hall, Minthorne Tompkins and 
Edward Curtiss. The father is described as a "stately 
merchant of the old school." He was a director of the 
Fulton Insurance Company and the New York Insur- 
ance Company. In 1847 the house was taken hy Reuben 
W. Folger, an auctioneer, of 163 Pearl street 

No. 10 Bond street was for fifteen years the home of 
another old merchant, John Hitchcock, who was in the 
hardware business at 58 Pearl street and 134 Front 
street. The firm was John Hitchcock and Son, the latter 
being John C. Hitchcock. In 1825 he was assistant alder- 
man from the fourth ward. Before John Hitchcock 
came to Bond street, in 1829, he lived at 40 Rose street. 
After he left the Rose street house it was taken by Lewis 
Tappen and in 1834 was sacked by the Anti-Abolition 
mob. Later it was the residence of Mayor Harper. 

No. 1 1 Bond street had as its first resident John Gris- 
wold, who came from 52 Broadway in 1827. Later he 
lived at 43 Bond street. Some account of him will be 
given under that number. The next occupant of No. 
11 was Lieutenant Edward N. Cox, of the United States 
Navy, who moved from 34 Hammond street (now 
Eleventh street west of Greenwich avenue) in 1829. He 
died in 1845. In 1835 the house was taken by another 
of New York's famous old merchants, William P. Fur- 
niss, who retained the Bond street establishment as his 
town house to within a few years of his death in 1871. 
He is buried in Trinity Cemetery. His country house, 
built about the time he came to Bond street, was the 
old white mansion with the pillared veranda that faced 
Riverside Drive between Ninety-ninth and One Hun- 
dredth streets. It was demolished about 1912. 

The first occupant of No. 12 Bond street was the cele- 


Old Broadway — ihe Bunker Mansions, where Washington lived for a few months, between Morris Sueet 
and Exchange Alley. The ultra-fashionable residence section of New York during the Revolution, 

brated banker, James Gore King, who went there from 
19 North Moore street in 1827 and remained till 1833, 
when he moved to Weehawken. In 1825 he entered the 
firm of Prime, Ward and Sands and the firm name then 
became Prime, Ward, Sands, King and Company. A 
year or two later Joseph Sands dropped out and the firm 
became Prime, Ward, King and Company, then Prime, 
Ward and King. The other partners at that time were 
Nathaniel Prime, who lived in the Kennedy house at No, 
1 Broadway and whose country house, built in 1800, is 
still standing in the grounds of St. Joseph's Orphan 
Asylum, in Ninetieth street between First avenue and 
Avenue A, and Samuel Ward, who lived at the corner of 
Broadway and Bond street. It was James G. King who 
in the panic of 1837 was sent by Prime, Ward and King 
to London to confer with the Bank of England. He 
brought back with him a loan of £1,000,000 from that 
institution. A million pounds seems a trifling amount in 
these days when governments are borrowing thousands of 
times as much, but eighty years ago it was a huge sum, 
and demonstrated as nothing else could the confidence of 
the Bank of England in the house of Prime, Ward and 
King. James G. King was a son of the famous Rufus 
King. His brother Charles was president of Columbia 
College and another brother, John A., was a noted lawyer 
of Cincinnati, a member of the Ohio legislature, and one 
of the founders of the Cincinnati Law School in 1833. 
James G. King himself was a member of Congress. In 
the '40's he was president of the Chamber of Commerce, 
and as such was ex officio a member of the Board of 
Pilot Commissioners of the Port of New York. 

When James G. King left Bond street No. 12 was 
taken by Joseph Walker, merchant, who in 1832 lived at 
250 Pearl street. He was a director of the New York Gas 
Light Company. In 1837 he moved to 31 Pine street and 
Jonathan I. Coddington took the Bond street house, com- 
* ing from 56 White street. Jonathan I. Coddington was 
an active politician and an ardent supporter of Martin 
Van Buren. He was appointed post master of New York 
by President Van Buren in 1837 and continued in that 
office four years. He had previously been an alderman, 


and in 1844 was the Democratic candidate for mayor 
against James Harper, the "Native American" candidate, 
who was elected. Jonathan I. Coddington was living at 
No. 12 as late as 1850. At that time he was governor of 
the Alms House Department of the City. 

The first resident of No. 13 Bond street was one of 
old New York's eminent merchants, William H. Jeph- 
son, who came to Bond Street in 1829 from 707 Broad- 
way. The latter house is still standing and now bears 
the number of 705, It is a two-story brick with dormer 
windows, and adjoining it on the south is a similar house 
which was the residence of Nicholas William Stuyvesant, 
Jr., at the time William II. Jephson lived in the other. 
In 1832, when William H. Jephson had moved to 9 
Leroy place, No. 13 became the residence of Charles, 
Frederick, and George Belden, brokers, of 50 Wall street, 
who in 1831 lived at 84 Greenwich street. In 1845 the 
Beldens moved to 15 Gramercy park, the easternmost 
of the two houses that were subsequently united and re- 
modeled by Samuel J. Tilden. After the Beldens went 
to Gramercy park the Bond street house was taken by 
Dr. J. Smith Dodge, a dentist who had teen at 47 Bond 
street for the six or seven years immediately preceding. 
Dr. Dodge stayed in Bond street about fifteen years and 
then moved to Fourth street near Second avenue. 

No. 14 was one of the first dwellings built in Bond 
street. It housed one of New York's most distinguished 
citizens, John Jordan Morgan, who went to No. 14 in 
1823. In 1822 he lived at the comer of Greenwich and 
Harrison streets — which of the four corners it was is not 
known. John J. Morgan is described hy his grandson, 
the late Rev. Dr. Morgan Dix, as "a gentleman of the old 
school" and "an ardent disciple of Isaac Walton." He 
was a member of the State Assembly, and in 1820 was 
elected one of the two members of Congress from New 
York City, the other being the celebrated Churchill C, 
Cambreleng. Later he was Collector of the Port of New 
York. He owned extensive tracts of land in Herkimer 
and Chenango Counties and for more than fifty years 
spent his summers on his farm near Utica. No man of 


Bond Street houses, built 1831. and still standing. Members or the Livingston, Bowne and Mintum families 
lived here when Bond Slre«t was the fashionable residence center of the city. 

Cotirtttl) of l\fr. S. S. Dunham 

his time was regarded with greater respect and esteem 
by his fellow citizens than was John J. Morgan. 

While John J. Morgan lived in Bond street his house 
was also the home of his distinguished son-in-law, John 
A. Dix, who married Catherine Morgan. She was the 
niece of John J. Morgan's first wife (herself a niece of 
Col. Marinus Willett) and was adopted by John J. Mor- 
gan upon the death of her parents. John A. Dix, then 
Major Dix on the staff of Gen. Jacob Brown, met her 
first in 1822 when she was fourteen years old and a pupil 
at Mme. Desabaye's school, 107 (now 131) Hudson street. 
Four years later they were married in St John's Chapel, 
Varick street, by the Rev. Benjamin T. Onderdonk, then 
one of the assistant ministers of Trinity Church. John 
A. Dix is best known as a soldier and a stateman, for 
he was Secretary of State of New York, United States 
Senator from New York, Secretary' of the Treasury of 
the United States, Major General of Volunteers in the 
Civil War, and Governor of the State of New York. 
While Secretary of the Treasury in 1861 he wrote the 
famous order containing the words: "If any man at- 
tempts to haul down the American Flag, shoot him on 
the spot." Among his contemporaries Gen. Dix was 
noted as a classical scholar of profound learning and dis- 
criminating taste. To-day he is best known in that field 
for his translation of the great Latin poem "Dies Irae." 
It is said that no other poem in any language has been 
so often translated. In English, Gen. Dix's version is 
by far the best. In truth it is more than a translation — 
it is rather a re-creation of the poem, and is deservedly 
ranked as the equal of the majestic original. It was writ- 
ten in 1863, while he was in command of the 7th Army 
Corps, stationed at Fortress Monroe. In 1875 he re- 
vised it but the first version was too well established to 
be displaced in the affections of those that knew it. Gen- 
eral Dix's last home in New York was at 3 East Twenty- 
first street, where he died April 21, 1879. 

No. 15 was occupied in 1831 by Thomas A. Ronalds, 
who had lived previously at 5 Cliff street. He was in 
the book and stationery trade, wholesale and retail, at 
203 Pearl street. He made a fortune out of the husi- 


ness, and at his death in 1835 he was worth a half a mil- 
lion besides the amount his family derived from the Loril- 
lard estate. He was active in civic affairs, and bore a 
prominent part in the measure taken for the defense of 
the city in the War of 1812. For a considerable period 
he was a director of the Mechanics' Bank Mrs. Ronalds 
was Maria D. Lorillard, a daughter of old Teter Loril- 
lard. She retained the Bond street house for a number of 
years after her husband's death. 

As related in connection with the Ward Mansion, No. 
16 Bond street was first the residence of Samuel Ward, 
the banker. When he went to "The Corner" in 1S33 No. 
16 was taken by Gideon Lee, then mayor of the city, 
who for two or three years previously lived next door, 
at No. 18. He was the last mayor appointed by the 
Common Council, his successor, Cornelius W. Lawrence, 
being elected by the people in 1834. Gideon Lee was a 
"swamper," in business at 20 Ferry street. The firm was 
Gideon Lcc and Company, the company being Shepherd 
Knapp and Charles M. Leupp. In 1S28 he was alderman 
from the 12th Ward, and president of the Leather Manu- 
facturers' Bank. He was also a director of the Traders' 
Insurance Company. During the period of his may- 
oralty occurred an unusual number of events of interest 
and importance, such as the following, gathered from 
Haswell's Reminiscences of an Octogenarian. The Knick- 
erbocker Magazine was founded, under the editorship 
of Charles Fenno Hoffman. Piatt street was opened 
and named. The first Belgian block pavement in the city 
was laid, in the Bowery, between Bayard and Walker 
streets. The Greenwich Savings Bank was opened. The 
famous Marine Pavilion at Rockaway was erected. Col. 
Nicholas Fish died. President Andrew Jackson visited 
the city and was entertained by Mayor Lee at his Bond 
street residence. Aaron Burr married the notorious 
Madame Jumel. The Sailors' Snug Harbor was opened. 
The Sun was established. Horace Greeley published his 
first newspaper. Lotteries were prohibited by act of the 
legislature. James Fenimore Cooper returned to New 
York after a long residence abroad. The Italian Opera 
House, later the National Theatre, was erected at Church 


Numbers Ko-ty-one to Fotty-seven Bond Street, erected 1832. John T. Irving, a neprjew of Wasliinpto 
living, lived at Number Forty-three, from IS61 to 1S77. 
Courtejy of Mr. 5, 5. Dunham 

and Leonard streets. Washington Market was opened. 
The boundary line between New York and New Jersey 
was settled. 

Mayor Lee had a country house at Bloomingdale, on 
a tract which he acquired in 1S22 and which was origi- 
nally a part of the Apthorpe estate. 

In 1836 Gideon Lee was elected to Congress, and at 
the end of his term retired to Geneva, N. Y., where he 
died in 1S41. His partner and son-in-law, Charles M. 
Leupp, who made his home at the Mayor's Bond street 
residence, was the friend of living, Paulding, Halleck, 
Morris, Willis, Bryant, and the rest of the "Knicker- 
bocker" writers. From Bond street he went in 1839 to 
66 Amity (now West Third) street. In that house, 
while he resided there, The Century Association was 
founded, at a meeting of The Sketch Club held in Decem- 
ber, 1846. For some years he was a member of the 
School Committee of The Association for the benefit of 
Juvenile Delinquents, and was also a director of the 
Tradesmen's Bank. 

In 1840 Margaret V. Denison, widow of David Deni- 
son, took No. 16 and opened a boarding house which 
she conducted for more than ten years. Trior to 1840 
her establishment was at 42 Bleeckcr street. 

Russell H. Nevins and Flihu Townsend, both of whom 
lived at No. 17 Bond street, constituted the firm of 
Nevins and Townsend, characterized by Walter Barrett 
in his Old Merchants of New y'ork as "the highly re- 
spectable and rich Wall Street broker firm." They moved 
to Bond street in 183 1. Previously they both lived in 
the famous boarding house of Miss Jane Cowing at 5 
and 7 Murray street. They were men of powerful in- 
fluence in financial circles and were members of numerous 
directorates. Russell H. Nevins was one of the founders 
of the Stock Fxchange in 1817, and in 183R was one of 
the founders and first directors of the Bank of Com- 
merce. He was also a director of the Manhattan Insur- 
ance Company, The Jersey City Ferry Company, and 
the old Stuyvesant Institute, and was secretary of the 
Pacific Insurance Company. Flihu Townsend was a 
director of the Boston and New York Transportation 

f ™ ! 

Company and of the New Jersey Railroad and Trans- 
portation Company. In 1842 Russell H, Nevins dis- 
appears from the city director}' and EHhu Townsend 
is given as residing at 36 Union square. 

The next occupant of No. 17 was Henry Grinnell, 
who took the house in 1842, having previously resided 
at 25 Market street. He was a brother of Joseph Grin- 
nell, one of the founders of the famous firm of Fish and 
Grinnell. Another brother, Moses H., was one of New 
York's merchant princes. Henry and Moses H. were 
also members of Fish and Grinnell, which became Grin- 
nell, Minturn and Company about 1834, Robert B. Min- 
turn having succeeded Joseph Grinnell upon the latter's 
retirement in 182S. The head of the firm, one of New 
York's most eminent citizens, was, while an infant, found 
floating by a fisherman of New Bedford. He was given 
the name Preserved Fish by his rescuer and bore that 
name throughout his life. Henry Grinnell took an active 
interest in geography and in 1852-3 was the first president 
of the American Geographical Society, of which he was 
one of the founders. In 1850 he financed, at his own 
expense, the De Haven Arctic Expedition (of which 
the celebrated Dr. Kane was surgeon and naturalist) to 
search for Sir John Franklin. This expedition discovered 
Grinnell Land, which was so named in honor of Henry 
Grinnell. In 1853 he contributed heavily to the first 
expedition led by Dr. Kane. He also gave freely to the 
Haves expedition in i860 and to the Polaris expedition in 

Henry Grinnell was a resident of No, 17 Bond street 
at the time of his death in 1874, at the age of seventy- 
four. His younger brother, Moses H, died in 1877, also 
at the age of seventy-four, but their elder brother, Joseph, 
survived them and died in 1885 at the advanced age of 

No. 18 was first the residence of Henry Ward, brother 
of Samuel Ward II,, who moved from 43 Franklin street 
in 1827. In 1830 he went to No. 23 Bond street, and 
No. l8 was taken by Gideon Lee, who, as we have already 
seen, went to No. 16 in 1833. The house was then taken 
by Beverly Robinson, who the year before was living 


at 1 08 Grand street. This Beverly Robinson was a son 
of Colonel Beverly Robinson of the British Army, who 
was himself a son of the first Beverly Robinson. The 
latter, a major in the British army, married Susan 
Philipse, a sister of Mrs. Roger Morris, and built on the 
banks of the Hudson opposite West Point the famous 
mansion known as "Beverly." This house was the 
scene of many important events during the Revolution. 
At the beginning of the war the owner, Beverly Robin- 
son I., being a loyalist, went to New York and his famous 
mansion and immense estate up the River were con- 
fiscated. The house was then used as a military hospital. 
Later it became Arnold's headquarters, and under iis 
roof he "perfected his traitorous designs." Afterwards 
it was the headquarters of other officers of the American 
army and many times sheltered General Washington. 
It was destroyed by fire about twenty -five years ago. 
Beverly Robinson III., who lived in Bond street, was 
a successful lawyer and was identified with a number 
of prominent institutions, among them Columbia College, 
of which he was a trustee. About 1838 he moved to 245 
Eighth street, the second house east of First Avenue, 
and No. 18 Bond street was taken by John D. Gibson, 
a merchant of No. I Hanover street, and Agnes D. 
Gibson, who continued in the Bond street house the 
school she had conducted for some years at 534 Broad- 
way. In the 4o's John D. Gibson is described in the 
directories as "Scotch and English Counsellor and Law 
Agent." About 1843 the Gibsons moved to 21 Bond 
street, where Miss Gibson continued her school as late 
as 1851. Tn 1857 we find her school at 38 Union place, 
the third house north of East Sixteenth street. After 
the Gibsons left No. 18 Bond street the house seems to 
have been unoccupied for a few years, but about 1848 
it was taken by the Gilford family, Samuel Gilford II., 
Thomas B. Gilford, and Jacob T. Gilford, who had lived 
for many years at 126 (now 124) William street. Sam- 
uel Gilford L in 1773 bought the old house at T22 William 
street, and resided there till his death about 1821. This 
ancient building is still standing and is one of the few 
(perhaps a half dozen) pre-Revolutionary dwellings left 


on Manhattan Island. It has been known for many 
years as "Golden Hill Inn," but there seems to be no 
real evidence that it was ever used for such purpose. 
No. 124 William street (also still standing) was built 
by the Gilfords shortly after the Revolution and occupied 
by them until their removal to Bond street. Samuel Gil- 
ford II. was a merchant, and was in business with his 
father, Samuel Gilford I., at 61 Front street under the 
firm name of Samuel Gilford and Son. In 1825 he was 
Alderman from the second ward, and as early as 1812 
he was a director of the Firemen's Insurance Company. 
Jacob T. Gilford was a physician, and remained at No. 
18 Bond street for more than twenty years. Thomas B. 
Gilford, the lawyer, moved to 34 West Twenty-first street 
in 1862. 

No. 19 Bond street was the residence of Lewis Baker, 
usually referred to as Looe Baker, an importer of 124 
Pearl street, who took the house in 1833 and occupied 
it as late as 1854. 

The first occupant of No. 20 Bond street was Knowles 
Taylor, who took the house in 1824, as we have already 
related, In 1830 he went to No. 8, and a few years 
later No. 20 became the home of Judge John Duer, one 
of the most eminent of New York jurists. His father 
was the famous William Duer, patriot, statesman, and 
financier. When General Hamilton was succeeded as 
Secretary of the Treasury by Oliver Wolcott a clerk in 
the department found a large sum charged to William 
Duer and forthwith announced that William Duer was a 
defaulter. Hamilton at once came forward with the 
facts : that the money had been entrusted to Duer, with 
the consent of President Washington, for the purpose 
of buying up government debts, and that the enterprise 
was kept secret to enable the best terms to be obtained 
for the government. The explanation came too late, 
however, and William Duer, who had large personal 
obligations, was ruined His failure caused a panic in 
which many were impoverished, and he himself was 
imprisoned for debt. His wife was Catherine Alexander, 
daughter of Lord Stirling. She was known as "Lady 
Kitty" Duer. John Duer, their son, was a member of 


C*ntre Street— The famous old Tombs prison -1$90, 
This was considered to be, with the old reservoir on Fifth Avenue, the finest example of Egyptian 

architecture in the country. 

the State constitutional convention in 1821, and after 
having been a Judge of the Superior Court for a number 
of years became its Chief Justice in 1857. 1 It- was the 
author of several legal treatises, and was the editor of 
"Duer's Reports," His distinguished brother, William 
A. Duer, was a judge of the Supreme Court but is 
remembered chiefly as president of Columbia College. 
Before coming to Bond street Judge John Duer lived at 
106 Grand street, In 1838 he moved to 97 St. Mark's 
place, and No. 20 Bond street was taken by Mrs. Maria 
Banyer, widow of Goldsborough Banyer, and one of the 
daughters of Chief Justice John Jay. She was living 
at No. 20 as late as 1856. Previously she had resided 
for several years at 30 Broadway. Her husband's 
father, the first Goldsborough Banyer, was one of the 
organizers of the Society Library in 1754. Mrs. Maria 
Banyer was the founder of the "Colored Home," which 
for so many years occupied a building in Sixty-fifth 
street east of First avenue. This charitable work was 
started at a meeting attended by ten ladies at Mrs. 
Banyer' s Bond street residence in the fall of 1839. 

The first occupant of No. 21 Bond street was Captain 
Thomas Barclay of the British Navy, who came there 
about 1830 from 131 (now 155) Hudson street, facing 
St. John's park. He was a descendant of the Rev. Dr. 
Henry Barclay, second rector of Trinity Church, for 
whom Barclay street was named. The first Thomas 
Barclay, son of the Rev. Dr. Barclay, was a major in the 
British army during the Revolution and was later a 
colonel. Captain Barclay died about T837 but his house 
in Bond street was occupied by his widow for several 
years afterward. In 1843 it was taken by John Gibson 
and Agnes Gibson, who had followed Beverly Robinson 
at No. 18 Bond street. 

If we except the humble dwelling of Samuel Hallett, 
No. 22 was the first house erected in Bond street. It was 
built by Jonas Minturn, who moved there as early as 
1821, having lived at 592 Broadway, near Bleecker street, 
in 1820. He was a merchant, and belonged to the firm of 
Minturn and Champlin, as did also his three brothers, 
Nathaniel, William and Edward. The latter was the 


father of Robert B. Minturn, a partner of Henry and 
Moses H. Grinnell in the firm of Grinnell, Minturn and 
Company. After the failure of Minturn and Champlin 
about 1815, Jonas Minturn and Samuel Franklin, an 
old Quaker merchant, formed the firm of Franklin and 
Minturn. FrOm 1825 to 1829 No. 22 Bond street was 
the residence of Thomas R. Smith, a merchant of some 
prominence, who in 1824 lived at 106 Greenwich street. 
For many years he was a director of the Fulton Insurance 
Company. In 1830 his residence was 14 State street, and 
a year or two later the Bond street house was taken by 
Dr. John C Jay, M.D., whose aunt, Mrs. Banyer, soon 
after came to live across the street at No. 20. He was 
the son of Peter Augustus Jay and grandson of Chief 
Justice John Jay. His wife was Laura Prime, a daughter 
of Nathaniel Prime, founder of Prime, Ward and King, 
and his sister Mary Jay married Frederick Prime, Mrs. 
Jay's brother. Dr. Jay was deeply interested in conch- 
ology, and formed the finest collection of shells in 
America. This collection is now owned by the American 
Museum of Natural History and can be seen in (he 

was an active member of the New York Academy of 
Sciences, of which he was treasurer for seven years. 
But for his generous financial support at critical periods 
the Academy could scarcely have survived. Dr. Jay 
was also an enthusistic yachtsman, and was one of the 
founders and organizers of the New York Yacht Club 
in 1845. His yacht La Coquille ("the little shell") was 
one of the contestants in the Club's first regatta, held 
July 17, 1845, which was won by William Edgar's Cygnet. 
Dr. Jay was secretary of the Club for some time and 
was for more than twenty years a trustee of Columbia 
College. He left New York in 1843 and went to Rye, 
where he died in 189T, at the age of eighty-three. 

The next occupant of No. 22 Bond street was James 
F. De Peyster, who moved there from Ninth street, near 
University place, in 1843. He was at that time a mer- 
chant, of the firm of De Peyster and Whitmarsh, whose 
place of business was at 51 South street, but he had been 
a captain in the regular army and had served with 

Museum building 



Fifth Avenue, north from 52nd Street. 1&90. and original private residences, showing part of 
St. Luke's Hospital — Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church. 

distinction in the war of 1812. He was one of New 
York's foremost citizens, and was one of the governors 
of the Hospital, and a member of the committee in charge 
of the Asylum at Bloom ingdalc ; trustee of the New 
York Infant Asylum; president of the New York Dis- 
pensary; treasurer of St. Michael's Church, at Bloom- 
ingdale; treasurer of the Protestant Episcopal Diocesan 
Society for the Promotion of Religion and Learning; 
and a trustee of the Public Schools. He was a brother 
of Frederic De Peyster. About 1848 Captain De Peyste: 
moved to 917 Broadway, between Twentieth and Twenty- 
first streets, and a year or two later his house in Bond 
street was taken by Frederick W. Coolidge. 

No. 23 Bond street has a romantic history. About 
1830 it came into the possession of Henry Ward, who 
came to No. 18 Bond street from 43 Franklin street in 
1827. Henry Ward was a brother of Samuel Ward II., 
the banker, and John Ward the broker, and was one 
of the founders of the New York Stock Exchange in 
1817. Upon his death in the late '30's the house was 
inherited by his son Henry Hall Ward. "Between this 
young man and his cousin Miss Eliza Ann Partridge," 
says Pelletreau, in his Early New York Houses, pub- 
lished in 1900, "there existed the strongest love and 
affection, but for some reason they never married, 'some 
say on account of their close realtionship. When Henry 
Hall Ward died in Saratoga in 1872, leaving his property 
to executors in trust for Miss Partridge, there were many 
surmises as to what she would do with the house which 
was valuable, and the property could be made to yield 
a large income, but Miss Partridge acted with prompt- 
ness. There were two old servants in the house, and to 
them she gave strict orders that nothing above the base- 
ment should be disturbed in the slightest manner, but 
that everything should remain just as her lover left it. 
Since then years have passed, but the house in Bond street 
remains as it was. The windows are never opened and 
no mortal enters the long closed doors, everything has a 
deserted and decaying look, and even the large door 
plate has grown so tarnished that it is with difficulty 
that one can read the name of its old time owner, Henry 


Ward. Doubtless while she lives it will remain the same 
and only at her death will the gloomy portals be opened." 

For thirty years the old house stood empty, becoming 
more and more dilapidated as the seasons passed, but 
in the end its solitude was invaded by the click of type- 
writers and the whir of sewing machines. It still stands, 
dingy and unkempt, tenanted now by makers and sellers 
of cheap millinery. 

No. 24 Bond street was built about 1827. In that 
year it became the residence of Jonathan Prescott Hall, 
a wealthy lawyer and one of the ablest in the city. 
He was one of the founders and for many years a trustee 
of the University of the City of New York, now New 
York University. In 18)2 he was one of the counsel for 
the notorious Colonel Edwards, alias Caldwell, charged 
with (and convicted of) forgery. In the administrations 
of Tyler and Fillmore he was United States district 
attorney for the southern district of New York, in which 
office his assistant was William M. Evarts. He was 
succeeded by Charles O'Conor about 1853. The Hall 
and the Ward families were very intimate, and the old 
Spanish masters in the art collection of Samuel Ward 
the banker were procured for him by Jonathan Prescott 
Hall while travelling in Spain. He lived at No. 24 Bond 
street for twenty-five years and died at Newport in 1862. 

No. 25 Bond street was the home of Mrs. Martha 
Hicks, who went there in 1833 from 64 Broadway. Her 
father had lived in that house, and her mother retained 
it after his death in Novemtar, 18 15. Her husband, 
who died in July, 1815, was the son of Whitehead Hicks, 
the last Mayor of New York before the Revolution. 
He held office from 1766 to 1776, and in 1754 was one 
of the organizers of the Society Library. Mrs. Hicks 
was the daughter of "old Thomas Buchanan," one of 
the richest and most influential of New York merchants 
before and after the Revolution. He was one of the 
founders of the Chamber of Commerce and one of the 
committee that waited upon Lieutenant-Governor Colden 
to solicit the grant of a charter for the organization. 
To him was consigned the tea ship that the citizens of 
New York sent back to London with its cargo in 1774- 


Flfth.Averiue, In 1858, looking south from )1M Street. 
M»rbi*Cnlle«;l«[e Church. *UH »l»ndir 1( j, ihowtng Hoops thMt*«T*«tMKCMd to elmoel every hounonthoifnue. 
About 1«03 thee* were removed by the city 10 widen the meet 

In 1775 he was one o£ the Committee of One Hundred 
appointed to take control of the city. He was a governor 
of the Hospital in 1792, and was one of the first directors 
of the United States Bank in New York. His country 
estate was on the East River near Fifty-sixth street. 
During the Revolution it was owned by the Hurst family 
and was the headquarters of Earl Percy when Lord 
Howe was occupying the nearby Beekman mansion at 
the time Nathan flale was executed. Mrs. Hicks' sister 
Almy married Peter P. Goelet and her sister Margaret 
married Robert R. Goelet. Another sister, Eliza, was 
the wife of Samuel Gilford, who, as we have seen, aime 
to Bond street in the late '40's. Mrs. Hicks' name dis- 
appears from the directory in 1845, but her son-in-law, 
Henry R. Winthrop, who had made his home with her 
since 1839, retained the house until 1856, when he went 
to Fifth avenue. In 185 1 her son Albert Hicks also was 
living in the Bond street house. 

No. 26 Bond street was the residence of Benjamin 
De Forest and his nephew Alfred De Forest, merchants, 
in business at 185 South street under the firm name of 
Benjamin De Forest and Company. Benjamin De Forest 
was of Connecticut birth and a shoemaker by trade, but 
coming to New York he opened a store at 31 Peck slip 
about 1803 or 1804. A few years later he formed a 
partnership with Gershom Smith, under the firm name 
of De Forest and Smith. In 181 1 he brought his nephew 
Alfred down from Connecticut and took him into 
partnership. At that time they lived together at 20 Beek- 
man street, opposite old St. George's Giurch. In 1826 
they went to No. 27 Bond street, but about 1831 they 
moved across the street to No. 26. Benjamin De Forest 
married Mary Burlock, "the beautiful daughter of 
Thomas Burlock." Her brother Henry was a man 
of large wealth, which, upon his death went to Mrs. 
De Forest. Alfred De Forest married the only daughter 
of Augustus Wright, who left her a considerable fortune. 
Upon her death the fortune went to her husband, and 
when he died, about 1847, it came into the possession of 
Benjamin De Forest. Having no sons, and desiring to 
perpetuate his business under the family name, he took 

J 253] 

George B. De Forest into the firm of B. De Forest and 
Company in 1842 or 1S43. Benjamin De Forest had 
two daughters, one of whom married the new partner. 
The old gentleman died about 1855, worth, it is said, 
a million and a half, and after his death the business 
was carried on for a few years by George B. De Forest. 
The latter had been in the dry goods business at 86 Cedar 
street before entering the firm of his future wife's father, 
and prior to 1848 lived at 30 Great Jones street, but 
about the year mentioned he made his home at 26 Bond 
street xvhere he remained for a few years, moving then 
to 66 East Twenty-first street, the fifth house east of 
Fourth Avenue. 

As we have seen, the first resident at No. 27 Bond 
street was Benjamin De Forest. After he left, the 
house was taken by one of New York's best known 
citizens, William C. H. Waddell, usually called Coventry 
Waddcll. He was a descendant of Captain John Waddell, 
distinguished among England's great sea-fighters, who 
came to New York in 1736. Captain Waddell was one 
of the first subscribers to the Society Library, and after 
his death his widow became one of the trustees. He 
was also one of the founders of the Masonic fraternity 
in New York, and of the St. Andrew's Society. It is 
said that the present Dover street took its name from a 
ship called the Dozer that he built on the East River near 
that locality. William Coventry Henry Waddell was a 
great-grandson of the old Captain, and a grandson of 
Mrs. Mary Daubigny, who conducted a famous boarding 
house in Wall Street. When New York was the capitol 
of the United States seven members of the first congress 
were among her boarders. Coventry Waddell, a lawyer 
by profession, was an active supporter of General Jack- 
son and when the latter became President was made 
financial agent of the State Department at Washington 
and also given charge of the Secret Service funds, for 
which he accounted to the President alone. In 1831 he 
returned to New York as United States marshal], a 
highly lucrative appointment which he received direct 
from General Jackson and held for a number of years. 
In 1842 he was made General Assignee in Bankruptcy 


for New York under the bankruptcy act passed by 
congress in that year. His brother Frank Waddell was 
as popular as any man in New York in his time. Of 
him Haswell, in his Reminiscences, says: "Francis L. 
Waddell, brother of William C. H. Waddell, and known 
as "Frank," was a widely known character ; he married 
a daughter of the late Thomas H. Smith, who had been 
the leading tea importer of the United States, and in this 
year (1847) visiting Washington we renewed what had 
been a school-boy acquaintance. There was a sui-generis 
in his manner, and piquancy in his conversation, which 
added to humor and wit, rendered him very agreeable 
company; so much so that, at the United States Hotel 
at Saratoga, he was a welcome guest of the proprietor, 
who held that he gained more by his company than the 
cost of it. He not only wrote good poetry, but his 
Saltts populi suprema lex, as an introduction to his eulogy 
on Dr. Home, will never be forgotten by those who 
heard it." 

About 1845 Coventry Waddell built the famous Wad- 
dell mansion, on the west side of Fifth Avenue between 
Thirty-seventh and Thirty-eighth streets, in which 
occured a succession of brilliant entertainments. At a 
fancy dress ball given by Mrs. Waddell (who was a 
daughter of Jonathan Southwick of New York) James 
W. Gerard wore the first police uniform seen in this 
country. The Waddell mansion had a short life, for 
"upon its site" says Mrs, Lamb, "was erected the massive 
sanctuary of the old Brick Church organization." The 
church, which still stands, was dedicated about 1857, not 
more than twelve years after the Waddells' "Gothic 
villa" was completed. 

After the Waddells left Bond street, No. 27 was 
occupied in the late '40's by Effingham Cock and William 
E. Cock, of the dry goods firm of E. & W. Cock and 
Company, 33 Liberty street. 

No. 28 Bond street had no building on it as late as 
1851. When the dwelling house now standing in the site 
was erected, and who lived in it, have not been ascer- 

No. 29 Bond street was occupied for two or three 


years by Samuel Cowdry, a distinguished lawyer, who 
moved from 27 Cherry street about 1828. He was assis- 
tant alderman from the fourth ward in 1822 and two 
years later was elected alderman. Mrs. Cowdrey was 
president of the Association for the Relief of Respectable 
Aged Indigent Females. In 1831 No. 29 became the home 
of Mrs. Maria Kane Hone. She was the widow of John 
Hone, Jr., son of John Hone, Sr., the elder brother of 
Mayor Philip Hone. In 1838 Airs. Hone went to 67 
Carmine street. A year or two later she became the wife 
of Frederick De Peyster, the eminent lawyer, who lived 
for many years in University place. Following Mrs. 
Hone No. 29 was taken by John Warren, a broker of 
46 Wall Street, who was a son of John G. Warren, one 
of the founders of the Stock Exchange a hundred years 
ago. Before he moved to Bond street John Warren 
resided at 52 Franklin street. His wife was a daughter 
of Robert Kearny, a cousin of John W. Kearney, the 
old merchant, and one of his sisters married a son of 
John W. Kearney. Her husband was a first cousin of 
Gen. Phil Kearny, who was killed at Chantilly in 1862. 
In 1847 John Warren moved from No. 29 to No. 41, 
where he died about 1878, having resided in Hond street 
for forty years. His son James Kearny Warren was 
his partner in the firm of John Warren and Son, for 
many years one of the strongest in Wall Street. 

After John Warren left No. 29 the house was taken 
by Dr. Jonathan Ware, a dentist. 

No. 30 Bond street seems to have been occupied first 
by Thatcher T. Payne, a lawyer, of 19 Nassau street, 
who came to Bond street from 67 Varick street in 1833. 
The Varick street house was once the residence of 
William Cullen Bryant. In 1840 Thatcher T. Payne 
was living at 25 Broadway, and a year later No. 30 Bond 
street was occupied by James Foster. In 1843 and 1844 
it was also the residence of James Foster, Jr. In 1845 
the latter was living at No. 40. The former's name is 
not in the directory after 1844. The house was next 
the residence of George Bradshaw, a lawyer, who about 
1847 moved from 11 Park place. This latter house was 
for a number of years the home of Churchill C. Cam- 



Brotdway at Liberty Street, prior to the erection of the Sitip;rT Tciwn ji.d 
City Investing fi jiMiru;. 

breleng, for eighteen years one of the Congressmen from 
New York City. In the '50's No. 30 was occupied by 
Dr. S. W. Parmly, a dentist. 

No. 31 Bond street was in 1827 and 1828 the home" 
of Timothy Woodruff, a builder, who in 1826 lived at 
20 First avenue and in 1829 at 29 First street. Who 
occupied it from 1829 to 1830 has not been ascertained, 
but in the directory of the latter year, and down to 1841, 
it is given as the residence of Mary Sutherland, widow 
of Dr. Talmadge Sutherland, a physician, who in 1837 
resided at 10 Park place. In 1840 it was the residence 
of William Waring, who remained there until the late 
'40's. In 185 1 it was occupied by Dr. John Lovejoy, 
a dentist. A few years later the house suddenly became 
famous as the scene of one of the most celebrated crimes 
of the nineteenth century — the murder of Dr. Harvey 
Burdell, — a crime that in point of sensational character 
and extent of interest excited in the community and 
throughout the country is not often paralleled. Dr. 
Burdell is described as a fine looking man of forty-six, 
well proportioned, and of singularly youthful appear- 
ance." He possessed a high temper and seems to have 
quarrelled, at one time or another, with about every one 
with whom he came in close contact. His exceptional 
skill was recognized in the profession to which he 
belonged, and he was a member of the leading medical 
societies of the city. He was also the author of several 
authoritative works on subjects pertaining to dentistry. 
He graduated from the Pennsylvania Medical College, at 
Philadelphia, and not long afterward went into partner- 
ship with his older brother, Dr. John Burdell, who was 
also a dentist. Their office was in a building that formerly 
stood on the comer of Chambers street and Broadway, 
south of old Washington Hall. After a few years they 
separated as a result of a rather acrimonious dispute, 
apparently over money matters, for the younger brother 
was grasping as well as hot tempered. Dr. Harvey 
Burdell then moved to 310 Broadway, near Duane street. 
This is believed to have been the northermost of the 
row of three-story houses shown in the view of Masonic 
Hall (which was Nos. 314 and 316 Broadway) in Valen- 


tine's Manual for 1855, page 296. Dr. Burdell was 
there for only a short time, moving about 1841 to 362 
Broadway, on the southeast corner of Franklin street. 
This house had been the residence of John S. Crary, and 
in appearance was much the same as the home of his 
brother and partner, Peter Crary, at 361 Broadway, 
across the street, the second house below Franklin street. 
Dr. Burdell remained at 362 Broadway till 1852, when 
he bought No. 31 Bond street. A year or two later he 
employed a Mrs. Emma Augusta Cunningham as his 
housekeeper, his wife having divorced him some time 
before. Mrs. Cunningham was the widow of a once 
wealthy distiller, of Brooklyn. He was found dead in 
his chair one day, and she collected his life insurance, 
amounting to $10,000. She had two adult daughters, 
Margaret Augusta and Helen, and a son named George 
W. who at the time of the murder of Dr. Burdell seems 
to have been about eleven or twelve years old. Mrs. 
Cunningham and Dr. Burdell soon quarrelled and she 
was displaced, but in 1855 she came back. In May, 1856, 
Dr. Burdell leased his house to her, For several years 
it had been a boarding house, and she continued it as 
such. Dr. Burdell occupied all of the floor above the 
parlors except the hall-bedroom, his office being the 
rear room and his bedroom the front room, but he took 
his meals at the Metropolitan Hotel, on the east side of 
Broadway, between Prince and Houston streets. It was 
said that "however prepossessing Mrs. Cunningham may 
have been when younger she is not at this time an extra- 
ordinarily attractive woman." Among her lodgers was 
a man named Eckel, whose character may be judged from 
the fact that he ended his days in prison. At the time 
of his death Dr. Burdell was the owner of No. 2 as 
well as No. 31 Bond street. He also owned real estate 
in Shrewsbury, New Jersey, and in Herkimer County, 
New York, and was a stockholder and a director of one 
of the banks to this city. In all his fortune amounted 
to about $100,000. 

On the morning of Saturday, January 31, 1857, at 
about eight o'clock, John J. Burchell, a youth employed 
by Dr. Burdell to take care of his office, came to perform 



Fifth Avenue at 34th Street — the old grounds or St. Luke's Hospital —1890, 

his customary duties, and found Dr. Eurdell dead on the 
floor. "Around him was a sea of blood." Blood was 
found on the floor and walls of the hall outside, and a 
later search discovered a bloodstained sheet and night- 
shirt in a storeroom in the garret. The victim's face 
was black, and his tongue protruded from his mouth. 
The boy gave the alarm and Dr. Francis, who lived, 
as we have seen, at No. I Bond street, was called. Upon 
examining the body he announced that Dr. Burdell had 
been strangled by a cord or other ligature, and that 
there were fifteen "deeply incised wounds" in his body. 
The heart was pierced in two places, both lungs were 
penetrated, and the carotoid artery and the jugular vein 
were both severed. 

At the inquest, which followed immediately and con- 
tinued for two weeks amidst tremendous excitement, Mrs. 
Cunningham stated on the witness stand that she had 
been married to Dr. Burdell on October 25, 1856, and 
produced a marriage certificate to that effect, signed by 
Rev. Uriah Marvin, one of the ministers of the Dutch 
Reformed Church in Bleecker street, corner of Amos 
(now West Tenth) street. The Rev. Mr. Marvin was 
called as .1 witness, and at once recollected the marriage, 
but was unable to identify either Dr. Burdell, whose 
corpse he viewed, or Mrs. Cunningham, who was brought 
before him. He did however, identify her daughter 
Augusta as one of the witnesses, the other being a servant 
girl in his own household. He further stated that as the 
party left the house the supposed Mrs. Burdell requested 
that no publication be made of the marriage. From other 
witnesses (of whom a large number were called) it was 
developed that Dr. Burdell had been in fear of assassina- 
tion, and that Mrs. Cunningham had been heard to 
remark that "she had a halter around his (Dr. Burdell's) 
neck and he had to do what she wanted him to." The 
testimony of some of the witnesses, including servants 
and former lodgers, was sensational in the extreme, and 
exposed, to a considerable degree at least, the relations 
that had existed in the house for some time before the 

The coroner's jury brought in a verdict to the effect 

that Mrs. Cunningham and the boarder Eckel knew more 
about the matter than they had disclosed. They were 
promptly indicted and tried for the crime, but although 
an adequate motive seems to have been abundantly proven 
there was no other evidence, direct or circumstantial, 
in any way justifying a conviction. In fact Mrs. Cun- 
ningham had an alibi, her daughters testifying that they 
both slept with her on the night of the murder! The 
verdict in each case was "not guilty." 

Of the subsequent developments of the affair Haswell 
gives the following succinct and comprehensive account: 

"If Mrs. Cunningham could prove marriage with 
the doctor she would be entitled to a wife's share of his 
estate, and if she bore a child to him she would obtain 
the entire control and enjoyment of its revenue. To 
attain this desirable end, it was indispensable that a 
child should be procured, and the woman forthwith com- 
menced to exhibit the appearance consonant with her 
purpose, and at the assigned time a new-horn infant was 
received from Bellevue Hospital, which she had obtained 
through the aid of an attendant physician. But he, while 
consenting to aid her in her scheme, disclosed the plan 
to the District Attorney, A. Oakey Hall, who, when her 
claim in behalf of the child was presented, exposed the 
fraud, and she and her daughters left the city. 

"I was present at the examination of one of the 
daughters before the coroner, and I conceived a very 
decided opinion of the case, which, so far as the Coroner 
was concerned, was universally held to have been so 
very ill conducted that a presentation was made to the 
Governor, asking for the removal of such an incompetent 

Mrs. Cunningham subsequently returned to New York 
under the name of Mrs. Emma Williams, and died here 
in 1887. 

The first resident of No. 32 Bond street was Thomas 
Lord, merchant, of 44 Exchange place, who moved from 
his former residence, 521 Broadway, in 1832. In 1822 
and for a number of years afterward he was head of the 
firm of Lord and Lees, his partners being Benjamin F. 
and Allen C. Lee. He was a director in the Farmers' 


Madison Avenue, south from 26th Street — 1877. 
J'jtkey Club, now the home of the Manhattan Club. Dr. Parkburst's church then at southeast coma* 
24th Street. Interesting view of* section no* wholly changed. 

Insurance and Loan Company and president of the 
Columbia Marine Insurance Company, In 1840 he went 
to 92 University place, and the Bond street house was 
taken by Samuel Ward III, He was the only son of 
Samuel Ward the banker and was five years older than 
his sister Julia. As a boy his good looks, bright wit, 
high spirits and chivalric qualities won him the adoring 
worship of his little sisters, and their admiration never 
waned. In 1838 he married William B. Astor's daughter 
Emily, who died three years later. One of their grand- 
sons is John Armstrong Chaloner of Virginia, formerly 
John Armstrong Chanler of New York. In 1843 he 
married Medora Grymes, daughter of John R. Grymes, 
and in 1848 he moved to California. In the early 'Go's 
he took up his residence in Washington, where he re- 
mained for many years. Throughout his entire life he 
manifested the qualities that made him so popular as a 
boy and in consequence was a leader and a favorite in 
every social circle of which he was a member. Famous 
as a "bon vivant and raconteur " he also had some claims 
to literary distinction, for he was the author of a volume 
of poems good enough to be admired by his intimate 
friend and candid critic, Fitz-Greenc Halleck. His last 
years were spent in Europe, where he died in 1884 at 
the age of seventy. 

After Sam Ward left Bond street No. 32 became the 
residence of Joseph G. Cogswell. To Dr. Cogswell New 
York owes much. It was his influence, no less than 
that of Irving and Halleck, that induced his friend John 
Jacob Astor to found the Astor Library. He was also 
the first superintendent of the institution, and to him 
was committed the labor and responsibility of selecting 
and purchasing the books which were to form the founda- 
tion of the Library's usefulness. No man then living 
was so well fitted to select the hooks for a new American 
Library, and, judging from his success, there were few 
that could have so ably transacted the mere business of 
making the purchases ; for to the knowledge and breadth 
of view that enabled him to choose the books most valu- 
able to the prospective users of the library, he added 
a business shrewdness and insight that enabled him to 


buy the books he wanted at prices that were in nearly 
every instance below the market. The result was that 
when the Astor Library opened its doors in 1853 it was, 
almost without question, the most useful public library in 
America,— a distinction that the New York Public 
Library still holds. Moreover, within thirty years after 
the Astor Library was opened the books that Dr. Cogs^ 
well bought for it could have been sold for ten times 
what he paid for them, an amount which was in round 
numbers $100,000. 

Dr. Cogswell was not only superintendent of the 
Library but also a member of its Board of Trustees from 
the beginning until his removal to Cambridge in 1865. 
His associates on the first Board were the Mayor of the 
City, and the Chancellor of the State, ex officio; Wash- 
ington Irving, William B. Astor, Daniel Lord, Jr., James 
G. King, Fitz-Greene Halleck, Henry Brevoort, Jr., 
Samuel R. Ruggles, Samuel Ward III., and Charles Astor 

As the books for the new library began to arrive 
before the building in Lafayette place was ready to 
receive them they were stored in Dr. Cogswell's house, 
and by the time the building was completed No. 32 Bond 
street was packed with books from basement to garret. 

The first resident of No. 33 Bond street was one of 
New York's famous old merchants, Benjamin F. Lee, 
who came from 61 Murray street in 183 1. As we have 
seen, he was at one time a partner of Thomas Lord of 
No. 32 Bond street, in the firm of Lord and Lees, but 
in 183 1 his partner was Paul Rabcock, the firm name 
being Lee & Babcock. Their place of business was at 
50 Exchange place. The fire of 1835 destroyed this 
building, but Lee and Babcock had moved to 54 Williams 
street the year before. Benjamin F. Lee's wife was 
the celebrated beauty Jane Lawrence, daughter of John 
Lawrence. She was the subject of the painting known 
as "The White Plume," by Charles Cromwell Ingham, 
one of the founders of the National Academy of Design. 
Benjamin F. Lee was one of the pioneers in the manu- 
facture of vulcanized rubber under the Goodyear patents 
and made a fortune in that business. He lived in Bond 

[ as I 

Fifth Avenue, 1834, north from the Union League Club, prior to the advent 
of the present business buildings. 

street only two years, moving in 1833 to 4 Lafayette 

No. 33 was next taken by Mrs. Amelia Staples, widow 
of John Staples. In 1832 she was living in Eighth 
avenue near Sixteenth street. William J. Staples, appar- 
ently her son, and his partner William M. Clarke in the 
firm of Staples and Garke, merchants, of 12 Exchange 
place, lived with her. Her name is not found in the 
directories after 1852. 

The first occupant of No. 34 Bond street seems to 
have been Richard T, Auchmuty, who came from 16 
Leroy place about 1834. His son, also named Richard 
T., born in 1833, was the founder of the New York 
Trade Schools. From 1837 to 1843 No. 34 was the 
residence of James Boyd, a merchant, of 21 South street. 
In 1836 he lived at 70 Greenwich street. In 1844 No. 
34 Bond street was taken by George W. Bruen, a 
prominent figure in the business and financial circles of 
New York, who began business with his brother Herman 
in 1822 under the firm name of G. W. & H. Bruen. 
He was also active in politics, and was a member of the 
Corporation from 1832 to 1837. In 1839 he was a mem- 
ber of the Assembly. George W. Bruen's wife was a 
daughter of Thomas H. Smith. Frank Waddell, the 
brother of Coventry Waddell, who lived, as we have 
seen, at 27 Bond street, eloped with another daughter. 
Matthias Bruen, the father of the Bruen brothers, was 
the bookkeeper of Thomas H. Smith & Son. This firm 
did the largest tea importing business in the country, 
and when it went into bankruptcy in 1828 it owed the 
United States more than $3,000,000 in unpaid duties on 
teas; for strange as it may seem now, the government 
in those early days gave six, twelve, and eighteen months 
credit on import duties ! "Old Matt" Bruen was assignee 
of the bankrupt's assets, and it was popularly supposed 
that in the compromise with the Treasury Department 
he made about $2,000,000 for himself. Walter Barrett 
says of the affair: "It never did old Thomas Smith any 
good. He died. The three children he left behind, his 
son Thomas, and his sons-in-law George W. Bruen and 
Frank Waddell, about once in three years, would make 


By the Honourable 


His Majtjiys Lieutenant Gtruirnor and C&mmaiidcr in Chitf of 
the Province s//I?t\D'gO?h, a "J the Ttrritaritt defending 

then™ in atmtjiea. 

TJAVING receivrj Information tkiithc IiiliJimem irf Volumerri to fervc j'n die 
Forces in the Pay of tliii Colony, Im been greatly Jifcoura^cd, from in Appre- 
heisfion that tJK y may be compelled toentet in [he King's Regular farCM, fid ihil 
fuch of them n me already or may hercaltL-r b: cmbarl^-d, arc CO proceed on fome 
Service from whence thc-y rvillnoc fpttLlily return. In Order to remove fueh Prejudi- 
ces, and the ObftnirtLcn that mijlit arils thereby to the King's Service-, You are to 
mike known to the VoluntL-is a ! riad'y inlLftcd, and to ill Pcribni whom you lhal! 
endeavour to inhft in lUTif of tliis I'.ovi/sce, thil Hii Excellency Sir JEFFERY 
AMHERST, Commando inClikf of His Mnjcftv's Torcei, huh allured me the 
Provincial Treopj of iKit Colony (ball no: by my Means be compiled to inh'ft in 
the Regular Service. Thai lliofcwhocmbarl;, amounting to Fii-c Hundred and Fifty 
Three, [hill, at foon a< rhe Service tlir/ art drftin'd for is cnVftrd, which cannot be: 
of long Duration, Hiimedinely RDM to jYrrr-Tcrt : That the Remainder of the: 
Troops of this Province are ord.-rti! ro /fifVirt, ar-d from thence toQwrjr, where: they 
>vilibrniriby*l=s laft Y>-'f. unlefs other Services (hall call them from thence: And 
,hsi. - hen the Cimpjign is over tlsey will of Court be fent back to their Homes, 
"■'ou in atfoio noiifv, Thai ihe Troops whocmbarkwdlreceive tAa&Bdoul Bounty 
of f#TT /'r*&*tf S allowed by the Province, ns a. farther FMCniracjcnicnr 
(oinduceTtiemtogo on that Service with ChriTfulncli and Alacrity. 

GIVEN toutr t»f Hani at Forl-Gcorje, h New- York, lit Twtnty-Jhfi 

Ji CcW Michael Thtufey, "| (^/ 

nil Ogittt mitniiti /» I 
i»hj> Vslmtitri n ftrvr im j 
it* F»rm i* lit Pm if lit \ 

■^jfctj tf Neu.'-Yaih. j 

Troubles of Enlistment to the Olden Days do not differ much 
from those oi the present, 

[ 272 t 

•*""''*"' Broadway at iSth Stresl— IMS. 

The original Ptiif Qnelfl residence and farmyard, which nearly everyone will remember, is it stood at this 

busy corner until lately. 
From Mr Robert (yxtiri'i taflriltnn. 

a joint, and sometimes an individual descent upon old 
Matt. Bruen, and scare him into making a forced pay- 
ment of $100,000 to each. When this was done, a hollow 
peace would be patched up between the belligerents, 
until Waddell or his relatives needed more money. 
Evidently old Mr. Bruen felt that he was in their power, 
or he would not have disgorged so easily." It is safe 
to say that there is considerable exaggeration in the 
above account. In another place Barrett says, on the 
authority of Dr. Carnochan, Minthorne Tompkins, and 
others, that in this way Matthias Bruen was made to 
"shell out over four hundred thousand dollars at different 
periods" in twenty-five years. 

George W. Bruen was a director in various financial 
institutions, among them the old Dry Dock Bank and the 
Neptune Insurance Company, and was also a trustee of 
New York University. He lived in Bond street hut three 
years, moving to 152 Second avenue about 1846. No. 
34 Bond street was then taken by another merchant, 
Robert McCoskry, who was one of the directors of the 
Chemical Bank, then at 216 Broadway, near Fulton 
street. In 1845 he resided at 86 Liberty street. His 
place of business was at 98 Maiden Lane. In 1849 he 
moved to 39 Bond street, where he remained till about 
r86b. When he went to the latter house Mrs. Mary A. 
Gustine, widow of John Gustine, took up her residence 
at No. 34. In the early '5o's it was the town house of 
Charles P. Leverich, who was connected with the Bank 
of New York, and was its president from 1863 to 1876. 

The first occupant of No. 35 Bond street was George 
Sharp, a merchant of 186 Pearl street, who moved from 
474 Broadway in 1827. In 1832 lie went to no Spring 
street. Who lived at No. 35 Bond street for the five years 
succeeding has not been ascertained hut in 1838 it was 
the residence of Michael Van Beuren, who in 1837 was 
at 303 Greenwich street. In 1840 he moved to 21 West 
Fourteenth street, where a few years later he built the 
imposing mansion still to be seen on that site, but now 
dilapidated and forlorn. This house is one of the last 
reminders of the social eminence of Fourteenth street. 
It has been shorn of its stoop, and its extensive grounds, 


stretching nearly two hundred feet toward the west, 
are neglected and overgrown with weeds where once 
a green lawn and well kept flower beds invited the eye. 

The next occupant of No. 35 Bond street was William 
I. Robinson, a broker, of No. 50 Wall street, who resided 
in the house for about three years. In 1839 his home 
was at 634 Broadway. After his departure the house 
was occupied for a year by Isabella Arcularius. In 1844, 
and for eleven years following, it was occupied by Amos 
Johnson, a dentist, who in 1842 and 1843 was at No. 49 
Bond street. In 1856 Dr. Johnson went to 73 East 
Twelfth street, — 109 according to the present numbering. 

From 1834 to 1839 inclusive No. 36 Bond street was 
the home of Samuel B, Ruggles, one of New York's 
most prominent and public spirited citizens. He was a 
lawyer of marked ability, and was identified with numer- 
ous public and private corporations. He was a director 
of the New York & Harlem Railroad, the Erie Railroad, 
the Equitable Insurance Company, and the Bank of 
Commerce, of which latter he was one of the founders. 
He was also a trustee of Columbia College, and, as we 
have already seen, one of the first trustees of the Astor 
Library. For many years he was a member of the 
Chamber of Commerce, and served on the executive 
committee. He established Gramercy Park, gave it its 
name, and gave the land in perpetuity to the use of the 
surrounding residents, as recorded by an inscription cut 
in a stone in the sidewalk in front of the west gate of 
the park. In 1834 he leased a tract of land on the east 
side of what is now Union Square, and built several 
blocks of brick houses, of which a few are still standing. 
Some of these were small and stood back from the street, 
serving later as extensions of the larger houses erected 
in front. The Erie Canal early became the subject of 
his zealous interest. In 1838, as chairman of the Assembly 
Committee on Ways and Means he presented a "Report 
upon the Finances and Internal Improvements of the 
State of New York," which for many years shaped the 
policy of the state in its commercial development. He 
foresaw, as did few others, the necessity for early en- 
largement of the canal, and in the report referred to 


Fifth Avenue — The Public Library in Course of construction. 
Looking north and eut to the Msnbatlan Hotel— and the Beltnont in course ol building. 

urged the immediate borrowing of money for the purpose. 
This proposal met strong opposition and was not adopted, 
but its wisdom became apparent in later years. He was 
one of the Canal commissioners from 1840 to 1S42 
inclusive, and again in 1858. In 1839 he left Bond street 
and made his home at 24 Union place, in one of the 
houses he had built sue years before. Here he resided 
until his death forty-one years later, at the age of eighty- 
one. Mrs. Ruggles was the only daughter of John 
Rathbone, one of New York's prosperous old merchants, 
who came to the city shortly after the Revolution. 

Following Samuel B. Ruggles, No. 36 Bond street 
was taken by Abraham Schermerhorn, merchant, who in 
1839, and as early as 1826, lived at No. 1 Greenwich 
street. For some years before 1826 he had resided in 
the house built by John W. Kearny about 1800, and still 
standing, at No. 2 Greenwich street. Abraham Scher- 
merhorn and his older brother Peter were partners of 
their father "old Peter Schermerhorn" in the firm of 
P. Schermerhorn and Sons during the first quarter of 
the last century; and at the same time, and for many 
years after the death of their father, about 1825, they 
were in partnership in another firm under the name of 
P. & A. Schermerhorn, later Schermerhorn, Willis and 
Company. Abraham Schermerhorn's wife was Helen 
White, daughter of Henry White, who owned the old 
house at 9 and It Broadway, later known as Atlantic 
Garden. That house was also his residence for several 
years, and his widow was living there as late as 1812. 
Abraham's Schermerhorn's daughter Helen married John 
T. Irving, and another daughter, Caroline, was the famous 
Mrs. William Astor, who died in 1908, the "leader of 
New York society." She was the mother of Col. John 
Jacob Astor, who perished in the Titanic. Abraham 
Schermerhorn died about 1850, and shortly afterward 
his widow moved to 21 East Twenty-second street 

No resident of No. 37 Bond street before 1834 has 
been ascertained. In that year it was occupied by James 
Hagarty, a merchant of 16 Broad street. A few years 
later it was the residence of William Austin, a produce 
broker of 71 Wall street. In 1840 Mrs. Hannah Daley 


opened a boarding house at No. 37. In 1846 the house 
was taken by Gilbert Davis, a wine dealer at 53 William 
street, and was occupied by him as late as 1S70. 

The first occupant of No. 38 Bond street was Eli 
Hart, of Eli Hart & Company, merchants, who moved 
from 44 Cortlandt street in 1833. In the late '3o's the 
"high cost of living" became a subject of more than idle 
interest, culminating in the unprecedented hard times of 
1837. In that year, when banks were suspending pay- 
ment of their notes and business houses were failing on all 
sides, flour sold for $15 per barrel and wheat, imported 
from abroad, brought $2.25 per bushel in New York. 
Meats and other foodstuffs were correspondingly high. 
On February 12, 1837, an excited crowd of five thousand 
persons assembled in the park and were harangued by 
agitators until they were ready for any violence. One 
of the speakers shouted "Eli Hart's got fifty thousand 
barrels of flour in his store. Offer him eight dollars a 
barrel for it and if he won't take it, why — " here he 
paused significantly. The mob took the hint and in a 
few minutes was storming Eli Hart & Company's store, 
in Washington Street, near Dey. In spite of the efforts 
of Mayor Lawrence, High Constable Hays, and a large 
force of police, the rioters broke into the store and threw 
out wheat and flour until, as an eye witness described 
it "the street was knee-deep in Hour and wheat." Some 
forty of the mob were arrested but only a few were con- 
victed. All the ringleaders escaped. 

After Eli Hart's death, which occurred about 1845, 
his widow continued to reside at No. 38, and was living 
there as late as 1864. 

The first occupant of No. 39 Bond street was Judge 
William Kent, who went there from St, Mark's place 
about 1834. Tn 1836 he moved to No. 5 Bond street, and 
No. 39 was taken by Samuel Foster, Jr,, a merchant of 
146 Pearl street, who in 1835 lived at 49 Walker street. 
In 1841 he moved to Fourth street, near Lafayette place, 
and the house he vacated in Bond street was taken a 
few years later by Robert Kermit, merchant, of 74 South 
street. He was a merchant of the old school, and also 
owned a line of Liverpool packets. He was a member 


Fourteenth Street. West from Broadway — 1888. 

of the Chamber of Commerce and served for a number 
of years on its Arbitration Committee, a fact that gives 
ample evidence of his integrity and sound judgment. In 
1847 he moved to 48 East Fourteenth street. The next 
occupant was Robert McCoskry who, as we have seen 
had previously lived at No. 34. He continued at No. 39 
until 1867. 

There seems to have been no building at No. 40 Bond 
street until after 1840. In 1845 there was a house there, 
occupied by James Foster, Jr., who had been living at 
No. 30 since 1841. He retained No. 40 until 1854. 

No. 41 Bond street became the home of Benjamin F. 
Dawson in 1833. He died shortly after, as in 1834 we 
find the house under the name of Elizabeth Dawson, 
widow of Benjamin F. She kept a school of some sort 
there, but not long, for in 1836 the house was taken by 
a more distinguished resident, George S. Robbins, one 
of the old town's richest and best known merchants. His 
store was at 148 Pearl street. In 1835 he lived at 34 Vesey 
street. He started a dry goods store in 1822 at 21 t Pearl 
street, but moved to 148 the next year, where he lost 
heavily in the great fire of 1835. After the fire he re- 
built on the same site but in 1838 went to Water street, 
and a year or two later to 54 William street, where Niblo, 
of Niblo's "Garden," had kept the "Bank Coffee House" 
twelve or thirteen years before. At this location he 
eventually changed his business from dry goods to bank- 
ing, under the firm name of George S. Robbins and Son. 
The son was George A. George S. Robbins was for 
many years a trustee of the Deaf and Dumb Asylum, and 
a director of the Bank of New York, the Erie Railroad, 
the Eagle Fire Insurance Company, the Washington In- 
surance Company and the American Life Insurance Com- 
pany. He was also one of the founders of the Mercantile 
Library. Mrs. Robbins was a "directress" of the Pro- 
testant Half Orphan Asylum. 

In 1839 George S. Robbins moved to Seventh street 
near Avenue A, and No. 41 Bond street was taken by 
Maria Ludlow, widow of Gulian Ludlow. She had for- 
merly lived at 58 Varick street, on the southeast corner of 
Laight street Gulian Ludlow was a son of Col. Gabriel 


Ludlow, a loyalist, whose estate at Hyde Park was con- 
fiscated after the Revolution. His wife, the mother of 
Gulian Ludlow, was Ann, sister of Gulian Verplanck, 
once president of the Bank of New York, and of Daniel 
Crommelin Verplanck, father of Gulian C. Verplanck. 
Gulian Ludlow was a merchant, and was a partner of 
his uncle Daniel Ludlow under the firm name of Daniel 
Ludlow and Company. Daniel Ludlow was the first 
president of the Manhattan Company. For a number of 
years before his death, which occurred about 1830, Gulian 
Ludlow lived at 62 Varick street. His widow remained 
there for a time, then moved to No. 58 Varick street, 
whence she went to No. 41 Bond street. Mrs. Ludlow 
remained at No. 41 about eight years. In 1847 she was 
living in Fifth avenue, between Thirteenth and Four- 
teenth streets. The old country house of the Ludlow's is 
still standing in the Bronx, south of Classon's Point Road, 
a short distance east of Westchester avenue. The famous 
Ludlow mansion at No. 9 State street, so long the home of 
General Jacob Morton, was built by Carey Ludlow, one 
of the twelve children of William Ludlow. The latter 
was an uncle of Gulian Ludlow's father. 

When Mrs. Ludlow moved to Fifth avenue she was 
succeeded at No. 41 Bond street by John Warren, who, 
as we have seen, had been living at No. 29 Bond street, 
in the house formerly occupied by Mrs. Maria Hone. 

The first resident of No. 42 Bond street seems to 
have been John P. Stagg, who is found there in 1843. 
The year before he was living at 97 Spring street. John 
P. Stagg and Company were merchants, at 179 Pearl 
street. In 1848 or 1849 he moved to Astoria, and No. 
42 was taken by Joseph Foulke, Jr, who in 1848 lived at 
497 Broadway. He was also a merchant, his place of 
business being 48 South street. In 1857 he lived at 14 
West Twenty-third street. 

No. 43 was first occupied by John Griswold, an old 
South street merchant, who had lived at No. 11 Bond 
street in 1827 and 1828. Before that he resided at 520 
Broadway, a few doors below Spring street. In 1829, 
1830 and 1831 his residence was 665 Broadway, one of 
the famous "marble houses" next to the plot on which 

E 384] 

the Broadway Central Hotel was subsequently built. 
These houses, demolished only a few years ago, are 
said to have been the first built with marble fronts in 
the city and were looked upon as a novel curiosity. The 
date of their erection is usually given as 1825, but they 
must have been built several years earlier, for a marble- 
front house could hardly have been a novelty in New 
York in 1825. There were several such houses in Bond 
street, built before 1825, among them No. 14, occupied 
by John J. Morgan as early as 1823, and No. 22 (still 
standing) built by Jonas Minturn in the latter part of 
1820 or first part of 1821. 

John Griswold came to New York in 1812, and 
opened his first store at 68 South street, moving later 
to 69, on the south corner of Pine street, and still later 
to 70, on the opposite corner. Shortly before or after 
the end of the second war with Great Britain he took his 
brother, Charles C. Griswold, into partnership. In 1823 
or thereabouts John Griswold started the first line of 
packets to London. His ships were the Sovereign, Cam- 
bria, President and Hudson. He lived at No. 43 Bond 
street from 1832 to 1841, moving then to 20 Union square. 
During the last three years of his occupancy of the Bond 
street house it was also the home of John Treat Irving, 
the son of Washington Irving's brother, Judge John T. 
Irving, who was the first chief judge of the court of 
common pleas. John T. Irving, Jr., was a successful 
lawyer, and under the pen name of "John Quod" wrote 
two novels that were published serially in the Knicker- 
bocker Magazine. His wife was Helen Schermerhorn, 
daughter of Abraham Schermerhorn, who lived at No. 
36 Bond street. When the Griswolds left, John T. Irving 
went to 5 Washington place. About 186 1 he returned to 
Bond street and took his father-in-law's old house, where 
he remained until 1877. In 1878 he was living at 121 
East Thirty-seventh street. John T. Irving's mother was 
Abby Furman, whose father, Gabriel Furman, was one 
of New York's most eminent citizens in the latter part 
of the eighteenth century and early part of the nine- 

At No. 44 Bond street there was no house until after 


1840. Its first occupant was John H. L. McCracken, who 
as we have seen, had previously lived at No, i. In 1846 
No. 44 was taken by Sidney Brooks, a merchant of 21 
Broad street, whose home before that year was at 57 
Walker street. He was living at No. 44 as late as 1857, 
and was one of the witnesses at the inquest in the Burdell 
murder, testifying that he had heard cries of "murder" 
in the night but thought they came from a crowd of 
roisterers in the Bowery nearby. 

No. 45 Bond street was built before 1835, It was 
occupied in 1834 by William Osborn, a Wall Street 
broker, who for the three or four years preceding lived 
at No. 51. In 1830 his residence was 23 Rutgers street. 
From 1837 to 1S44 No. 45 was occupied by John Hodges 
Graham, of the United States Navy. He was a lieuten- 
ant at this period. During the Civil War he was a cap- 
tain, and at the time of his death in 1878 was a commo- 
dore on the retired list. During part of Lieutenant 
Graham's tenancy Dr. Philip E. and Dr. John L. Mille- 
doler also lived at No. 45. In 1846 it was taken by M. 
Franklin Merrit, a merchant, of 58 South street. 

In 1834 and 1835 No. 46 Bond street was the resi- 
dence of Samuel Glover, a lawyer, of 42 Wall street. In 
1833 he lived at 350 Broadway, on the northeast corner 
of Leonard street, in die house that was for several years 
the home of Thomas Apthorpe Cooper, the actor. This 
house and the one next door, No. 352, in which Stephen 
Price, the manager of the Park Theatre, lived, were 
later extensively remodeled and converted into the Carl- 
ton Hotel. In 1836 Samuel Glover moved to 84 White 
street and the house he vacated in Bond street was 
taken by Arthur Bronson, who the year before was living 
at 97 Fast Broadway. He resided at No. 46 Bond street 
as late as 1851. 

No. 47 Bond street was occupied first by David W. 
C. Olyphant, one of New York's most prosperous and 
respected merchants. He came in 183 1 from 38 Lispen- 
ard street. One of his near neighbors in the latter street 
was Jacob Hays, the High Constable. In 1839 David W. 
C. Olyphant moved to Twentieth street, and No. 47 
was taken by Dr. Joseph Smith Dodge, a dentist, who in 

I 2W. 1 

Wall Street, from Broad Street to Broadway — showing the first of the two Gilienden buildings. 
The appearance of thin famoue corner on a Sunday morning— about 1890. 

that year announced his removal "from 49 Bowery, op- 
posite the Theatre." About 1845 lie went to No. 13 Bond 
street, as we have already seen. Two or three years 
later No. 47 was the residence or John L Karle, whose 
widow conducted a boarding house there in the early 

The first resident of No. 48 Bond street was Charles 
Brugiere, a Frenchman, and one of the refugees from 
St. Domingo after the massacre. In the same party, 
which landed and settled at Philadelphia, then the chief 
commercial city of America, were Antony Teisseire and 
his sister, Mademoiselle Teisseire. Shortly after, about 
1801, Charles Brugiere married the sister, and entered 
into business partnership with the brother under the firm 
name of Brugiere and Teisseire. The firm was success- 
ful from the start and in a few years did the largest im- 
porting dry goods business in the country. In 1823 the 
head of the firm came to New York and opened a branch 
house at 55 Greenwich street. It was not long before 
the branch was doing more business than the Philadelphia 

The Brugieres speedily acquired a prominent position 
in New York society, and the dinners and balls that they 
gave were famous. One of Madame Brugiere's most 
notable receptions was given in 1825 to introduce Sig- 
norina Garcia. At this time the Brugiere residence was 
at 30 Broadway. In that house Madame Brugiere gave 
a celebrated fancy dress ball. The witty and caustic 
Major Mordicai M. Noah, in his comments on the ball, 
said one of the guests, a popular and distinguished citi- 
zen, that "he attended in the dress of a private gentleman 
and no one knew him in that disguise." The victim of 
this witticism was the editor of the leading newspaper in 
the city, and when, a few years later, he received for pub- 
lication a brief notice of the death of Charles Brugiere's 
daughter, Juliette, he added to it these words: "She 
never caused her parents grief but when she died." 

In 1833 the Brugieres moved to their new house at 
No. 48 Bond street, but the death of their daughter occur- 
ring there the house became so deeply associated in their 
minds with the sad event that shortly after, in 1836, they 



ON Tuefiay the 17th of February 1761, tli ere will be 
3 grand Cock Match, on the Green near the VVoik- 
Houfc {grealcft Put of which ivill be converted W.ta 
a Pit) between levcnl Hundicds of pljin lAbtny and 
Property Cocks with their own Spins, Corjiii; am' 
Gills, and fome Cocks of a French Evtraflion, with gaudy Fv2 
thcrs, Gait's, and Gantlets finely trimmed, that have been i'tr 
fome Time keptnp and arc highly feed, with artificial Balls com 
pounded of Garlic, Old Madeira Wine, &c. The Bets will be 
very high ; as the Catties will not be decided there, they are la 
adjourn to the City Hall, where the Sport will be continued for 
two or thiee Days 1 n Young Gentleman, but an Old Cutk 
Fighter (who lately diitipgutfhed himfelf at Stunt's) that h,1s 
fought himfelf, as lung as he thought righting Safe, though by 
fighting a little longer he might have gained great Applaufe, and 
is well /killed in all the Laws, Rules and Order; of the Cock 
Pit, is to be mounted on the Bench, and determine all Difputci 
that may arife : When the Sport is over, if the Majority of the 
Spectators fliould give their Confent, he will joyn with fome 
others, and make a complete Syftem of Laws, relating to Cock 
Fighting-, Hbrfe Races, Drinking Bumpers with proper Toalli 
and Epithets, Concerts, Balls and Alfcmblies, nJ even Mafque- 
rades if it be thought nece/fary to introduce them into this 

Old time Cock Fight in New York, 1761. 


First Trip on an Elevated Road — 1867. 
Talk about Orville Wright and Count Zeppelin, their accomplishments are as nething compared to the 
hair-raising trip of Charles T. Harvey on the first el*vatid tine on Greenwich Street to ihow the people of 
thiB town that the train would not jump the track. Thomas Gtrehart, one of the present officials of the 
lnterborouglv is shown to the right of the police officer. He is still in the active Service Of the road. 
From /Ae caUttfion of Mr. Thee. P. Shontt. 

went to 785 Broadway, on the southwest corner of 
Tenth street. Charles Brugiere died in 1838, and Madame 
Brugiere survived him only a few years. 

After the Brugieres left Bond street No. 48 was taken 
by John Crumby, merchant, of the firm of Crumby and 
Draper, 29 Exchange place. In 1835 he lived at 515 
Broadway. After his death which occurred about 1840, 
No. 48 became the residence of Captain Silas Holmes, 
president of The Screw Dock Company, who had lived 
for some time at 16 Beach street, on the northwest cor- 
ner of Varick street, facing St. John's park. Silas 
Holmes owned a line of packets to Europe, and had him- 
self been a sea captain in earlier years. Hence the title 
by which he was familiarly known. He died about 1S60, 
in his Bond street house. In 1849, and for a year or two 
after, No. 48 was also the home of Samuel B. Schieffelin, 
of the famous wholesale drug house of Schieffelin Bros, 
and Company, then at 104 and 106 John street. Pre- 
viously he had been living at 763 Broadway. 

The first occupant of No. 49 Bond street seems to 
have been Mrs. Mary Titus, who moved there from 459 
Broome street, between Mercer and Greene streets, in 
183 1. About 1837 No. 49 was taken by Elizabeth Sin- 
clair. She came from 5 Amity (now West Third) street, 
and in 1840 moved to Fourth street. Following her de- 
parture No. 49 was occupied for two years by Samuel 
Healy, a broker, of 56 Wall street, who had formerly re- 
sided at 48 Great Jones street. In 1842 he went to 39 
West Fourteenth street. No. 49 then became the home 
of Sarah Minturn. Previously she had resided a year or 
two at 36 Market street, but evidently was well satisfied 
with Bond street, for she remained at No. 49 until 1862. 

No. 50 was the home of a famous merchant, Isaac 
U. Coles, who came from No. 1 State street in 1834. The 
State street house, which stood until a few years ago 
(it disappeared about 1910), was built in the eighteenth 
century by Isaac U. Coles' father, John B. Coles. The 
latter began his business career before the close of the 
Revolution as a clerk in the counting house of Thomas 
Buchanan, whose daughter, Mrs. Martha Hicks, moved 
to No. 25 Bond street in 1833. In 18 10 he moved next 


door, to No. 2 State street, giving up No. I to Isaac U., 
the second of his five sons. After the death of John E., 
about 1826, his fourth son, William F., took No. 2. At 
this time the Coles store was at No. 1 South street, but 
in 1832 Isaac U. opened a store of his own at 28 >4 
Front street, and three years later retired from busi- 
ness. Longworth's Directory for 1836 gives his address 
as "50 Bond house closed." In the 1837 Directory the 
information is "Coles, Isaac U., supposed 50 Bond house 
closed." Barrett says "It was occasionally a marked 
house, from the fact that year after year, it was her- 
metically sealed. From 1836 on, a few years, I do not be- 
lieve it was ever entered. It was as solemn as if a dozen 
murders had been committed there." Isaac U. Coles lived 
in Bond street until 1852. His remains lie in a vault in 
Trinity Cemetery. 

As we have already seen, No. 51 Bond street was occu- 
pied about 1831 by William Osborn, who moved to No. 
45 in 1834, and by Lieutenant Graham, of the Navy, who 
moved to No. 45 in 1837. From this year until some 
time in the late '4o's No. 51 was a lodging house. Among 
the lodgers were Charles Wilkens, music teacher, and his 
sister, Harriett, dancing teacher ; and Thomas Pyne, a 
dealer in hides and furs at 164 Water street, the second 
door above the famous moss-covered paint store of 
"Old Billy Post." In 1849 No. 51 became the residence 
of Robert H. Bowne, of Bowne and Company, 149 Pearl 
street, stationers and printers to the Corporation. He 
resided there until i860, when he moved to 46 West 
Eleventh street. 

The first occupant of No. 52 Bond street seems to 
have been James Iddings, assistant cashier of the United 
States Branch Bank, then at 34 Wall street, opposite the 
old Merchant's Exchange. At this time the Bank was 
winding up. In 1841 he moved to Brooklyn. Esther 
Ann Devereux lived in the house for a year or two fol- 
lowing, then went to No. 55. In 1843 No. 52 was taken 
by Dr. John Davis, who remained there until 1852, when 
he moved to 37 Bleecker street. A few years later he 
followed his fashionable patients up town and settled 


Mtltl Avenue Fifty- seventh 10 Fift; -eiKhth Stieet. 
The residence of Cornelius Var.derrllt as Oligtnaliy erected. mtdHinns on Fihy-seventh Siren and out 
10 Filly-eighth Street, now occupy the site of the uld brown-stone houses, 

at 22 West Fourteenth street across from the Van 
Beuren Mansion. 

No. 53's first occupant was Finley Wright, a builder, 
who, it is reasonable to suppose, built the house he lived 
in and other in the same street and neighborhood. He 
movd freom 20 Cedar street in 1829, but the next year 
he went back to Cedar street, and gave up No. 53 Bond 
street to Pliny Freeman, who was for many years an 
active and influential figure in the field of insurance. In 
1835 he moved to 344 Bowery, on the south corner of 
Great Jones street. The house is now numbered 346. 
After a few years as a boarding house, conducted by 
Elizabeth Geib, No. 53 was taken in 1839 by Catherine 
R- Livingston, widow of Francis A. Livingston, a lawyer, 
who died in 1830. Before 1839 she lived at 500 Broome 
street. In 1844 she moved to 28 Waverly place. The 
next occupant of No. 53 was Dr. Thomas B. Gunning, a 
dentist, who retained the house until 1857. 

No. 54 Bond street was occupied at different times by 
James D. Fitch, M. D., Hiland H. Wheeler, a lawyer, and 
Thomas F. Cook, M. D. 

From 1838 to 1842 No. 55 Bond street was the resi- 
dence of Wililam F. Bulkley, who came there from 335 
Fourth street, the second house west of Lafayette place. 
After he moved to Brooklyn, in 1843, the house was occu- 
pied two years by Esther Ann Devereux, who had been 
living at No. 47. She moved to Seventh street about 
1S46, and a short time afterward No. 55 was opened as 
a boarding house by Charles Follin. Among his boarders 
was Lewis E. Amsinck, who was the Portuguese vice- 
counsel in this city for many years. He was of Dutch 
descent but born in Hamburg, where his father was a 
merchant of wealth and position. Coming to New York 
about 1848 Lewis E. Amsinck entered the employ of 
Ebeck & Kunhardt, and three years later established the 
firm of L. E. Amsinck and Company. Practically a 
branch of the ancient Hamburg house of John Schuback 
and Sons, of which the elder Amsinck was the head, the 
new firm prospered from the first. In a few years it 
had a substantial monopoly of the wine trade between 
Portugal, Spain and Hungary and New York. 


For four or five years in the early '30's No. 56 Bond 
street, next to the corner of the Bowery, was the resi- 
dence of Alfred A. Low, a merchant, whose place of 
business was at 161 South street. After he left, about 
1835, the house degenerated rapidly, perhaps because of 
its proximity to so important a business thoroughfare as 
the Bowery, and after a few years as a lodging house 
it became the open door for the invasion of trade. Be- 
fore 1850 it contained a tailor's shop, a shoemaker's shop, 
a trunk store, and a dancing school, and at night gave 
the shelter of "furnished rooms" to a carter and a harbor 

Nos. 57 and 59 were built late, and who occupied 
them before 1850 has not been ascertained. Tn that year 
Conrad Hardmeyer conducted an "academy" at No. 57, 
and No. 59 was the dwelling of Stephen V. Albro, who 
kept a grocery store around the corner at 328 Bowery. 
In 185 1 the Church of Christ, of the denomination known 
as "Primitive Christians," worshipped at No. 57. In 
1855 of the year following the "Bond Street Homeopathic 
Dispensary was established at No. 59 by Dr. Otto Full- 
graff. It continued at that location until 1874. 

[In only a few cases has it been possible to consult original records, 
other than the city directories of the period, in preparing the above. The 
author will therefore be grateful if his readers will acquaint him with any 
corrections that they may find necessary.] 


Sixth Avenue at WrA Street, now the site uf the Gimbel Store. 

The American Geographical Society 

The American Geographical Society is the oldest geo- 
graphical society in the United States. When it was 
founded, in 1852, there were but twelve similar institu- 
tions in the world. Its collections contain an exception- 
ally large number of unique books and maps. Among its 
gold medalists are the names of some of the world's most 
distinguished explorers and geographers — Shackleton, 
Scott, Amundsen, Mawson, Moreno and many others. 
Quite recently Colonel Roosevelt and Maj. General 
Goethals have been added to the list. Among its 
fellows and honorary and corresponding members have 
been Bayard Taylor, Sir Roderick Murchison and Gen- 
eral John C. Fremont; among its past presidents have 
been George Bancroft, Henry Grinnell and Judge Charles 
P. Daly. 

The exhibition rooms contain a permanent exhibition 
of ancient maps including facsimile reproductions of the 
famous Cabot map of 1544; the Juan de la Cosa map of 
1500 (glass transparency), which is the first known dated 
map showing a part of the coast of America; and the 
Hondius and Elaeu maps, dated 161 1 and 1605, respec- 
tively. There is a temporary exhibition of. maps of cur- 
rent interest, including maps of the war and economic 
maps of the various countries. In addition, the map 
collections on the third floor are rich in material of his- 
toric interest. The Mercator map of 1538 is one of the 
most striking examples. It is the first map ever published 
that bears the names of both North and South America. 
Only one other copy of this map is known. A photo- 
graphic reproduction of a map published by Waldsee- 
muller in 1507 hangs on the south wall of the exhibition 
hall. This is the largest engraved map of its time and 
the first on which the name America ever appeared. 
Though inaccurate in many of its details it is remark- 

within fifteen years after the first trans-Atlantic voyage 


knowledge which it records 

of Columbus. The main map coltections number nearly 
40,000 items and include topographic sheets of all the 
government surveys in existence, as well as wall maps, 
route maps of explorers, and economic maps, all chrono- 
logically arranged under the different countries of the 

The library consists of more than 50,000 books and 
thousands of pamphlets. They are arranged by regions 
and include some of the oldest and rarest geographical 
works in existence as well as modern books of descrip- 
tion and travel, mountaineering, exploration and research. 

About 400 periodicals are regularly received and in- 
clude every geographical or near-geographical publication 
known. These are systematically and critically examined, 
abstracted, and reviewed in the monthly magazine of the 
Society, the Geographical Review. In addition the Re- 
view includes articles of current interest by the leading 
scholars and explorers of the time. 

The membership of the Society includes about 1200 
residents of New York and 2100 non-residents, or a total 
of 3300 Fellows. 

On the walls of the vestibule are the names in bronze 
of the past presidents and of the recipients of the gold 
medals. Two gold medals have been founded by the So- 
ciety, the Cullum Medal and the Charles P. Daly Medal. 
In addition the Society awards the David Livingstone 
Centenary Medal founded by the Hispanic Society of 
America in 1913. 

A large oil portrait of Judge Charles P. Daly, Presi- 
dent of the Society from 1864 to 1899, hangs near the 
head of the stairway on the second floor. Nearby is 
the circular Map of the World by Giovanni Leardo, 
dated 1452, one of the treasures of the map collection. 
The Society has also just acquired an oil portrait of Cap- 
tain Nathaniel Brown Palmer who in 1820-1821 first ex- 
plored Palmer Land, West Antarctica. A bronze tablet 
in the vestibule on the first floor commemorates this 

Beside the Palmer tablet is a similar tablet in honor 
of the explorations of Lieut. Charles Wilkes, who in 
1840 cruised along the coast of East Antarctica (now 


Fulton Ferry Home, Brooklyn, 1874. At ihla time, the main artery of travel bmwaen New York and Brooklyn- 
Tower of the Brooklyn BrluRij at right, in cnurs* uf cansiruciion. 
Courlay Dr. R. S. Bathoat. 

called Wilkes Land) and in 1840 on his return announced 
the existence of the Antarctic Continent. 

Two other oil portraits of interest hang side by side 
in the main exhibition room: Paul Belloni du Chaillu, 
presented by Mrs. C. de Cosse Conger, and Henry M. 
Stanley, presented by Senor Angel Ortez. 

Bedloe's Island In 1753 

Going back to 1753 we find the following inter- 
esting description of Bedloe's Island : 

"To be let. Bedloe's Island, alias Love Tsland, together -with 
the Dwelling House and Light House, being finely situated for 
a tavern, where all kind of Garden Stuff, Poultry, &c, may be 
easily raised for the Shipping outward bound, and from where 
any Quantity of pickled Oysters may be obtained; it abounds 
with English Rabhits." 

The following items of the same date will interest 
our Brooklyn readers: 

"Travelers are desired to observe, in going from Flat-Bush 
to said Ferry (Yellow Hook ferry), to keep the marfc'd trees 
on the right hand." 


Old Time Marriage Notices 
Compiled by A, J. Wohlhagen 

Assistant Librarian of The New York Historical Society. 

The following list of marriages copied from The 
Weekly Museum is a continuation from page 256 of the 
previous Manual and completes the year 1796. The 
issues for July 2, Oct. 8, 15, Nov. 19 and Dec. 31 are 
missing from the file in The New York Historical Society 
from which this compilation has been made. 

1796 — Saturday, May 14. John Cfii-us and Charlotte B. Turner, both 

of this city, married Saturday last. 
1796 — Saturday, May 14. George Sm>Ht»sM, aged 21, and Ste- 
phenson, aged 14, married Sunday, the Sth. 
1796 — Saturday, May 14. William Black and Hannah Ketch, both of 

this city, married Saturday laGt. 
1796 — Saturday, May 14. George J. Wains* and Susan Nexin, daughter 

of Elias Jvexen, merchant of this city, married Tuesday last. 
1796 — Saturday, May 21. Dr. Philip Kittletas and Lavihia Gednxy, 

both of New Rnchctle, married Saturday the 7th. 
1796 — Saturday, May 21. Dtjryea and Mrs. Emxabetti Vak 

Zabidt, both of this city, married the 11th Wednesday, at Bedford, 

L. I. 

1796 — Saturday, May 21. James J. Bocctt and Betsey Benezf.t, of 

Phila., married Thursday the 5th at Phila. 
1756 — Saturday, May 21. William Wise, of Phila., and ELIZABETH 

Coofer, of Phila., married Monday the 2d, at Phda. 
1796 — Saturday, May 21, John Cornell, of Long Island, and Eliza 

llscautv v. of Middlebrow. N. J., married Sunday last at Middle- 

brook, N. J. 

1 796 — Saturday, May 21. Robert Kerrah, merchant, and Ei.enor Casey, 
both natives of Ireland, now of this city, married Sunday last. 

U96 — Saturday, May 21, ChaM.ES Smith and MtSS A. WaGnES, both of 
this city, married Wednesday. 

1796 — -Saturday, May 21. Albxanoee M'Nkhi.y, aged 38, and MahY 
Cassady, aged 1], both late of Killebeys in Ireland, married Wed- 

1796 — Saturday. May 21. Abraham and Marcaret Cahmer, hoth 

of this city, married Thursday last. 
] 7"J6 — Saturday, June 4. Sally Ten Brook, daughter of Henry Ten 

Brook, merchant of this city, died Friday last. May 27th, aged 

17 years. Buried United Brethren's Church Yard. 
1 79C — Saturday, June 11. William P. Walton and Polly Vanoekhoep, 

of this city, married a few evenings since. 

1795— Saturday, June 11. John Vam SchAAK and P«Cfi¥ BlEECicIr 
(daughter of John N. Bleecker), both of Albany, married at Atbany. 

1796 — Saturday, June 11. Samuel Ancer&on and Mary Cuumincs, both 
late of (Jewry, Ireland, married Tuesday 24th. 

1796— Saturday, June 11. Isaag A. Kir and Catharine Van Wa<5En*n, 

both of this city, married Thursday 3rd. 
1796 — Saturday, June 11. Edward Watje, Jr., and Mahy Box, both of 

Ibis city, married Saturday last, 
1796— Saturday. June 11. William K. Simmons, grocer, of this city, and 

Jani W. Young, daughter of Capt. Fred. J. Young, of Jamaica, 

L. I., married Sunday la*t, 


Brci«d Sueet and the Custom House {now the site of the Sub-Treasury building } in Hah, 
From iht private tctUvtlon »/ Mr. J. P. Morgan. 

1796 — Saturday, June 11. Jesse Mead and Njmv ("ompton both of this 

city, married Sunday last. 
1796 — Saturday. June 11. W. W. IIyhr, printer, formerly of this city, 

and M. Stirrer, daughter of the late Dr, Struber, of Lancaster, 

married Monday last at Phil.i. 
1796 — Saturday, June IS, Phiheas Miller, of Georgia-, and Mss, 

Catharine Greene, widow of the late General Greene, married at 

Fhila.. May 31 ec. 

1796 — Saturday, June IS. Jacob I.azelirh, son of Mr. Laielire of Staten 

Island, and Kitty Bennbt, daughter of Mr. Bennet, at the 

Narrows, married Wednesday the 1st. 
1796 — Saturday, June IS, Abraham Conrbt, of this city, and Deborah 

Kekis of Stonage. married Sunday the 5th. 
1796 — Saturday, June 18. William Hl-htin, of Springfield, N. J,, and 

Dark lx 3 rlucHlNS, of this city, married Saturday last. 
1796 — Saturday, June IS, Abraham Fsrdon and Phoebe Jokes, both of 

this city, married Saturday last. 
1796— Saturday, June 18, Abeaiiau Pull and Maeja Masierton, both 

of this city, married Saturday last, 
1796— Saturday, June 18, Hkhaso Hayes and Pcmi.y Thompson, Mh of 

this eity> married Sunday last. 
1796 — Saturday, June 18. William Grezne and Lybia Hop hire, both 

of this city, married Sunday last. 
1796 — Saturday, June 18. Capt, Thomas C. Chubch and Deborah P. 

Avery, both of this city, married Sunday last. 
1796 — Saturday, June IB. Willet Cornell and Makv Cock, both of North 

Castle, married Wednesday last. 
1796 — Saturday, June IS, Capt. William Nicoll and Effie Fui, hoth 

of tins city, married Thursday last. 
1796 — Saturday, June 18, Natiiam Stansbury and Mrs. Charlotte 

Leynard, both of this city, married a few evenings since. 
1796 — Saturday, June 25. Ma;os E. Hopkins, late of Georgia, and Mrs. 

Sim:-, of this city, married Wednesday, June 15th, at Phila. 
1796 — Saturday, June 25. Abraham 1)f.graw and Sarah S].m:r\i, both of 

this city, married June 17th. 
1796 — Saturday, June 25. Capt. James Pandergast and Mast Burjeau, 

both of this city, married Thursday last. 
1796 — Saturday, June 25. Pierre Van CoRTLAsriT Heckuah, son of 

Gerard G. Beekman, of Bcckman's Mills, Westchester Co., died 

June Sth at Martinico. 
1796 — Saturday, July 9. Miss Mary Blackbourn. in the 20th year of 

her age, died Monday last. 
1796 — Saturday, July 9. Miss Sally Eh i neiander eldest daughter of 

Mr. Frederick Eliinelander, of this city, died Saturday last, 
1796 — Saturday, July 16. Caft. Timothy Doecan and Miss Sally Joses, 

both of this eity, married Thursday last. 
1796 — -Saturday, July 16. Edward Blackeoro, merchant of this city, and 

Hannah Murray, daughter of James Murray, late of this city, 

but now of Newark, married Monday last. 
1796— Saturday, July 16. Samuel Cuhua and Sally Bowen, both of 

Providence, married Monday last. 
1796! — Saturday, July 16. Jonathan Thompson, of the bouse of Haines 

& Thompson, of this eity, merchants, died Saturday last, aged 

30 year*. 

1796 — Saturday, July 23. Minnb Scheme, of Cow Neck, and Piiebe 
Torrey, daughter of Daniel Toffey, of Herricks, L. I., married 
June 28th. 

1796 — Saturday, July 23, Cornelius Day and MxS. Ahk Hameller, both 
of this city, married July 14th. 

1796 — Saturday July 23. George Gaine and Eliiabetk Taylor, hoth 
of this eity, married July 15th. 

1796 — Saturday, July 23. Elizabeth Delamater, daughter of John 
DrTamater, of this city, in the 18th year of her age, died Thurs- 
day la*t. 

1796— Saturday, July 30. Pete* Hop si ire and Miss Sally Wilson, both of 
thi* city, married Sunday last. 


1795— Saturday. July 30. James Bleeckxr, merchant and Saeah Bacpe, 
daughter of Thcophylact Bachc, merchant of tliii city, married 
Monday last. 

1? 96— Saturday, August 6. Cornelius Day and Ann Hamilton, lately 
from Trinadad. married July 7. 

1796 — Saturday August 6. William James, of this city, and Ann Read, of 
Trenton, married Saturday list. 

1796 — Saturday, August 6. John Wilson and Mrs. Hester Bleecker, 
widow of the late John Bleecker, of this city, married Sunday lust. 

1796 — Saturday, August 6. Enoch Ely and Mrs. Keziah Camp, both of 
Cats Kill, married Sunday last. 

1796 — Saturday, August 6. John Aim and Peccy Moore, married Thurs- 

179* — Saturday, August 6. William Wooes and Jemima Sim moms, both 

Of this city, married Thursday. 
179fi — Saturday, August 6. Philip Skinnkr, formerly of New Jersey. 

died Monday last at NVwtown, L, in the 26th year of his aee. 

1794 — Saturday. August 6. Ebenezir Young, of this city, ship-builder, 
died last Thursday. 

1796 — Saturday, August l.l. B. Penrose, of Phila., and Miss If. Bing- 
ham, of this city, married Monday, the 1st insl. 

1796 — Saturday, August 13. Joseph Hawhaii, of this city, and Polly 
Gray, of Brooklyn, L. I., married Sunday last. 

1796 — Saturday, August 13. Capt. Isaac Hanu, of thi* city, and Amy 
Weeks, of Oyster Bay, L. I., married Sunday last at Hunting- 
ton, L. I, 

1796 — Saturday, August 13. Patricio! M'Mannaks, of this city, and 
Mas, Seethe .Arnold, formerly of Boston, married Monday last. 

1 7 96— Saturday, August 20. H. He H< • - • J«„ late of the Island of 
St. Lucie, West Indies, and Widow Thomson, of this city, married 
a few days since. 

1796 — Saturday. August 20. Elifualet Barnlm and Phebi Coux, both of 
Oyster Bay, L. I., married Thursday, the 11th inst. 

1796 — Saturday, August 20. Capt. Joseph Stringitam, of this city, died 

1796 — Saturday, August 20. Williau Walton, of this city, died Thurs- 
day last, aged 64 years, 25 day*. Buried yesterday in family vault, 
in. Trinity Churchyard. 

1796— -Saturday, August 27. Rev. John Fountain, of Maryland, and 
Elizabeth Rickhow, of Staten Island, married Thursday, the 
11th inst, 

1796 — Saturday, August 27. Silas B. Hand, printer, and Kiioda Cook, 
both of this city, married Saturday last. 

1795 — Saturday, August 27. M7illiau Peacock, Ik., of the State of 
Georgia, and Mary Moore^ of this city, married Thursday last. 

l?96 — Saturday, September, 3. Cornelius Kjucsjanp, and Abigail Cock, 
both of this city, married Sunday last. 

1796 — Saturday, September 10. Joel Si:, of Crab-Meadow (L. L), 
and Hannah Hovt, of Dicks-Hills, L I., married Sunday, 21st. 

1796 — Saturday, September 10. Capt. Daniel Hawi.ey, of Connecticut, 

and Catharine Gilbert, daughter of William W. Gilbert, of this 

city, married Saturday last. 
17"fi — Saturday, September 10. Heza E. Bliss, of New York, and 

Betsey Jelf Thomas, of Elizabeth-town. N. J., married Saturday 

last at Eliiabcth-Town, N. J. 
1796 — Saturday, September 10. Osaoiah Wickes, of Troy, and Sally 

Haymond, of Norwalk, Cl., married Wednesday, 31st. 
179(i — Saturday, September 10,, of Troy, and Susannah 

Raymond, of Norwalk, Ct., married Wednesday, 1Mb 
1796 — Saturday, Scptemhcr 10. Peter T. Cdetenius, Auditor General of 

New York, died Thursday last. 
1796 —Saturday, September 10. De. Isaac DaVIS, of Stamford, Ct., died 

Thursday last. 

1796 — Saturday, September 17. Leonard Rcti.vs and Betsey Oakley, 
married Sunday. 

1796— Saturday, September 17. Capt. James Ward, of Middlctown Point, 
N. J., and Jane Van Felt, of that place, married nol long since. 


C H k ' 

Fifth Avenut, 91st Street. 1876. Looking west from Park Avenue. The only modern building is the 

resident* of Jacob Ruppen. 

1796 — Saturday, September 17. Francis St._ Maby and Elizabeth, of Cayenne, married Thursday, "th inst. 
1796 — Saturday, September 24. Catharine Applehi and Saw vet Mott, 

holh of Caw Neck, married Monday. 12th inst. 
1796 — Saturday, September 24. Samuel Mott and Catharine Affi.ebe, 

both of Cow Neck, married Monday, 12th inst. 
1796 — Saturday, September 24. Frederick Da Vou of Morriasiana, and 

Deborah Weeks, late of thin city, married at Haerlem, Saturday 


1796 — Saturday, September 24. Robert Mabdeu. and Levtnia Woods, 

daughter of John Woods, married Wednesday last, 
1796 — Saturday, September 24, Richard Eu-is and Catharine Van 

Tuvl, daughter of Andrew Van Tuyl, married Thursday last. 
1796 — Saturday, September 24. Peter Vandevoort Ledyaru and Mama 

Vajj Tuvl, daughter of Andrew Van Tuyl, of this city, married 

Thursday last. 

1796 — Saturday, October 1. Dr. Alexander Hosack and Gloriana 
Skjnnez, daughter of Abraham Skinner, of thin city, married 
Monday last. 

1796— Saturday, October 1. Jabvis, of this city, and Betsey Mott, 

of that place (NorwalkJ, married Monday last at Norwalk. 
1796 — Saturday, Octohcr 1. Philip Veevalen and Sally Aeden, daughter 

of Thomas Arden, married Tuesday last at Newtown, L. I. 
1796 — Saturday, October I. Da, William Doll, of Colchester, Ulster Co., 

and Sophia Christiana Bauman, daughter of Col, Sebastian 

Bauinan, of this city, married Wednesday List, 
1796 — Saturday, October 22. Capt. John Saunders, of Exeter, Ens,, and 

Cathaeihe Livingston, ot this city, married Thursday, the 13th 


1796 — Saturday, October 22, A. McGregor, merchant, and Jaket Wilson, 

married Thursday, the 13lh inst. 
1796— Saturday, October 22. Gideon Hallett and Polly Pugsley, both 

of New-Town, L I., married Saturday last, 
1796 — Saturday, October 22. John Monro, merchant of this city, and 

Olivia Roe, daughter of Rev. Axel Roc, of Woodbridgc, N. J,, 

married Monday last. 
1796 — Saturday, October 22. EbWAan MEBKS and SuSAKAH Coor-EE, both 

of this city, married Monday last. 
1796 — Saturday, October 29, Brkzeliei- Brown and Char lotte Marshall. 

both of Horse Neck, married Sunday. 16th inst., at Horse Neck. 
1796 — Saturday, October 29. Isaac Hagner and Hannah Toffy, daughter 

of Daniel Toffy, both of Derricks, L. 1., married Wednesday, 19th. 
1796 — Saturday, October 29. John Tint Brook, merchant, and Alithea 

Sit i, km, daughter of Jobn Sickels, both of this city, married Satur- 
day last, 

1796 — Saturday. October 29. Cf.oece Stewart and Nancy Brant, both of 

tbia city, married Sunday last. 
1796 — Saturday. October 29. Casper Seuelex and Hannah Smith, both 

of tbia city, married Thursday last. 
1796 — Saturday, November 5. Caft. Alexander Don and Mary Berrimsk, 

both of this city, married Wednesday last, 
1796 — Saturday. November 12. ]f. Sewell, His Britannic Majesty's 

Attorney General, and Harriet Smith, youngest daughter of Hon. 

William Smith, latn Chief Justice of that Province, married Sep- 
tember 24th, at Quebec, Canada. 
1796 — Saturday, November 12, John Livingston, of the Manor of 

Livingston, and Mss, Catharine Ridley, daughter of William 

Livingston, late Governor of New Jersey, married November 3d, at 

his Excellency John Jay's Esq. 
1796 — Saturday, November 12. Wandel Ham, of this city, and Catharine 

('[H'EjHiifLI, of Brooklyn (L. I.), married Friday, the 4tb, 
1796 — Saturday, November 12. Peter Waenek and Betsey Pieloing, both 

Df this city, married 4th Inst, 
1796 — Saturday, November 12. William Siiatzel and Elsey Hall, both 

of this city, married Saturday last. 
1796 — Saturday, November 12. Thomas Loyd and Mas. Sabah Ellis, both 

of this city, married Sunday last. 


1796 — Saturday, November 12. William Watsoh, of thii city, and 

Jemima Honeywell, daughter of Israel Honeywell, of Westchester, 

married Sunday List. 
1796 — Saturday. November 12. Homxt Lee and Mn Caroline C. Beits, 

both of tbia city, married Tuesday last. 
1796 — Saturday, November 12. James M'MaStejus and Mas. Catharine 

HcHTWICK, bath of tbia city, married Tuesday evening last. 
1796— Saturday, November 12. Ehenezer Bbowm, of Phila., and Miss 

Esther Ank Watsoh, sister to James Watson, Jr., of this city, 

married last evening. 
1796 — Saturday, November 26. Jeremiah Vak Kenssei.aer, son of Gen. 

Kobert Van Rensselaer, of Claverack, and SibeLLa A. KAKE, daughter 

of John Kane, of Schenectady, married at Schenectady, Nov. 12th. 
1796 — Saturday, November 26. Cboxge Simi-sok and Mabv Phk, both 

of this city, married tbe 17th. 
1796 -Saturday, December 3. Be-nowa Bradker, of Sugar Loaf, and Mary 

Jeans, of Florida, Ulster Co., N. Y., married at Florida, Ulster 

Co., Nov. 19th. 

1796 — Saturday, December 3. Thomas Maiiav find Hannah Curtis, both 

of this City, married Sunday the 20th (Nov.). 
1796 — Saturday, December 3. Joshua Parkee and SaLLY VaM AULEK, both 

of thia city, married November 24tb, 
1796 — Saturday, December 3. James Whiting and Deborah Alien, both 

of this city, married Monday last. 
1796 — Saturday, December 10. William Jarmak and Eliza Elford, late 

from England, married November 30th. 
1796 — Saturday, December 10. Isaac Cuius and Charlotte JIam>. bulb 

of this city, married Saturday last. 
1796 — Saturday, December 10. William Willis, of this city, and Eliia 

Oakley, daughter of William Oakley, nf E-'ostcrs Meadow, L. I., 

married Saturday last. 
1796 — Saturday, December 10. Stephen Hunt and Mascatset Dutches, 

both of that place, married Sunday last at North Castle. 
1796— Saturday, December 10. Elkanah Smith, merchant of this city, and 

Mary Arthur, of Smithtown, L. I., married November 28th, at 

Smitli-Tnwn, L. I. 

1796 — Saturday, December 17. James Parkin and Mrs. Rebecca Clarksow, 

boih of this city, married Tuesday last, 
1796 — Saturday, December 17. Tames Hewitt and Eliza King, daughter 

of tbe late Major King of England, married Saturday last. 
1796 — Saturday, Decemhcr 17. Abraham Walton, died December 10th, 

aged 58 years. 

1796 — Saturday. December 24. Edeneier Brush, merchant of this city, 
and Sally Shattuck. daughter of William Shattuck, of Boston, 
married Decemhcr 11th, at Boston. 

[314 J 

Fac Sim ile 

«f till i»riie*r hnomn printing * Enolijri from 111* Pr*tt Of NilllYorhJ 

frm m l^iul n It. .r ill iurmrf d !«. 

BtwurDtt tlttrbtr Cspwm General and Gowrnoijr in 
Chief of the Province of ^\(ji»-7W, Province of 
Pemt^ham, and Conmry of Ncv-Cajfle, and the 
Territories and TraSs of Land depending thsrtou "in 

7* dSOfctrs and Miniflen Ecc'ifoftical and Civil tbmugb 
out the PrwiiKes and Trmtoriti Under my Gwtismtnt. 

WHercas I arjieredihly inMirmrJ! [ha* rheSors of rV ararr WtftU* ml 
Huaband of Ami ;t CbrifliMt, Inhabitintj arad Sailen of the City of. 
iVrri- Tar e,foLl rw Lug their Law full Ot cupatitjii,arcre taken v Va .'.•> , , 
wrararetheyartBUTf in ratlerablcStavery, under rile Power of the Infidell, arid 
Chat licir Relations art not able ra advance 1 fufliaenr Rjufi.m fur t VK fti - - 
cirm prion, 1 ha« therefore upon their implication unto me, by and with the 
adviccot" the Council, out of ChriftM C'/j*rirv, and uiComniiferjiiuniif ihc 
irrvevoirj Bondage ee Slavery of ihr fji.l Peifoni, ^rii .rcj, flt do by ihefe prcirnfl 
F.rar. i Lifeavre ur Liberty I..; the 111 I lt r -t ft Xfa i AnttrChrtfluitr, I i.v 
ml receive the free arid charitable Benevolence of all Cbrift/vt People hinder my 
Oerrefntnmfi u »-rlL it Mie'iip^ n ^-n iirii^r . mi; Hi-ule'i And lo 
*»oid irregularity rn eUocetin* the fame, nil N.iniFtcrtcirPrcadKrt, v. litre [her* 
sue Par^Chiirrr^e>rpublickorpTrraTEM«eniig Mnufea, arc required topub- 
lithatrue Cupy of thji Grim, byrerajiiigtriccecif openly, and arhxinj; thereof 
afterwards upon the Doctor other public* place, arid admonish rhe peopleto 
Chrtdi4*CturK? and art*>*a*xl bluing iWI receive the free OrTcriftQcc fie, 
Tjevejenceof the people for [he irfe above-laid. And where nr> Churchci nor 
Jvleerina] HouCcsarr, rhe Cbftllaiiltt are hereby required in i Licit wrFpeitlveFrt- 

cul&j. baring a true Copyofthii Grant, ro go about and QOtWfc the charity of 
sp&dC&riJlM Tiylr fur the Life >bovtJn6. Of all wbarh Bcnnulente and 
Charity the f»id Mtnifterror Preachers and Coitifatlei, are to keep a ddlinir. 
Account, whack fbcytre to rnnLinir, with what Money they shall tuLlcta by 
Time of rhii Grant, wiilieMtdeliy to S'/pift Cttrtiiid tliy Trffjmtr 
M*r;tu, Jet* KfrhR te Jih* Ktff, who ire hereby irnpowered to receive i he 
fame, uy) r rjmfnurthe bid Money, or l.-i ii fhall be req,uil.r for (he rU- 
drmpriori of the laid Captive! from Slavery, by the belt inJmoft coflvenjent 

rneaiu arn, vay . Provided alnyt/Thal ill cafe rlvrrr lhall be i furplllflfje abOvo 
iheTalueriFttKLr R^mptloiij iirineafiajiTnf the fail! periona fhall he dead j or 
ntheraile rajeeilTCjjthej *e&ij .rryh-.CoarTlai.a'F Sni'PrnrJmil Mtfiat 

Ttifn KirhXti J*!x K'f iWl be iteoireiiijik n> Me, er to rhc U tmetnoiK and 
Commander in chief for rhe ctmebetrnti for rhe fum eulLeOed,or fo much rhert- 
ofii is left larjoii their or lome of their ft edem priori, that it nwy he fa apan 
for the tdce, ororrLtr piou Ufoj andforaorarieriife orintenevrhatfoever. 

Ciw. aJvaVr mf ftmiti SfjJjt fori William Henry tir tttUtf # 

Bts. Fictcbtr. 

Yrmltt it Wdlian Bradfiir J, PrrVo- tt King Williarrj 4f Miry 

Uii..jir-,; r ^ 

The earliest known specimen of printing done in New York— 
the work of William llradford. 


The History of the Beginnings of the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art 
An Episode of New York in the Seventies 

By Winifred E. Howe 

Extract from tier History of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1913. 

By the end of the Civil War the time for the estab- 
lishment of a permanent gallery of art in New York had 
fully come and the people of culture were united in their 
recognition of this fact, though they might differ as to 
the practicable means to secure the desired end. For 
example, the New York Historical Society wished to 
utilize for that purpose the Arsenal in the Park, while 
the editor of the Evening Posi, on January iy, 1867, in 
an article entitled "A Free Gallery for New York," laid 
the burden of responsibility fnr such an undertaking 
upon the National Academy of Design, then occupying 
its Fourth Avenue building. 

At this juncture John Jay, a man ceaseless in good 
works, best known at this time perhaps by his active 
opposition to slavery, gave an address before a company 
of Americans at a Fourth of July dinner in Paris in 1S66 
that was destined to initiate the Museum movement. 
The London Times of July 7, 1866, in a letter from 
Paris, gives the following pleasing account of this sig- 
nificant occasion; 

"The 90th anniversary of the National Independence of 
the United States was celebrated on Wednesday at the Pre 
Catalan. The fete was organized through the active agency of 
some patriotic gentlemen. The usual attractions of the Pre 
Catalan were much increased by a generous contribution of 
plants and flowers by the Prefect of the Seine from the city 
conservatories. Large tents were arranged for the accommoda- 
tion of those present — one for dancing, two for refreshments, 
and one as a vestiaire. They were profusely decorated with 
American and French flags united in faisceaux, and in the danc- 
ing tent were suspended portraits of Washington and of the 
Emperor of the French Among the invited guests were Mr. 

[316 ] 

Battery Park and Castle Garden. 
When used as the emigrant landing station, from 1855 to 189S, nearly 8,00O,C0O foreigners have passed 
through its portals. Jenny Lind sang here in 1853 and Morse demonstrated the telegraph here. Both 
Lafayette and Joffre landed at the Battery when they came to New York. The Garden was turned 
into en Aquarium in 1896, end is one of the most popular nights in the City. 

Bigelow, Minister of the United States, and his family; Mr, Fox, 
Assistant Secretary of War; Captain Beaumont (of the Monitor 
Miantonomoh, now lying at Cherbourg), together with several 
of his officers; Mr. N, M. Beckwith, U. S. Commissioner of the 
Universal Exhibition of 1867; the Rev. Drs. Hitckcock, Thomp- 
son (of the Broadway Tabernacle), Eldridge, Cummins, Daven- 
port and Smith. . . . Refreshments of various kinds were fur- 
nished during the afternoon and at half-past five o'clock a repast 
was laid out in the refreshment-tent, after which the chairman 
of the committee, Mr. Tucker, in a few pertinent observations, 
reminded his Countrymen present of the character of the day 
which they had assembled to celebrate, and called upon Mr. 
John Jay, of New York, for an address, This was responded 
to, that gentleman delivering a lively and amusing speech on 
'the American Invasion of the Old World'." 

Mr. Jay, in a letter to General Cesnola, dated August 
30, 1890, gives a more definite statement of his words 
and their immediate result. "The simple suggestion that 
'it was time for the American people to lay the founda- 
tion of a National Institution and Gallery of Art and 
that the American gentlemen then in Europe were the 
men to inaugurate the plan' commended itself to a num- 
ber of the gentlemen present, who formed themselves 
into a committee for inaugurating the movement." This 
committee subsequently addressed a memorial to the 
Union League Club of New York, urging the importance 
of early measures "for the foundation of a permanent 
national gallery of art and museum of historical relics, 
in which works of high character in painting and sculp- 
ture and valuable historical memorials might be collected, 
properly displayed, and safely preserved for the benefit 
of the people at large," and suggesting that the Union 
League Club might "properly institute the best means 
for promoting this great object." 

Meantime Mr. Jay had come home and been elected 
President of the Union League Club. Therefore the 
letter prompted by his suggestion came up for his own 
official notice. At a meeting of the club, it was referred 
to its Art Committee, which at this time consisted of 
George P. Putnam, the founder of G. P. Putnam and 
Sons; John F. Kensett, well-known as a landscape 
painter; J. Q. A. Ward, whose statues have a deservedly 
high place in New York, for example, his Indian Hunter 
and Pilgrim in Central Park, his Henry Ward Beecher 


in Brooklyn, his colossal statue of Washington on the 
steps of the Sub-Treasury Building, and the statues in 
the pediment of the New York Stock Exchange ; Worth- 
ington Whittredge, a painter of landscapes, whose Even- 
ing in the Woods in the Museum collection may be con- 
sidered characteristic of his forest interiors; George A. 
Baker, among the best portrait painters of his time, who 
often exhibited at the Academy Exhibitions; Vincent 
Colyer, who painted in New York until the war, and at 
its close settled in Darien, Connecticut; and Samuel P. 
Avery, who as art dealer and collector had a large ex- 
perience in the world of art, and whose untiring devotion 
to the Museum through many subsequent years it will 
be our pleasure to record in these pages. 

These gentlemen, so well fitted for their task, although, 
as they themselves acknowledged, at first sight "disposed 
to think that their legitimate duties were bounded by the 
walls of the club," gave to the problem their serious at- 
tention. At a meeting of the Club, held October 14, 
1869, they reported at length, recommending an early 
meeting to which members of the club and such of their 
friends as might be interested in the subject should be 
invited and at which Prof. George F. Comfort of Prince- 
ton had consented to speak. The object of this gather- 
ing should be "simply to introduce the subject and to 
elicit a free expression of opinion in regard to the ex- 
pediency of further action, and as to what shape it should 
take." This report, which was adopted and carried into 
action, contains a discussion of ways and means from 
which we quote the following sentences: 

"It will be said that it would be folly to depend upon our 
governments, either municipal or national, for judicious support 
or control in such an institution ; for our governments, as a 
rule, are utterly incompetent for the task. On the other band, 
to place the sole control of such efforts in (he hands of any 
body of artists alone, or even in the National Academy, might 
not be wise. Neither would an institution be likely to meet the 
requirements if founded solely by any one individual, however 
ample might be the provision in monuy— for it would probably 
prove sadly deficient in other things. 


"An amply endowed, thoroughly constructed art institution, 
free alike from bungling government officials and from the 


Bowling Green and Baticry Place — 1S25. 

The fashionable section of New York. 

control of a single individual, whose mistaken and untrained 
zeal may lead to superficial attempts and certain failures ; an 
institution which will command the confidence of judicious 
friends of art, and especially of those who have means to 
strengthen and increase it* value to the city and to the nation, 
is surely worth consideration in a club like this," 

The work of the Art Committee of the Union League 
Club was but just begun when it had rendered its re- 
port to the Club. An active month was spent in pre- 
paring for the meeting to be held November 23, 1869, 
in the Theatre of the Club on Twenty-sixth Street. In- 
vitations were sent to the members of the Union League 
Club, the National Academy of Design and other artists, 
the Institute of Architects, the New York Historical 
Society, the Century, Manhattan, and other clubs, and 
to. citizens who might take an interest in the project. 
Prominent men were asked to act as officers on this occa- 
sion, that the undertaking might be favorably launched. 
The Committee wisely strove in all these preliminaries 
that the gathering should be recognized as a meeting not 
"of any one club, or society, or party, or organization of 
any kind," but "composed of representatives of the va- 
rious bodies connected with art, and of other citizens 
interested in the subject," as George P. Putnam took 
pains to say on that eventful evening. 

Of this first gathering it is recorded that a large num- 
ber were present — one New York newspaper says : 

"There was a large representation of artists, editors, archi- 
tects, lawyers, merchants, and others present. Among the artists 
were Church, Bierstadt, H. P_. Gray, Stone, Cranch, Kensett, 
Lang, Swain Gilford, F. A. Tait, Walter Brown, Win. Hart, Le 
Clear, Rogers, Shattuck, Hayes, McEntee, Wengler, Perry, 
Bristol, Paige, and many others. Among other prominent gentle- 
men present were Rev, Dr. Bellows, Richard Upjohn, Mr. Mould, 
Richard Grant White, Charles F. Brings, James Brooks, Rev. 
Dr. Thompson, Judge Peabody and others." 

The following gentlemen acted as officers of the meet- 

President, William Cullen Bryant. Vice-Presidents: Daniel 
Huntington, of the National Academy of Design; R, M. Hunt, 
President of the N. Y. Chapter of the Institute of Architects; 
Andrew H. Green, Comptroller of the Central Park; Wm. J, 
Hoppin, of the New York Historical Society; Henry W. Bellows, 


D. D., o£ the Century Club ; F. A. P. H;li m ;inl. LL. D,, President 
of Columbia College; Henry G. Stebbins, President Central Park 
Commission; Marshall O. Roberts, Union League Club; Win. E. 
Dodge, Jr., President Young Men's Christian Association. Secre- 
taries : S. P. Avery, Secretary ol the Art Committee, Union 
League Club; A. J. Bloor, Secretary of the New York Chapter, 
Institute of Architccts. 

Of this noteworthy group of men, but one survives 
today, Alfred J. Bloor. He has said, "Well I remember 
the 'sea of upturned faces' and the applause that greeted 
the venerable poet and publicist as he rose to address the 
audience, as well as the dead silence that followed when 
he opened his lips to speak." Any person who reads the 
art history of New York even casually must recognize 
the appropriateness of the selection of William Cullen 
Bryant as presiding officer, one who held the confidence, 
esteem, and love both of the artists and of the com- 
munity, who possessed the advantage of being intimately 
connected with the entire art movement and yet not be- 
longing to the fraternity of artists, hence representing 
not a single group of men, but the great body of people 
in New York. . . . 

Mr. Bryant on taking the chair introduced the subject 
in a worthy manner. . . . The next speaker was Professor 
George Fiske Comfort of Princeton, who though hut a 
young man, had already devoted six years continuously 
to study in Europe of the conditions of art and the 
nature of the art institutions there. So he was able to 
speak with authority of the relation of art to civilization, 
to emphasize the importance of establishing a museum 
of art, and to indicate what in his opinion should be the 
character of the exhibits, the policy as to arrangement, 
and the methods of administration, It is a noteworthy 
fact that there can be cited scarcely any plan of museum 
work that has been adopted during the last forty years 
which was not at least referred to in this comprehensive 
address. Loan exhibitions, a department of decorative 
arts, the fitting up of lecture rooms and the giving of 
lectures for the general public, the work with school 
children, the great opportunity that a museum has to 
enrich the lives of the poor;— all these and other features 
of museum work were outlined in a clear and scholarly 


way. Even the desirability of keeping General Cesnola's 
Cypriote collection in America was suggested. The con- 
cluding paragraph won enthusiastic applause : 

"In the year 1776 this nation declared her political inde- 
pendence of Europe. The provincial relation was then severed 
as regards politics ; may we not now begin institutions that by 
the year 1876 shall sever the provincial relation of America to 
Europe in respect to Art?" 

In the words of a newspaper writer of the day, "un- 
mistakable enthusiasm and evidence of purpose marked 
the entire proceedings." The immediate results of this 
first public meeting were principally two: awakening 
public interest— a most necessary step in any undertak- 
ing — and placing the responsibility for the movement 
definitely upon a Provisional Committee, a group of rep- 
resentative men, fifty in number, who were interested in 

The Provisional Committee held frequent meetings 
during the following months, sometimes in the rooms of 
the Century Club, No. 109 E. 15th Street, and again at the 
rooms of Samuel P. Avery, No. 88 Fifth Avenue. Many 
letters passed between different members of the commit- 
tee. In brief, they gave themselves unstintingly to the 
cause they had espoused. Their number was increased 
from fifty to one hundred and sixteen by the appoint- 
ment of the members of the Art Committee of the Union 
League Club, the officers of the public meeting whose 
names were not already included, and other gentlemen. 
Honorary Corresponding Secretaries both in America and 
Europe were chosen. 

On January 31, 1870, the first officers of The Metro- 
politan Museum of Art were chosen, with John Taylor 
Johnston as president. The choice of Mr. Johnston was 
spontaneous. He measured up to Dr. Bellows' standard 
of the "Head" of such an enterprise. He was a man 
"of middle age, of unabated energy, resolute will, and hot 
enthusiasm." Though a man of "affairs, enterprise, and 
executive ability," he had long been interested in art. 
He had assembled in his house the most important col- 
lection of pictures then in America, which he had freely 
opened to the public. He had a large acquaintance among 

[ 327 J 

the artists, who were wont to assemble every year at a 
reception given in their honor, and enjoy not only his 
many works of art but that "artists' punch" which Charles 
Astor Bristed celebrated in song. He was abroad at the 
time and had taken no part in the preliminary meetings, 
but when a cable reached him on the Nile offering him 
the presidency, and stating that the enterprise would be 
launched at once if he would accept, the committee 
promptly received by return cable an affirmative reply. 

It is difficult for us to realize the position in which 
these first officers found themselves. They had no build- 
ing, not even a site, no existing collection as a nucleus, 
no ready money to use, no legal title or status, only the 
"clearly denned idea of a Museum of Art and the united 
will to create it," as William C. Prime, later First Vice- 
President, said years afterward, and yet he was able to 
record that there was "no hesitation, no pause, no shadow 
or cloud, not an hour of doubt or discouragement." 

The drafting of a charter, the adoption of a perma- 
nent constitution and by-laws, and the defining of a 
proper policy: these were imperative as the next steps. 
On the 13th day of April, 1870, the Legislature of the 
State of New York granted an act of incorporation to 
the officers and George William Curtis under the name 
of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, "to be located in 
the City of New York, for the purpose of establishing 
and maintaining in said city a museum and library of 
art, of encouraging and developing the study of the fine 
arts, and the application of arts to manufacture and 
practical life, of advancing the general knowledge of 
kindred subjects, and, to that end, of furnishing popular 
instruction and recreation." 

In March, 1871, the Trustees announced a fact of 
prime importance, that through the purchase by two offi- 
cers of the museum, a collection of one hundred and 
seventy-four paintings, principally Dutch and Flemish, 
but including representative works of the Italian, French, 
English, and Spanish Schools, had been secured for the 
Museum. This happy result was due to the foresight 
and generosity of William T. Blodgett, assisted by John 
Taylor Johnston. Mr. Blodgett during the preceding 


Disappearance of a noted lendmmic in With Stre-ct, 
Wail Siren — United States Aisay Office— originally built as u branch »l \hv United StateB Bank. 
When the builJirifj was demolished the stones of ihe facade weir prosoi vti with the intention of erecting a 
iM-aimilf of the building in Central Park. Mr. I. N. Phelpn tfitlke* is the sponsor nJ llt« idea. 

summer had been able to purchase on most advantageous 
terms, owing to the outbreak of war between France and 
Prussia, two collections: one of one hundred pictures 
from the gallery of a well-known citizen of Brussels, 
and one of seventy-four pictures owned by a distinguished 
Parisian gentleman. These were bought at Mr. Blod- 
gett's own expense and risk, but with the intention of 
permitting the Museum to benefit by his purchase, if 
the Trustees so desired. . . • In March, 1871, the 
Museum assumed the purchase and agreed to pay the 
amount whenever the requisite funds were at hand. 

Thus by the forceful initiative of two men, the 
Museum came into possession of a valuable nucleus to- 
wards its permanent gallery. The editor of the Gazette 
des Beaux-Arts in turn thought this purchase of suffi- 
cient importance to print two articles congratulating the 
new museum on its fortunate purchase and describing 
the individual pictures. It may be well to couple with 
this early opinion what Mr. Choate said forty years 
later, "Let me say that the collection bought then on the 
responsibility of One man , , , was so good and contained 
so many old masters that very few of those he bought 
have been rejected or laid aside." 

The next problem that confronted the Museum was 
to find some building as conveniently located and suit- 
ably arranged as possible for temporary occupancy, to 
exhibit the paintings already in the possession of the 
Museum, but stored in Cooper Union for want of an 
exhibition room. The Dodworth Building, 68 r Fifth 
Avenue, between 53d and 54th Streets, a private residence 
that had been altered for Allen Dodworth's Dancing 
Academy, was leased December I, 187 J, for $9,000 an- 
nually, the lease to expire May I, 1874. The property 
included a stable, the rent of which would be a slight 
asset for the Museum. This earliest home of the Museum 
was exceptionally well constructed for the purpose. "A 
skylight let into the ceiling of the large hall where the 
poetry of motion had been taught to so many of the young 
men and maidens of New York, converted it into a picture 


Representatives of the press and artists were invited 
here to a private view of the pictures on February 17, 
1872, and punch and oysters were served. The opening 
reception for subscribers and their friends was held on 
February 20th. . . . We are fortunate in possessing two 
letters written by John Taylor Johnston to William Til- 
den - Blodgett, which transport us to those days of eager 
hope, so decisive for good or ill. 

"February 22, 1872. . . . Our public reception on the 
20th was an equal success. We had a fine turnout of ladies and 
gentlemen ana all were highly pleased. The pictures looked 
splendidly and compliments were so plenty and strong that I 
was afraid the mouths of the Trustees would become chronically 
and permanently fixed in a broad crrin. The Loan Committee 
worked hard at the last and got together a few things of interest, 
and perhaps it was as well that at the first there should be 
little to take off the attention from the pictures and also that 
we should be able to announce from time to time additions to 
the Loan Exhibition. Vela's Napoleon was in place and looked 
splendidly and excited universal admiration. It is better, if any- 
thing, than the original and the marble is perfect I saw it 
myself, for the first time, on the reception evening and was 
perfectly satisfied. We have secured but not yet put up Mr. 
Alden's fine woodwork. It is much finer than we had supposed, 
having only before seen it in the cellar, 

'The Westchester Apollo turns ont to be three feet high, 
a statuette. We decided, however, to take it. 

"Mr. Rowe presents us with a colossal dancing girl by 
Schwanthaler, the celebrated German sculptor at Munich. It 
may be very fine, but eight feet of dance is a trial to the 
feelings. Hereafter, we must curb the exuberance of donors 
except in the article of money, of which latter they may give 
as much as they please. 

"We may now consider the Museum fairly launched and 
under favorable auspices. People were generally surprised, and 
agreeably so, to find what we had. No one had imagined that 
we could make such a show, and the disposition to praise Is 
now general as the former disposition to depreciate. We have 
now something to point to as the Museum, something tangible 
and Something good." 

1 332] 


Uniform buttons found in excavations on old Dyekman Farm, A British camp was located on this site 
during the Revolution. See article by W. L, Calver. 
Courtesy of Mr. \V L. Cahet. 

British Military Buttons of the War of Independence 
—Found on Manhattan Island 
By W. L. Culver 

Among the mementoes of the Revolution which have 
come to light on the old military sites on the north end 
of Manhattan Island in recent years the most numerous, 
and yet the most interesting, are the regimental buttons 
of the British army, and of the Loyalist corps raised in 
and about the City of Hew York, 

Fortunately for the student of military equipment, 
the various corps of the regular British Army came to 
these shores tagged for identification. The last radical 
change in the dress of the British soldiery took place in 
1768, and at that time the royal warrant directing that 
the buttons of the uniforms should bear the regimental 
number went into force. The Loyalists followed the 
British regulation and the practice was adopted by the 
various organizations of the American army, so far as 
they were able. 

An untiring hunt extending through many years in 
the old camps has rounded up buttons of practically every 
regiment of the British army that saw service on New 
York island. More than that, we find the buttons of not 
a few corps whose service lay in distant parts of our 
land. The supposition is, therefore, that such buttons are 
part of the equipment of detachments of recruits which 
landed in New York, or of soldiers who came to this 
port for passage to England, or to her colonies. 

Many-sided is the interest in military button hunting. 
The charm that goes with objects which have spanned 
the centuries, and have been associated with great deeds 
is ever present, but the paramount interest is the histori- 
cal. There are interests military, and heraldic, as we 
cultivate an acquaintance with the numerous corps, or 
when we decipher the devices impressed upon the indi- 
vidual specimens. There is a medalic value too, in the 


old buttons, as any numismatist will attest. We are often 
struck with amazement when we regard the product of 
the 18th century button dies ; for there is a coinlike 
precision of detail, and an endless variety of designs. 

Tied down by no restrictions as to details of design 
the colonel,who provided the equipment for his regiment, 
humored his individual taste in these matters, and hence 
a characteristic display of 18th century military buttons 
presents a multitude of devices in conjunction with the 
ever present numerical designation of the individual 

During our Revolutionary war period, and in fact 
right down to 1855, the British private soldiers' buttons 
were made of pewter, or white metal. During the period 
of the War of Independence the regimental buttons of 
the British officers had thin repousse silver, or gilt faces 
and bone backs; and this style of button remained in 
vogue apparently well down toward the close of the 
18th century. Frequently, not always, the design upon 
the officer's button differed from that of the men's. When 
such a change occurred the device upon the officer's 
button was more elaborate than that of the men's button. 
Moreover in certain instances, such as are shown on the 
buttons of the 28th and 38th regiments, the officer's 
button bore murks of royal favor. — Note the lion sur- 
mounting the crow on the specimens quoted. 

To say merely that the buttons are found in the camps 
does not tell the whole story of their discovery. Some 
few T specimens, indeed, are found scattered here and 
there upon the surface. They show up where bits of 
ground are tilled, or where washouts are caused by heavy 
rains; but the great bulk of our collections come from 
the refuse pits of the camps ; and if the truth were known 
the specimens which show up occasionally on the surface 
of the ground are from shallow refuse-pits disturbed by 
the plow, or otherwsie. 

The evidence is that refuse pits were dug specially 
as receptacles for camp garbage, and into these went all 
manner of rejected material, — kitchen refuse, vegetable 
matter, bones, and oyster shells, old shoes, and uniforms, 
discarded tools and damaged arms ; bits of obsolete equip- 


The Bowtrv — 1581, The 7lh Regimen i assembling below ih* Armory 
on lb* occasion of then departure for ihl war in 1862- 
The Armory was then located over the old Tompkins Market just east 01 Cooper Union. 

merit and, indeed, whatever had served its purpose, or 
which threatened the health of the camp. But sometimes 
we find that a ready-made refuse pit presented itself 
in the form of a ruined dug-out hut whose superstructure 
had collapsed, been burned down, or otherwise destroyed. 
Into such a receptacle the British soldier threw many a 
button laden coat, old waistbelt, or other wornout bits 
of apparel which, while worthless at the time, had metal 
trimmings which have been spared by the centuries and 
are priceless today. 

While the private soldiers' buttons were invariably 
of white metal, those of the officers matched the color 
of his lace, whether it was white, or yellow. Hence, 
for instance, we find that the 17th Regiment had silver 
buttons to match the silver lace, while the 57th officers 
had gilt buttons to match their lace of gold. 

Few and frail are the mementoes from the coats of 
the 1 8th century British officers, but they convey to us, 
in the delicacy of their designs, and the perfection of 
their details, a fair idea of the products of the "golden 
age" of button making. 

Perhaps Ht's from Baa Haaboh 

Sir: I hate to see the athaletic young New Yorker who is 
going to jern Poishinp- get so much publicity when his just as 
athaletic kinsman who trains along with me in the New England 
Division gets none. He is a gaadsman. No rawr recruit, mind 
you, but a saajent who has qualified as a maaksman and shaap- 
shootcr successively in the past two years. 

Dow Juan. 

Plattsburg Barracks. 


The Last Horse Car Makes Its Last Journey 

It is well worth while to chronicle the last trip of 
the last horse car in New York. Here it lias been a 
standing joke for visitors from other cities where horse 
cars have been almost forgotten, so long is it since they 
were superseded by the modern electric car. It marks 
too the passing of an era which was ushered in eighty- 
five years ago amid great jubilation of the populace, who 
turned out to see the first public street conveyance in 
the shape of a dinky little car which ran from Prince 
to Fourteenth St., and was thought to be a ver) r wonder- 
ful creation of a very wonderful and progressive age. 
And now the horse-drawn car disappears from public 
view and may take its place in the museum as an exhibit 
of the utilities, of a past age, to be gazed at by the 
coming generations of air-fliers and submariners as the 
queer looking contrivance by which their grandfathers 
were satisfied to get about. 

It was on June 24 that the little, old, dilapidated horse 
car, the last of its kind, went rumbling along Chambers 
Street, through the arch of the magnificent Municipal 
building — the sublime looking down on the ridiculous — 
across the most famous and busiest street in the world, 
and so on beneath both lines of the elevated roads 
spanning Chambers Street to the tracks leading north 
on West Street. This was the last leg of its journey and 
as it went bumping along how well it reminded the 
onlooker of many a journey he had taken on just such 
a car, when it jumped the tracks and went bump, bump, 
bumping over the cobbles. Then the two old nags set 
themselves to pull with all their might and main to keep 
the car moving so that by some happy chance it might 
bump on to the track again. In the meantime the hapless 
passengers were thrown hither and thither in an inextri- 
cable mix up, some of them dropping off the platform 
at the risk of life and limb. If the car did come to 
a stop there was no way of starting it again short of all 


(■ ii i MKfWH 

Union i?. 1874. The cun&tiuciion i»f hub ways btneaih the park caused th* removal of the fire trees 
flhnwn in this picture. Another London view never befnre shown in this country. 

hands getting out and shoving for all they were worth, 
and then scrambling aboard again when the car got on 
the track. The New Yorker is certainly a complacent 
and good natured soul, for he would sit down after such 
an experience unruffled and calm, and talk with his 
neighbor or peruse his paper in perfect tranquility and 
seeming comfort. 

However, these days are all in the past now and this 
rumbling and rattling little car with its two faithful old 
horses and the jingling bells, on the last leg of its journey 
to oblivion, gradually disappears from view — not without 
a little pang of regretfulness on our part at the passing 
of an era which has many pleasant and picturesque 

The Reel Cross 

The Red Cross fund of one hundred millions was sub- 
scribed in an incredibly short time, giving a very concrete 
proof of the soundness of the American heart as well 
as the American pocket. The people are solidly behind 
the fighting force and regard the Red Cross almost as 
much an adjunct of our armies as the Quartermasters' 
department itself, and while it is not a government insti- 
stitution it acts with the full sanction and the hearty 
cooperation of the government. 

The wounded soldier appeals to all that is humane 
and kindly in our nature, and our sense of justice 
acknowledges ungrudgingly that he has a claim upon us 
for the best and most skillful treatment and care that 
can be provided. And it is just in this particular that 
the Red Cross deserves and obtains the support of the 
people. Moreover it is doing it on a very large scale 
and can only accomplish its full work if supported by 
the people. 

In raising the first great fund of one hundred millions 
the practical and ingenious method of dividing the work- 
ers into teams, each with a captain well known in the 
social or business world, proved to be very successful. 
There were thirty teams in all for New York City and 


the first three days alone brought in over twenty millions 
of dollars. The entire country outside of New York 
City contributed in the same time twenty-three millions 
more, making the total for that short period forty-three 
millions and some odd hundred thousand. The balance 
of the whole, in fact more than the whole — the total 
being over 5115,000,000 — was subscribed in a few days 
more, making a record which has eclipsed anything here- 
tofore attempted in raising purely voluntary funds, 

Valentine's Manual is glad to record this great work 
as it is largely if not wholly the generous offerings of 
those who are unable for various reasons, perhaps because 
they are too old or perhaps too young, to take an active 
part in the struggle at the front. There is a place where 
every one can do "his bit" and even if it is only the 
inglorious one of chipping in when contributions are 
called for, this great fund shows that those who are 
left at home will not be found wanting. 

Marconi's Welcome 

It is not often that practical men are successful speech 
makers but the following short speech by Marconi the 
great inventor is a model of its kind and worth repro- 
ducing as an expression of the Italian character. The 
pupils of the William Marconi school at 117th Street 
and First Avenue which is named for the great inventor 
and is attended largely by Italian children, tendered him 
a reception and gave him a heart stirring welcome. In 
responding to the greeting he said : — 

"Boys, Ladies and Gentlemen: Ido not know whetherl 
shall be able to reply to the many kind things you have said 
of me. I do, however, want to express my heartfelt thanks to 
you for the tremendous reception you have extended to me and 
also to express the joy it gives me to come here and meet the 
pupils of the school that has honored me by adopting my name, 

"You hoys represent the future of this great country and it 
is the vitality, enthusiasm and patriotism that you show which 
give to your elders who are now engaged in aetual war increased 
courage to carry on their work. Nothing could please me more 
than to see children who are preparing to become citizens of 
the great ally of Italy at such time. We are living in stern 
times and we must do all in our power to prepare not only to 
end this terrible struggle victoriously, but also to prepare for the 


new conditions which are bound to arise when peace finally 

Our countrymen are giving their heart's blood, not for them- 
selves, but to obtain a better world for you. I therefore exhort 
you to remember that this struggle is for democracy, liberty and 
mankind. Again I say I will not forget your welcome. Boys 
—and friends— good-bye." 

At the end of the address a bronze bust of himself 
was presented to him by one of the pupils — a 13-year old 
boy — modeled by the boy himself. Marconi was deeply 
affected by this touching tribute to his genius and taking 
the boy's hand assured the audience that, among the 
things he would take back to Italy with him, this bust 
would hold the most cherished place. 

James Gordon Bennett's Description of The Empire 
State in 1835 

The late James Gordon Bennett, Sr., was a man of 
remarkable personality. His advent into journalism 
marked an epoch in the local history of our city. The 
following article written by himself is a fair index to 
the character of the man who for more than half a 
century wielded irresi stable influence on public opinion 
in New York. 

From the First Issue of the Herald May 6, 1835. 
New York is truly "an Empire State." In 1830 we had nearly 
two millions of people in the state, and 20,295 in the city — now 
probably two and a half millions in the state and 260,000 in 
the city and suburbs including Brooklyn, We have over 2,000 
foreign arrivals a year, 80 millions of imports and 25 millions 
of exports. We pay 12 millions into the public treasury and 
expend by the city government alone one and a half millions 
a year, part of it in poor house champagne dinners. We had 
in 1834 over 9,082 deaths ; births and marriages unknown and 
unnumbered. We have in the city directory the names of 10,038 
mechanics, and probably 25,000_not in the directory — nearly all 
healthy, hardworking and ingenious men. We have in the same 
directory a total of 35,510 names, of which 1,592 are cartmen, 
2,704 grocers^ 3,751 merchants and over 4,000 widows, many of 
them "fat fair and forty" and having no objections to marry. 
We have 36 daily papers, 16 of which in the city, issue 17,000 
large sheets a day and 25,000 small, the best large morning sheet 
being the Onirkr Sr Inquirer and the best small one the Morning 
Herald, to say nothing of the good old wine of the Star. We 
manufacture goods to the amount of 25 millions a year, and 

1 345 ] 

sell at auction nearly 40 millions. We value the gross amount 
of our real and personal property from New York to Buffalo 
at 460 millions. We have S66 miles of canal atid 100 miles of 
railroad and all in use, and yielding a revenue of one and a 
half million a year, and only 3 millions in debt. We have 
projected 400 miles of canals, and incorporated railroads to an 
amount of 34 millions, both of which are intended for specula- 
tion and the taking in of the flats. We have 89 hanks with a 
capital of 35 millions, a circulation of 17 millions, specie in vault 
10 millions, public and private deposits 1 million, and loaned 
out at interest 85 millions. We have had heretofore only 8 
broken banks, with a capital of S millions to cheat the mechanics, 
but in time wc may break hereafter a score or two, and thus 
far outstrip Pennsylvania, Ohio or Kentucky in the art of 
rifling the poor. We have 6 or 7 colleges, all poor and proud, 
except Columbia, which is rich and lazy — educating only 100 
students a year and yet complaining of hard work. We have 
8 or 10 Theological seminaries, for making clergymen, 90 out 
of 100 of which would make good tillers of the ground. We 
have over SO female academies for finishing the education of 
young ladies, where one-half of the number arc "finished," as 
we once heard John Randolph of Roanoke say in the House of 
Representatives, «in his flageolet-sounding voice— "finished Mr. 
Speaker; yes sir, finished for all useful purposes." We have 
in State prison 1,492 rogues, but God only knows how many 
out of prison, preying upon the community in the shape of 
gamblers, blacklegs, speculators and politicians. We have 6,457 
paupers in the poor-house, and double that number going there 
as fast as intemperance and indolence can carry them. We have 
about 500 dandies who dress well, wear gold chains, spend first 
their fathers' earnings, then their tailor's, and hotel keeper's and 
close their career villi a pistol or a glass of laudanum. Wc 
have 249 people of fashion, who had an unquestionable grand- 
father and grandmother and 750 parvenucs who like Mclchize- 
dick, King of Salem, have neither father nor mother. We buy 
and sell of each oilier, in Wall Street, 300 millions of stocks a 
year, and by the operation only ruin 100 families to make the 
fortune of 5 or 10 overgrown ones. 

And to close all we have twenty-three States and 3 terri- 
tories lying to the South, the West and East more or less 
tributary to New York, getting from us our foreign and domestic 
goods, our fashions, our newspapers, our politics, our thoughts, 
in exchange for their cotton, their rice, their tobacco, their 
wheat, their corn, their coal, and "though last not least," their 
electoral votes. 

Here's an "empire state" for yet And yet one half of its 
magnificence, greatness, power, Slc. is behind the curtain and 
unrevealable till 1845. Scholars talk and twaddle about the 
States of Greece — the supremacy of Athens — the moral grandeur 
of Sparta— the magnificence of republican Rome. Mere shadows 
to New York as she is and means to be. 


A Visit to the Bigelow Homstead 
The Eirthplatc of the Late President of Our Public Library 

On the west bank of the Hudson some ninety miles 
from New York lies Maiden — a forgotten metropolis 
of the early nineteenth century, with scarce a reminder 
of its former greatness save the frequent appearance on 
its streets of blue stone. A century ago Maiden dreamed 
dreams, and saw herself the London of the new world. 

Were not the great capitols of Europe situated on 
the banks of the great rivers miles from the moudi? 
Would not history repeat itself? What of that upstart 
New York? It was wrongly situated geographically. 
Circumstances had combined temporarily to give it a 
start. But Maiden — with unlimited land North, South 
and West — Maiden with the great highway would soon 
show what was what in cities. And were there not 
mountains and mountains of blue stone in and all around 
it? So Maiden built great wharves and all the steamers 
stopped there. She laid out a city in a plan based on 
the same lines as the Commissioners of New York, 
which was started in the same year — 1807. Houses 
were built on city lots. Streets were laid out on the 
familiar checker board plan. Grandfather Bigelow being 
a learned man knew the whys and wherefores of City 
building and gave to the newly born metropolis the 
benefit of his experience. 

But something happened to the Blue Stone industry. 
The steamers no longer stop at Maiden. The streets 
echo not to the tramp of millions of feet but only to 
the lowing of cattle and the cackle of hens. If it has 
no Great White Way, it has one with reverse English. 
The Stygian darkness of other towns is like the rosy 
dawn compared to the darkness of Maiden at night. 
Even "culled pussons" look white when you meet them 
in the dark. 

Across the river from the Bigelow Homestead can 
be seen the blackened walls and charred remains of 


historic Clermont, the old home of Chancellor Livingston. 
From the front porch John BigeloW witnessed Lafayette's 
arrival at Clermont and the reception accorded him by 
the Chancellor and his friends. 

John Rigclow's life spanned but a few years short of 
a century. He was the last connecting link with the 
Golden Age of "Old New York." It seems strange to 
speak of a man scarcely gone, who was the contem- 
porary and friend of Washington Irving, Fitz-Greene 
Halleck, William Cullen Bryant, Fenimore Cooper, 
Charles Dickens and Thackery. In the Library there 
is still the copy of the "Life of Washington — With the 
kind regards of your friend Washington Irving" in the 
clear cut regular penmanship of New York's greatest 
author. A copy of Praed's poems, a very popular writer 
in the mid-Victorian era, is inscribed "From Charles 
Dickens on his departure from America with many kind 
■wishes." It recalls the visit of this distinguished novelist, 
while a complete roster of the autographed books would 
read like a page of American Bibliography. 

Scarcely a generation had passed since the death of 
Franklin when his biographer was born. Franklin's 
memory was still a mighty influence in public affairs 
and the great American philosopher grew daily in the 
esteem of the people. 

The latter years of Franklin's life were largely spent 
abroad, chiefly in Paris, and it was John Bigelow's good 
fortune to live also for many years in the same atmos- 
phere. As Lincoln's great minister to France during the 
dark days of our civil war he underwent to a startling 
degree an experience similar to Franklin's in the Revolu- 
tion. It was perhaps only natural therefore that he 
should become the biographer of the great statesman. 
Fortune threw in his way most of the private papers of 
Franklin, among them his diary. The latter is now in 
the library of Mr. Henry E. Huntington who regards it 
as among his most valued treasures. A cast steel 
medallion head of the great philosopher graces the Bige- 
low garden. It is the only one of its kind in the world 
having been moulded by Capt. Zalinski, inventor of the 


dynamite gun, during one of his experiments with the 

Another interesting item, also in the garden, is the 
first seal for the Public Library made by the Academy 
of Munich. It was rejected by the Trustees but is an 
interesting souvenir of the great institution of which 
Mr. Bigelow was President and of which as Trustee of 
the Tilden Will he did so much to create. 

But perhaps the most striking memento in all the 
many interesting and historic memorabilia with which the 
garden abounds is the marble bust of Samuel J. Tilden 
which stands at the left of the porch. Notwithstanding 
the vast sum which was received by the City of New 
York from the Tilden estate, there is nowhere a statue 
to the memory of this public spirited citizen. It would 
seem that the Library at least should have one. The 
statue at Maiden is today the only one in existence to 
the memory of the Sage of Greystone. 

The Old Home To-day 

The Bigelow Homestead is now owned and occupied 
by Poultney Bigelow, his distinguished son, It is main- 
tained in the same primitive style as when grandfather 
Bigelow brought Miss I sham there as a bride in 1807. 
There is the same Dutch oven. The same candles to 
light the way to bed. The same pans and the same 
four posted bedsteads. The old well sweep still fur- 
nishes water as it has done for over a century, and the 
same Franklin stove supplies heat for the Library, and 
old grandfathers' clock still chimes out in cathedral tones 
the passing of the hours, and a wood lot still provides 
fuel for domestic uses. An old fashioned vegetable and 
flower garden, sleek, well-fed, pedigreed Jersey cattle, 
and the Orpingtons, Leghorns and Bhode Island reds 
furnish the main table supplies, while the fruit trees pro- 
vide dainties long after the season has passed. Every- 
thing is as it was. The sun dial marks only the shining 
hours and life passes quietly in the old homestead. 

Memories of the days at Potsdam and San Souci seem 
far away. Turbulent scenes in Borneo, Java and the 
Phillipines seem never to have been and the war-like 

[ 353 ] 

implements gathered the world over seem strangely out 
of place. Poisoned arrows, cruel looking scimitars, blood 
curdling machetes, swords of Suniari days, countless 
trophies of a soldier of fortune, strike a jarring note in 
the present pastoral surroundings. The Iron Gates of 
the Danube, strenuous days in South Africa, and on the 
Bulawayo with the ill fated Roger Casement, ship wrecks 
and moving accidents by floods and field are all very 
unreal, yet very much in evidence. Viscount Bryce 
writes in a note, "I have always had a great fondness 
for the Danube and were I twenty years younger, I would 
follow your example and take the same delightful way of 
seeing its romantic shores." In the Library one sits 
down to write on a table, an exact model of the one 
on which Luther translated the Bible. It came from 
Castle Warthburg in the Thuringen Forest. On the wall 
is a portrait of Emperor William dated iS88, the end of 
his first year as Kaiser of Germany. It bears a message : 
"With my very best thanks for your kind sketch of me 
Wilhelm" and refers to the article in the Century by 
Bigelow reviving the events of this apparently auspicious 
reign. In the hallway is a still earlier portrait, 1880, 
of the Emperor with a frank, open, boyish face' in his 
student days. Many others of still earlier and perhaps 
more interesting days, are about the house but never 
shown. They cover the period of Bigelow's personal 
friendship with the Emperor, which continued uninter- 
ruptedly till the trend of Prussian! sm became unmis- 
takable and a parting of the ways inevitable. It is an 
undoubted fact that Emperor William never had, nor 
was it in his power to have, a more unselfish, genuine 
friendship with any human being on earth than he had 
with Poultney Bigelow. Rainy afternoons in the attic 
of the old Palace at Sans Souci, when Prince William, 
Prince Henry, Poultney and another boy played Indians, 
when Bigelow was the Heap Big Chief and delighted 
the two little German boys with his realistic rendering 
of the redskins war cry — those are the memories that 
puzzle one and throw a strange glamour on the sinister 
events of the present day. What would not the historian 
of the future give for a personal first hand account of 

[ 354 ] 

<t i». t Km**!* 

Hudson Street, north from Chamber* 1B63; the freight c»r ia nundlng just outside of the Hudson 
Railroad depct. which was located Here, 

these memorable days ! It is hard to get. I led gently 
up to the subject on a recent visit. Bigelow sat at the 
piano idly strumming a vagrant air. "Yes," he replied, 
which was no reply at all, "I think some of the folk: 
lore songs I have heard sung by the natives of Borneo 
deserve preservation— listen." And off he went into as 
delightful a medley of curious airs as I have never 
before been privileged to hear. One had to admit the 
weirdness, the tragedy, the joyousness of the strange 
music as it unfolded. But you listened in vain for an 
answer to your query. 

Near the piano is the photograph of a slim almost 
frail looking young man and below it is a letter. It is 
dated Oyster Bay, L. I., Aug. 2nd, 1882, and begins 
"Dear Poultney" and reads in part "By jove old man 
you had a narrow escape." Elsewhere in the letter 
referring to an invitation for an outing, the writer be- 
wails the fact that "he is now a married man and does 
not know how Mrs. R. would treat such a desertion in 
spite of her fondness for the instigator of it." Needless 
to say the writer is none other than our hero T. R. 

A beautiful bronze bust of Sitting Bull who slew 
General Custer, and probably the only one ever modeled 
from a living Indian is a present from the late J. Kennedy 
Tod. It is by Kemeys whose group in Central Park 
is Still so much admired. All around the walls are 
remembrances from famous men and women. Mark 
Twain inscribes his books, "To Poultney Bigelow with 
the love of Mark Twain." Henry W. Stanley is seen 
as a White Friar and his portrait recalls the fact that 
it was taken at the club dinner given him at Ander ton's 
in London in 1890, just when he had emerged from 
darkest Africa. lie is shown holding a lighted candle 
against that part of the world which his labors had just 

It is fitting that Gertrude Atherton, the great, great 
niece of Benjamin Franklin, should be represented by 
a portrait in her girlish days indited to the "One and 
only Poultney Bigelow," nor is it strange that Frances 
Hodgson Burnett should say "From the keeper of the 
Deer Park to one of the Dears." 

I 3571 

Carroll Beckwith is remembered with a painting of 
the original Gibson Girl taken from the model Gibson 
was then using in Paris and from which this famous 
series originated. R. Caton Woodville who painted the 
last portrait of King Edward, sends a spirited drawing 
of a horse inscribed "To my friend." Mrs. E. R. 
Thomas is represented by a charming portrait of Billy 
Burke. Miss Dewing Woodward by Autumn Voices, 
Samuel Isham by a painting ultimately designed for 
the Maiden Library. Thure de Thulstrup, Alfred Par- 
sons, R. F, Zogbaum are among the other artists who 
have delighted to honor this friend of theirs by some 
little personal memento. James Russell Lowell, John 
Hay, Elihu Root and many others must be mentioned 
ere the list of friends is closed. 

One must not forget the medallion bust of John 
Bigelow which occupies the place of honor in the front 
court. Nor the curious little headstone which flanks 
the front stoop inscribed to "Corporal Peter Snyder of 
Co. H., N. Y. Infantry." 

Snyder was the name Joe Jefferson bestowed upon 
Rip Van Winkle's dog and, as the scene of Rip's long 
slumber is right back of the house. Mr. Bigelow gave 
the homeless headstone a final resting place. 

The master of the house arrayed in the picturesque 
costume of the French peasant, blue shirt, loosely fitting 
corduroy trousers, the whole surmounted by an immense 
towering Mexican sombrero, bids you a friendly fare- 
well. And you depart with the curious sensation of 
having lived for a time in a world strangely different 
from the one that awaits you in New York. 

I 356 J 

" The Nation*! Thaatra " 

A ti.v >urrt«r of Church and Leonard Streets, Leased by Jamaa W, Wallack in 1837, Ii lh»n bicimi 
New York'* landing theatre until It wa» destroyed by fits. 
From a rare lithofraph in tht collection cf .Mr. floirrl Gatltt. 

New York's Welcome to the War Commissions 

An historic event or rather a succession of events 
which will be remembered and talked of long after the 
great war is ended, is the reception of the War Com- 
missions to this country from France, Great Britain and 
Italy. On Wednesday, May 9th, New York welcomed 
the French mission headed by M. Rene Viviano, Vice 
President of the Council of Ministers, and Marshall 
Joffre, the great soldier of France who turned back the 
hosts of Germany and saved democracy from extinction. 
Marshall J off re who, as the hero of the Marne, will 
stand for all time as the soldier who won the most mo- 
mentous battle in the history of the world, was acclaimed 
with tremendous enthusiasm to the very end of the 
route on Fifth Ave., the home of Henry C. Frick, where 
the commission were guests during their stay in New 

Two days later, Friday May nth, the British war 
Commission headed by Arthur J. Balfour, Secretary for 
Foreign Affairs, and formerly Prime Minister of Great 
Britain, arrived. The reception of the British Com- 
mission was no less enthusiastic than that of the French, 
and on both occasions the streets were lined with hun- 
dreds of thousands of people eager to give the visitors 
the very heartiest of welcomes. The buildings all along 
the way of the procession from the landing place at the 
Battery to the City Hall, and from there to the end of 
the route at the residence of Vincent Astor on Fifth 
Ave., whose guests they were, were decorated with all 
the colors of the Allies and flags of these nations in 
abundance. The sight was inspiring and will be remem- 
bered as an event of exceptional interest. 

Mayor Mitchell on both occasions welcomed the com- 
missions in speeches which could not be excelled for their 
happy and exceedingly well expressed sentiments. Joseph 
H. Choatc, the grand old man of New York whose death 
a few days later was so deeply mourned accompanied 
both the missions and presented them to the Mayor. 


The Italian War Commission did not arrive until 
June 21, but was tendered a reception equally enthusi- 
astic. The Prince of Udine, a distinguished naval officer 
and cousin of the King, headed the commission. Gug- 
lielmo Marconi, the great inventor who 13 also a soldier 
of Italy, was one of the Commission. The City's great 
Italian population was out in force, and thousands, not 
of Italian birth, came out to cheer and welcome these 
brave and distinguished men. 

We had several pictures of the most important points 
of the route of the Commissions painted by our own 
artist Miss Alice Heath, and we have reproduced them 
elsewhere in this number as mementos of these great 
historic events in which our city played her part well. 



Washington - IkvincVs Description 
ok Stuyyesant's Army 

First of all came the Van Bummels, who in- 
habit the pleasant borders of the Bronx — these 
Mere short fat men, wearing exceeding large 
trunk breeches, and are renowned for feats of 
the trencher — they were the first inventors of 
tuppawi) or mush-and-milk. Close in their 
rear marched the Van Vlotens, of fCaatskill, 
most horrible vjuafrcrs of new cider, and arrant 
braggarts in their liquor. After them came 
the Van Peits, of Groodt EsopuS, dexterous 
horsemen mounted upon goodly switch-tailed 
steeds of the Eiopus breed these were mighty 
hunters of mi *s and musk-rats, whence came 
the word Pel Then the Van Nests, of Kin- 
derhook, vali -, . robbers of birds' nests, as their 
name denote:. 'to these, if reports may be be- 
lieved, are we indebted for the invention of 
slap-jacks, or buckwheat cakes. Then the 
Van Higginblttoms, uf Wapping's Creek; 
these came anned with ferules and birchen 
rods, being a lace, of schoolmasters, who firsl 
discovered the marvellous sympathy between 
the seat oi honor and the seat of intellect, and 
that the shortest way to get knowledge into 
the head, was to hammer it into the bottom, 
| ainlinutd t)» neM frigf | 

[Text coiitinutd from folding Plate.] 

Then the Van Grolls of Anthony's Nose, who carried 
their liquor in fair round potties, by reason they could not 
bouse it out of their canteens, having such rare long 
noses. Then the Gardeniers, of Hudson and thereabouts 
distinguished by many triumphant feats, such as robbing 
water-melon patches smoking rabbits out of their holes, 
and the like; and by being great lovers of roasted pig's 
tails; these were the ancestors of the renowned congress- 
man of that name. Then the Van Hoesens, of Sing- Sing, 
great choiristers and players upon the Jews-harp; these 
marched two and two, singing the great song of St. Nich- 
olas. Then the Couenhovens, of Sleepy Hollow ; these 
gave birth to a jolly race of publicans, who first discov- 
ered the magic artifice of conjuring a quart of wine into 
a pint bottle. Then the Van Kortlandts, who lived on the 
wild hanks of the Croton, and were great killers of wild 
ducks, being much spoken of for their skill in shooting 
with the long bow. Then the Van Bunschotens, of 
Nyack and Kakiat, who were the first that did ever kick 
with the left foot ; they were gallant bush-whackers and 
hunters of raccoons by moonlight. Then the Van Win- 
kles, of Haerleni, potent suckers of eggs, and noted for 
running of horses, and running up of scores at taverns ; 
tliev were the first that ever winked with both eyes at 
once. Lastly came the KNICKERBOCKERS, of the 
great town of Scliagliticoke, where the folk lay stones 
upon the houses in windy weather, lest they should be 
blown away. These derive their name, as some say, from 
Knicker, to shake, and Heker, a goblet, indicating thereby 
that they were sturdy toss-pots of yore; but in truth, it 
was derived from Knicker, to nod, and Boeken, books ; 
plainly meaning that they were nodders or dozers over 
books from them did descend the writer of this history. 

Such was the legion of sturdy bush-beaters that pour- 
ed in at the grand gate of New Amsterdam ; the Stuyves- 
ant manuscript indeed .-peaks of many more, whose 
names I omit to mention, seeing that it behoves me to 
hasten to matters of greater moment. 


History Making in Its Practical Side 

Work of Sparks, Bancroft, Stokes 

Mr. John Spencer Bassett has written a very interest- 
ing work in his Middle Group of American Historians. 
We learn through his pages some of the inside workings 
of a great history in the making. And what is equally 
interesting, some of the financial results accruing to 
the writers. 

Only a few achieve any monetary reward. The 
amount of labor involved is something none of us quite 
appreciate. Bancroft's first volume of his History of the 
United States began in 1832 and his last appeared in 
1882. Here we have exactly half a century devoted to 
one subject. We should deduct at least ten years for 
time spent in the diplomatic service. The remaining 
forty were occupied in various trips to European coun- 
tries in search of material and in making transcripts from 
original manuscripts thus obtained. This material is 
now in the New York Public Library, having come into 
its possession from the old Lenox Library'. It consists 
of over two hundred and ten bound volumes. His 
original manuscript and originals, consisting of the valu- 
able Samuel Adams papers, in which letters from Revo- 
lutionary leaders total 1,300 pieces, to say nothing of the 
Minutes of the Boston Committee of Correspondence ; 
notes and proceedings of the Massachussets Assembly, 
and co-related material. It would take many pages of 
the Manual merely to enumerate the different items of 
this imposing collection. 

The material collected by Jared Sparks, the first of 
our Revolutionary writers and for many years the auth- 
ority on Washington, involved titanic labor extending 
over many years. His "Life of Washington" contains 
12 volumes and includes nearly all of Washington's 
personal correspondence a collection involving years of 
patient research and constant investigation. 


A plan of tbe fifth Avenue section (torn Siateenth to Twenty-third Street, 187$. 
Showing the encroachment of retail establishments 
into this fine residential district. 

In all, Sparks left to Harvard College no less than 
one hundred and ninety-three bound volumes and bundles 
of transcripts and original manuscript. It is one of the 
most valuable collections in the United States. A 
calendar of 88 pages was necessary to record the various 
items. They are arranged under different headings, Eng- 
lish; French, Spanish and miscellaneous. 

Concerning the financial cost of this part of the 
work to these men, Bancroft estimated at one time that 
seventy-five thousand dollars would not be excessive. 
And when one considers trie vast amount of foreign 
travel also involved and the number of years spent in the 
task, this sum does not seem exaggerated, especially when 
one considers the expenditures of Mr. Stokes in con- 
nection with his present work on the Iconography of 
New York. 

The work on this book commenced, the author tells 
us in his preface, in the summer of 1908. That is now 
practically ten years ago and only two volumes out of 
the four projected have as yet made their appearance. 
There is no published statement of disbursements. The 
very numerous references to the distinguished workers 
in London, Paris, The Hague, Florence and other foreign 
Capitols indicates that the staff of assistants was very 
large in that quarter of the field, while it is a well known 
fact that nothing was omitted on this side of the world 
to enlist the services and co-operation of the ablest in- 
vestigators and experts available. 

Another feature of the Stokes work, in which it 
stands apart from all other known histories is the almost 
incredible wealth of illustration with which its pages 
are illuminated. And in this connection we do not use 
the word illustration in its commonly accepted term. 
For the pictures shown in Iconography are contemporary 
views of the period under consideration and are not used 
merely to adorn the pages. 

Those of us who know the cost of rare and popular 
prints of old New York can form a slight idea of the 
enormous expense involved in a work of this kind, and 
it is quite safe to say that no country, let alone a single 
city, will ever again !>e the recipient of such a gracious 

[ 367] 

compliment as Mr. Stokes has paid to the city of his 
birth in his remarkable work. Unlike Bancroft, Stokes 
has limited his work to a paltry few hundred copies. 
As a result it will never be generally known to his 
countrymen, and what should have been the common 
property of all New Yorkers is doomed to be the choice 
possession of only the few. 

It is to be hoped that the original manuscripts, the 
correspondence (in 1912 this item alone covered over 
2,500 pieces) and the transcripts, will be left to some 
New York City institution particularly qualified to dis- 
play and care for them. 

1 m I 

Filili Avenue at Nineteenth Street. 
Central Presbyterian Church. Sold at audion. 1875. La:cr the site of Arnold, 
Cunsublc /k Company, Wholesale Depart melll. The Church was re-erected 
at Fifty-seventh Sirert ami Seventh Avenue. Demolished.. 1917. 

An Old New York School 

By Eveline Warner Brain erd 

It was in midsummer of 1816 that a young and, if her 
middle age told truly of her youth, a beautiful English 
woman opened a little school in what was then the upper 
part of the city of New York, Some twenty years be- 
fore, there had come to seek their fortune in the grow- 
ing town on Manhattan Island, a sturdy Kentish family 
nnmcd Moorman. Active citizens of their new home 
they proved, and two of the children, Esther and James, 
we know had more than common weight and influence. 
Early in life Esther Boorman Smith found herself with 
two little daughters to support, and with few enough 
occupations to choose from. Not even women teachers 
were needed as they are to-day, for the public free 
school was still an experiment and but two existed in 
the city. Small private schools there w r ere a-plenty, for 
the most part short-lived ventures, and though often 
carried on by women, most of the instructors were men. 
Indeed, in this very year was opened a most promising 
school under the patronage of Drs. Gardiner Spring and 
J. B. Romeyne and George Griffin, Esq., two of the 
most influential clergymen and one of the most noted 
lawyers of the time. However, 1816 was a good year 
in the new land, and so there appeared in the "Evening 
Post" for July 11 the following advertisement: "Mrs. 
E. Smith's establishment for the board and tuition of 
young ladies, No. 3 Hudson Square, is now in readiness 
for the reception of pupils as hoarders or day boarders. 
The different branches of education by the most approved 
masters. Further information may be had on application 
to Mrs. S., and those to whom she is unknown are 
respectfully referred to the following gentlemen: the 
Pev. Dr. Mason, Samuel Bovd, Esq., Dr. J. H. Rogers, 
and Peter Radcliff, Esq." 

Esther Smith is descril>ed in later years as not 
only a very beautiful woman, but of great charm of 


manner, of marvelous patience, and without thought of 
self. A lovable personality this, which well explains 
the devotion she won from her own family. But she 
must have had as well, in those early days, qualities 
that made for business success. Backed and encour- 
aged as she always was by her brother, James Boor- 
man, she had evidently her share of the canny fore- 
sight and determination that soon made this young man 
one of the powerful merchants of the town. One 
recognizes his unerring and daring real estate sense in 
the location of the little school near the new church. 
St. John-in-the-Fields, as it was fittingly named. It is 
described as a "missionary enterprise, the church set 
on the outskirts of civilization opposite a dreary marsh, 
covered with brambles and bulrushes and tenanted with 
frogs and water- snakes," The tract was part of the 
Anneke Jans farm, and whether a missionary enterprise 
or not, Mrs. Smith was quite right in believing that 
Trinity Corporation knew, as usual, what it was doing 
with its property. Nevertheless, by the early twenties 
this had become one of the most select and delightful 
regions of the town. The stately church looked down 
on stately homes, and the marsh and the frogs were of 
the past. General Schuyler, John Ericsson, Dr. Mason, 
and the family of Alexander Hamilton, were among 
those who dwelt in the broad Flemish brick houses with 
their brown stone porticos and fine iron railings and 
wrens, bluebirds and orioles, built undisturbed, and where 
old Cisco, the negro gardener, puttered peacefully among 
his trees and flowers. 

Although the first month brought but one pupil, 
gradually came more, and it is curious to note, by means 
of the advertising columns, the rise and disappearance 
of school after school, while that of "Mrs. E. Smith" 
persists, seemingly with so few vicissitudes that not only 
does she never deign in her notices to explain what is 
taught or how, or at what prices, but she now and then 
serenely omits the address, sure that every one knows 
where to find her "establishment for young ladies." One 
almost wishes she had been a little less successful, or a 
little less dignified, whichever it were. We could have 


gleaned much knowledge had she been as communicative 
as Miss Eliza Woffendale, who for years announced her 
"pleasure in instructing young lady boarders" at forty 
dollars per quarter; or as Miss Oran, of whose writing 
master, Mr. Dolbeare, "a beautiful hand may be acquired 
in one quarter"; or as those trustees of the Female High 
School, that capstone of feminine education, who offered 
"English, French, composition, rhetoric, penmanship, 
arithmetic, algebra, and the other branches of mathe- 
matics, bookkeeping if required, ancient and modern 
history, natural, experimental and moral philosophy, 
plain, fine, and ornamental necdlwork," at six dollars a 
quarter without French, and fourteen with. 

Despite the reserve of the Smith advertisements, 
from these contemporary schools and from our know- 
ledge of the city of those days one may guess a little 
of the life at 3 Hudson Square. Vauxhall, a small edi- 
tion of the London playground, was near by. Castle 
Garden, then a similar amusement place, and Poole's 
Museum were in their heyday. The shops advertised 
bombazine, juniper berries, and commodities of which 
we now know hardly the names and must guess the use. 
The bookstores provided for the schools red and black 
ink powder and sand and quills, Peter Parley's Arith- 
metic, Uncle Jacob Abbott's Lessons, Goodrich's His- 
tory, and Morse's Geography, and announced the arrival 
from the other side of Jane Porter's newest novel and 
the opening chapters of "Quentin Durward." 

Probably some of Mrs. Smith's boarding pupils came 
from New Jersey; for, even after the opening of Ful- 
ton's first ferry, in 1822, young ladies did not cross the 
Hudson daily. We know that some came from up the 
State, for these had to go home before the river closed 
in the early winter, returning when the ice broke in the 
spring. Apparently there was a short vacation in April 
and one in August, schools announcing their opening in 
May and in September. In the earliest years of the 
school, before the park was in order, there was skating 
in Hudson Square, and so near was it to the country 
that a customary spring treat was a trip to a farm at 
Broadway and Fourth Street to gather strawberries. 

[ 373] 

September fifth, 1822, the "Post" has this announce- 
ment: "Mrs. Smith's hoarding school will be opened 
on Wednesday, the 18th instant, at the house on the 
Eighth Avenue, formerly occupied by Mrs. Brute, about 
a half mile above Love Lane, between the dwellings 
of Richard Harris, Esq., and the Messrs. Moses. Should 
the parents of any of her day scholars be desirous of a 
temporary residence for them that they may enter imme- 
diately on their studies, Mrs. Smith will be able to receive 
a few, Letters addressed to Mrs. Smith through the Post 
Office will be attended to." 

Love Lane was well out in the country by Chelsea 
Village, running into Eighth Avenue from the Bloom- 
ingdale Road, near what is now Twenty-first Street. So 
this new house was in the Thirties, then open country, 
with fields sloping down to the river. Probably this 
move was on account of the yellow fever epidemic, so 
severe that season as to force the shutting off of a 
portion of the city to the south of Hudson Square. 

In 1834 Mrs. Smith reopened her school "at the 
corner of Beach and Varick Streets, say 23 Varick 
Street." This odd indecision as to the number was set- 
tled before the year's directory was published, for in 
that Mrs. Smith appears with twenty other of the 
"principal female seminaries of the city." Only one of 
these was as far up town as St. Mark's Place. James 
Boorman had by this time become one of the notable 
men of the city. Hhe had been active in founding the 
University of the City of New York and he was now 
interested in the improvement of the region where the 
new college was building at Seventh Street. The ancient 
Potter's Field and gallows ground had been turned into 
Washington Square and a number of wealthy men were 
building homes about its freshly laid out lawns and 
walks. Mr. Boorman built the fine old house of light 
red brick with white trimming, still standing at the 
eastern corner of Fifth Avenue and the Square, and 
above two more houses, t and 3 Fifth Avenue, for his 
sister's school. In September, 1835, the school opened 
in this new home, and it was in this year also that there 
came a piece of rare good fortune not only to Mrs. 


Broadway at Kighih Slr«al — TJie Sinclair House — Originally the favorite 
headquarters of the New York booksellers. Demolished, 1900. 

Smith, to whom it meant years of warm friendship, but 
to thousands of young women who, in the next thirty 
years, were to come under the new teacher's strong and 
wise influence. Lucy Green had been a pupil in the 
school and before that had studied under Lucretia Ban- 
croft, sister of the historian, and Dorothea L. Dix, that 
pioneer of prison reform, and she shared their qualities 
of earnestness and high principle. She had, too, the 
advantage, at that time uncommon for women, of a 
season of foreign travel. 

Cholera had visited the city severely in 1834, and this 
may have been the "severe contagious illness" which we 
arc told had for a time a serious effect on the prosperity 
of the school. Certainly the strictest economy was at 
this time needful before the continued success of the 
enterprise that bad served the city for twenty years was 
assured. What is doubtless Mrs. Smith's last advertise- 
ment appeared in March, 1838. The change of the school 
year points to the change in town life, in which the 
summer had become definitely holiday time. It reads : 
"Mrs. E. Smith, formerly of Hudson Square, deems it 
essential to announce that she is about to relinquish her 
school as reported, but that it will be continued under 
her personal superintendence for a limited number of 
pupils. Mrs. Smith has adopted the system of three 
terms in the year of full three months each, the vacation 
being from the first of July to the twentieth of Septem- 
ber." The following season the notice is from the Misses 
Lucy M. and Mary R. Green, who, "having taken the 
establishment for many years conducted by Mrs. E. 
Smith, first in Hudson Square and since in its present 
location, will recommence the school at the close of the 
vacation on Tuesday, Sept. roth. Miss Lucy M, Green 
has held responsible situations with Mrs. Smith during 
the last four years, and it will be the care of the Misses 
Green substantially to preserve the regulations and course 
of instruction heretofore observed." Though there be 
no one left now to tell us of personal knowledge what 
manner of teacher was the head mistress who ruled the 
school through its first quarter century, it needs not 
the statement in William Allen Butler's sketch of Miss 

[ 377] 

Green to assure us that "it numbered among, its pupils 
the daughters of many of the leading men of the city 
and elsewhere, who valued the moral and religious tone 
which characterized the life and activities of the school, 
as well as the thorough instruction which it imparted." 
He foundation was ready for the new builder, and she 
was eminently fitted to her task. The sister, Mary Green, 
had charge of the younger children, but it is Miss Lucy 
who lives so vividly in the memory of all who knew her. 
Strict and severe she was, absolutely just, and with a 
fund of tenderness hidden beneath her outward manner . 
and a sunny smile that her pupils never forgot. Shallow- 
ness and vanity were to her the unforgivable sins, and 
plain clothing, no jewelry, and simple pleasures figured 
large in her creed. Quakcrlikc in dress, wearing always 
doth gowns of ankle length, and heelless shoes, ber only 
ornament her beautiful hair, she was a noticeable and 
impressive figure in those decades of hoop-skirts and 

Again there had been no mistake in the choice of 
location. Washington Square and lower Fifth Avenue 
became, as James Boorman and his confreres intended 
they should, the most notable residential section of the 
town, and the school, in its broad, generous, dignified 
brick building (for No, 3 was given up and No. 1 en- 
larged), was for the next thirty years perhaps easily the 
leading school for girls in the city. It was not so made, 
however, by any deference to fashion or luxury. In- 
deed, a simplicity that may bespeak still scant means 
is in that earlv requirement that at the call to dinner 
each young lady should carry her chair from the school 
to the dining-room, and carry it, moreover, "quietly and 
in a genteel manner," and in "those wash-rooms furnished 
with long wooden sinks, white crockery bowls, and large 
tin dippers. 

To quote again from Mr. Butler, "It was wholly for- 
eign to the purpose of Miss Green to give the character 
or repute of a fashionable school to the institution. . . 
Her aim was rather to mould and train the minds that 
came under her care by developing the highest sense of 
duty in the exercise of every faculty. . . . She im- 


Wall Stc*«t Ferry lo Brooklyn— IBJ3. 
Interesting view of the old timei shipping in the East River, From a lithograph by Whitefitld. 

From Iht Havtmtytr ealltctivn. 

pressed her own personality upon the scholars, particu- 
larly in the direction of the education of the conscience 
and the strengthening of principle." Rigid though her 
requirements were, — in fact, because of their unyield- 
ing independence and high idealism, — the repute of the 
school grew, and for years boarders and day pupils 
numbered between two and three hundred. 

With the highest ideals of the position and the power 
of woman in the home, Miss Green sought to train for 
the home, and she trained well and wisely in her gen- 
eration; indeed, in some ways beyond her generation. 
Text-book and lecturer did not satisfy her. Her girls 
were expected to look further and were familiar figures 
at the New York Society Library, then around the block 
in University Place, and the Astor Library in Lafay- 
ette Place. French, German, Italian, Latin, were taught, 
and if Greek were omitted, the reading of the Iliad in 
English was a part of the course in literature. How lit- 
tle she inclined toward easy lessons may be gathered 
by this extract from the journal of her brother, Andrew 
H. Green, whose advice and aid counted for much in 
the school and who was in 1844 teaching a class in 
American history. He had been planning, he writes, 
a set of lectures "on the constitution and jurisprudence 
of our country, making them rather general and simple, 
To do this philosophically I shall have to commence about 
the beginning of the fourteenth century and take a re- 
view of all the nations of Europe at this date, gradually 
bringing the features in each which bear on the formation 
of society in this country together till I come to the 
Declaration of Independence. Then the course will be 
clear." A large proposition this, and one does not wonder 
that he seems doubtful of accomplishing it. 

Herself an excellent teacher, Miss Green knew how 
to choose her helpers. Many came from the Union 
Theological Seminary, thus keeping the tradition of the 
school that had always been affiliated with the Presby- 
terian and Dutch elements in the city. Among the men 
and women noted in their day, or whose names are still 
familiar, are those of Dr. George B. Cheever, eloquent 
preacher of the Church of the Puritans and doughty 


temperance fighter ; Henry J. Raymond, founder of the 
"Times"; Annie Botta, leader of perhaps the only salon 
New York ever possessed ; Felix Foresti, professor at 
both the University and Columbia; Clarence Cook; Ly- 
man Abbott; and Elihu Root, then a young man fresh 
from college, whose classes had to be duly chaperoned. 

In 1867 came a new teacher, a tall young lady, dark- 
haired and keen-eyed. Reared among the Orange County 
hills, she had been educated at the historic Montgomery 
Academy, which, still doing this country good service, 
was already a quarter century old when 3 Hudson Square 
welcomed its lone scholar. The Academy had sent 
generations of students out into the world before one 
class gave two remarkable educators to this city, Frances 
E. Graham, and her youthful rival in mathematics, the 
beloved Dean Van Amringc of Columbia. Miss Green, 
in the height of her success, after thirty busy and 
honored years was ready to retire to the quiet country 
home in Massachusetts. After watching her new helper 
two years she made up her mind that here she had found 
one of the force and the will to carry on her work. The 
proposition was made to the young teacher, to whom, to 
quote from Miss Margaret M. Graham, "this honor was 
so unexpected that she at first declined, but after much 
thought and persuasion consented and with her sisters 
endeavored carefully to carry out the ideas of her prede- 

There must have been a kinship in character between 
these two, both gentlewomen of the old school, for the 
words in which they are described by their pupils to- 
day arc curiously alike. Miss Graham, too, was severe, 
strict, but absolutely just, of stern principle, of high 
ideals, while beneath a precise manner lay a warm sym- 
pathy and understanding. But the likeness did not ex- 
tend to appearance. The new head mistress was tall, 
slender, stately, and though one can hardly imagine her 
in hoops or frills, her black silk gown, the rustle of 
which was a warning to every lazy girl within hearing, 
belonged to her type quite as did Miss Lucy's short cloth 
frock to hers. 


Various staid customs that long persisted under the 
Misses Graham, must, one fancies, have come down from 
the old regime. That clearing of the Sunday supper- 
table, when the dishes were passed from hand to hand 
till gathered in assorted piles at the lower end of the 
long line, surely came from a simpler day. Improving 
topics were introduced from time to time at meals, 
and there has been preserved a classic reply from one 
gentle and diffident maiden to the question, "What 
would you do were you thrown on your own resources 
to-morrow?" "I think I should go and live with Uncle 
John" was her happy solution. If these pupils were 
from the "first families," this did not relieve the teachers 
of care of more than minds and morals, and the young- 
sters of the primary department were met at the door 
by a kindly guardian whom they greeted with an "obli- 
gatory grin" and turned up nails, before the password, 
"J'ai dix, Mademoiselle," which meant that they were 
on time and in order, let them enter. The morning 
greeting, in which the pupils, rising at their desks, re- 
peated in unison, "Good morning, Miss Graham," and 
then answered to the roll-call by a memorized verse of 
the Bible, was an ancient function. 

But the Sunday of the boarding pupils, the "young 
ladies of the family," as they were always called, was 
the most characteristic feature of the Green and Graham 
training. The day began with morning prayers at half- 
past seven, the pupils reading in turn, generally more 
than once, singing and prayer closing the exercises. 
After breakfast at eight the pupils attended to their rooms 
as usual, then came down for the Bible class, which lasted 
till the first church bell. All walked in procession to the 
First Presbyterian Church, save the few who stopped 
on the way at the Church of the Ascension. The few 
moments between service and dinner were to be em- 
ployed in the learning of hymns. At the close of dinner 
each young woman was expected to give "a thought from 
the sermon," altogether the most dreaded item in the 
day's program, calling as it did for a quotation from a 
sermon that one's teacher also had heard. There fol- 
lowed a brief interval into which could be tucked 


another verse of one's hymn! The afternoon Bible 
class closed with the first bell for afternoon service, and 
on returning from church, if one were wise, one studied 
one's hymn till evening prayers, which preceded the half- 
past six supper. After supper, with chairs pushed back 
from the table, each girl recited the hymn that had safely 
occupied all the leisure moments of the day. "When 
this was over," comments an old student, "great peace 
reigned in our hearts, for with the exception of hymn 
singing in the ladies' parlor till early bedtime the program 
for the day was ended." 

One would like to know if the school text with 
which each newcomer in the Green and the Graham 
schools had to answer to her name, were learned also in 
Hudson Square. One somehow fancies that a very 
weary teacher chose it with a grim enjoyment of the 
second clause. "But as touching brotherly love ye need 
not that I write unto you, for ye yourselves are taught 
of God to love one another. . , . Study to be quiet 
and to do your own business and to work with your 
own hands as we have commanded you, that ye may walk 
honestly toward them that are without, and that ye may 
have lack of nothing." 

That of which custom was but the index, the spirit 
and aim of the old school, continued unchanged; and 
this it was that held so many of the old patrons and 
brought to the Misses Graham children and grand- 
children of the Green and the Smith connections. To 
Miss Graham as to Miss Green, religion was the main- 
spring of conduct and the Bible the absolute guide of 
daily life. Though the boarders had naturally more 
Bible training than the day scholars, no one was long 
under the Graham influence without feeling the reli- 
gious clement that entered every department of the 
school life. A professor who had known Miss Graham 
well, when asked for some analysis of her as an educa- 
tor, answered instantly, "She was a character builder," 
and in these words he precisely described her power. 
Scholarship, attainment — these were good, but of value 


only as the result of honest work and as used for high 

No more than their predecessors did the Misses 
Graham bid for notice by advertising success or num- 
bers, or yielding their views of sound training. Indeed, 
the advertising sense of both these principals was so 
ill developed that the daily walks of the "young ladies 
of the family" were taken in two divisions lest the 
whole number in line, swinging briskly along the Ave- 
nue, should attract too much attention. The naive 
criticism of one disappointed pupil describes the atti- 
tude of the school. "There 's no style here," complained 
the dissatisfied damsel. "The main things thought of 
are study and courteous behavior." 

But if the aims of the teachers were the same, the 
city had altered almost beyond recognition. When in 
1881 the move was made to No. 63, the stately house at 
the northeast corner of Thirteenth Street and Fifth 
Avenue, the lower avenue had passed its prime, and no 
longer could any one region boast the position it had 
held. Neither were schools of advanced standing any 
longer rare, and methods were changing. The prepara- 
tory school was taking the place of the school of general 
training, for the woman's college had come. With it 
came better trained women teachers, and the invasion of 
women into the field of men was being gently and surely 
accomplished in the private schools long before the por- 
tentous phrase had terrified the timid. Fortunately the 
invasion was not entirely complete, and there were still 
lecturers from outside. There was Professor Braman, 
so gentle, so frail, seemingly so old, that from his looks 
one fancied he might have taught "natural and experi- 
mental philosophy" in the schoolroom at Hudson Square. 
There was still Clarence Cook, most inspiring, most un- 
systematic of lecturers, who managed to fit several hours 
with da Vinci's sketchbooks into his course in English 
literature. Professor Fiske delivered some of his finest 
lectures from a tiny platform, quite too small for his 
portly person; and among the later men were Professor 
Means, Professor Fairchild, Dr. Leighton Williams, and 
Dr. John D. Quackenbos. But Mr. Tavenor, who taught 


Miss Green's young ladies to read with expression, and 
the sarcastic Mr. Wilder, who frightened the timid out 
of what expression they might naturally have had, and 
was rewarded hy enthusiastic admiration, had long 
given place to their successors. Mr. Jackson, who 
taught a fine, legible Italian hand, as many of his 
old pupils can testify to-day, had vanished, and Mr. 
Dolmage, too, had retired from the arduous business of 
watching his pupils imitate his neatly written copies. 
The "English angular" and Mrs. Skinner for a time 
reigned in their stead, and helped to break the prece- 
dent that had come down from the beginning of the 
century, when, to judge by the advertisements, penman- 
ship was entirely a masculine art. Madame Lancon held 
Monsieur Aspin's desk, and never French master inspired 
more awe than did that stern Huguenot lady. French 
was a specialty under both Miss Green and Miss Gra- 
ham. It was the rule that all conversation between 
pupils during the school hours must be in French, and 
one must one's self report failure to obey, a regulation 
that caused those of tender conscience anxious search- 
ings of memory before the roll-call. Mademoiselle Giohe 
in early days, and later the genial Madame English and 
then Madame Wainwright, the friend of the later gen- 
eration of students, presided at (be daily afternoon con- 
versation hours, from four to five and five to six, when 
the girls brought their mending and had their stitches 
supervised along with their accent and their grammar. 

The city did not stop changing in 1881. It went on 
faster and faster. In 1893 the new house at Seventy- 
second Street and Broadway seemed a permanent loca- 
tion, but in fourteen years business had crept close, 
making it untenable, and the move was made to the 
present beautiful home at 42 Riverside Drive. It was 
in 1910, after forty years of devoted labor, that the 
Misses Graham retired, giving up the school to Mr. and 
Mrs. Miner. Mrs. Miner, as Miss White, had been a 
successful teacher in the school some years before, so 
that for the third time it was handed on to one who 
knew and respected its traditions and its aims. 


The Merchants' Association of New York 

The Merchants' Association of New York is one of 
the newer but withal a most aggressive commercial organ- 
ization. It contains over 5,000 of the City's leading 
business and professional men, all devoted to the purpose 
expressed in the motto of The Association - — "To Foster 
the Trade and Welfare of New York." 

Its early history begins with its formation in the dry 
goods district in 1897. The prime mover in the organ- 
ization was William F. King, a member of the wholesale 
dry goods firm of Calhoun Robbins & Co., It was incor- 
porated under the Membership Corporation Law of New 
York, which provides that the members shall chose a 
board of directors, who, in turn, shall elect officers. 

The directors also appoint the heads of bureaus, who 
perform the routine work of the organization. Each 
bureau has a supervising committee. The bureaus of the 
Association at present are as follows : 

The Bureau of Research, which investigates questions 
presented, collects information bearing upon them, and 
assists committees in their consideration ; the Traffic 
Bureau, the Publicity Bureau, Trade Bureau, which 
stimulates the sale of American products in foreign 
markets, assists members who desire to find new markets 
for their products abroad, the Industrial Bureau, which 
brings industries to New York City by finding suitable 
locations and pointing out the advantages which they 
will obtain by establishing themselves here; the Conven- 
tion Bureau, the Membership Bureau, the Legislative 
Bureau, which follows legislation both in Albany and in 
Washington which is of interest to New York City, 
publishes abstracts of .important bills for the information 
of members and supplies information relating to pending 

The Association also has an organization of its mem- 
bers known as the Members' Council. In this sub-organ- 
ization, all the members are divided into groups in accor- 


dance with their several fields of activity. The men best 
qualified to discuss the question under consideration at- 
tend these meetings as guests of the Association. 

The Association has a long list of achievements to its 
credit. When it was organized there was a plan on foot 
among the City officials to make a contract between New 
York City and the Ramapo Water Company, which 
would have involved the City in an expenditure of 
$100,000,000, and would have left it at the end of the 
contract period without any adequate public water supply. 
The Merchants' Association led the attack upon this 
scheme, spending $40,000 in arousing public opinion 
against it, and eventually brought about the repeal of the 
special laws which had been smuggled through the Legis- 
lature in order to give the company an advantage in deal- 
ing with the City. The Association then aided in the 
formation of the plans which eventually led to the con- 
struction of the Catskill water supply system, which now 
gives the City an adequate supply of pure water. The 
Association has constantly fought even' effort to encroach 
upon the Croton Watershed in a manner that might en- 
danger the City's water supply from that source. It is 
now vigorously opposing the location in the watershed of 
State institutions which would house a large population of 
delinquents and defectives. 

The re-organization of the express business in this 
country was due to a movement started by The Mer- 
chants' Association in response to complaints made by 
its members of the express service. The Association 
formed the Express Rate Conference, composed of Com- 
mercial organizations throughout the country, and when 
the matter had been taken up by the Interstate Commerce 
Commission it furnished the Commission with much of 
the evidence upon which the re-organization orders were 

The Association has been successful in bringing 
about readjustment of telephone rates. As far back as 
1907 The Association secured reductions in telephone 
charges in this City amounting to $1,500,000 a year, and 
in 1913 a still further reduction amounting to almost 
double this sum. 



Biuatlway south from J9th Street, the original Casino as fitst COnmUUCted, 
and under in* mantgemer.l its fir^t proprietor. Rudolph Aronsun. urith 
Lillian Russell as his main attraction— 1887. 

Through the active efforts of The Association, the 
State of New York and the United States Government 
joined in a suit to restrain the State of New Jersey from 
discharging the entire sewage of the Passaic Valley into 
the upper Bay. This resulted in a modification of the 
plan, which substantially prevents pollution from this 

The Committee on Foreign Trade after an exhaustive 
study recomended to The Association the approval of the 
general proposition to establish a free zone in this Port 
somewhat similar in type to the Free Port at Hamburg. 
The Committee's recomendation has been accepted and 
The Association is now advocating the establishment of 
such a free zone. 

Upon the initiative of The Association, a joint Com- 
mittee, representing the various commercial interests and 
the trunk line railroads, has been created to study the 
entire terminal situation and recommend plans for a com- 
plete re-organization of the City's terminal facilities. 

The Association first suggested the Brooklyn water- 
front terminal railroad and actively supported the legis- 
lation which has made this important improvement pos- 
sible. It has been active in the movement for readjust- 
ment of the New York Central Railroad Lines along the 
Hudson River in such manner as greatly to improve rail 
shipping facilities and to release the Hudson River water- 
front for the more complete use of water-borne com- 
merce. It was mainly instrumental in the creation by law 
of an effective Bureau of Fire Prevention and the adop- 
tion of systematic inspection as a means of reducing fire 
hazards, and lessening the insurance burden. It first sug- 
gested and effectively urged the construction of the ex- 
isting high pressure water service for fire prevention, 
which was followed by a substantial reduction of insur- 
ance rates. During several years, in cooperation with 
the fire insurance authorities, it urged upon the City the 
construction of the new fire alarm service, and has 
systematically and successfully promoted the enforce- 
ment of ordinances relating to placing rubbish in the 
streets, exposure of ashes and garbage, regulation of 
traffic, use of sidewalks, etc. 


It prepared and published a summary of ordinances 
relating to these and similar subjects which has become 
a standard manual for police use. More than 40,000 
copies have been distributed. 

The Association has offices on the ninth floor of the 
Wool worth Building, occupying most of the floor. These 
headquarters contain an assembly room for the use of 
the members and for hearings which bring together a 
considerable number of the members, and a directors' 
room in which the meetings of the Board of Directors 
and Executive Committee are held, and the offices of 
the Bureaus which The Association conducts. In the 
headquarters also is a library containing publications of 
current or permanent value relating to the work of The 
Association. Mr. William Fellowes Morgan is president. 


What Cot, Wating accomplished foi the city, 
kail-call of Ihe Street Cleaning Department, 1869 — and to-day. 
Courtesy of Mi. F Sttanis. 

Broadway. 28lh to 29th Streets — the Old Sturtevanl House — 1890. 

The Hispanic Society of America 

On an elevation overlooking the Hudson, just where 
.Riverside Drive makes a graceful curve as if to spare 
"Minniesland," the old home of Audubon, the great 
naturalist (which we have also described), stands the 
classic home of the Hispanic Society of America, which 
is devoted to the advancement of Spanish literature, 
art and history. The entrance proper is on Broadway 
between One Hundred and Fifty-fifth and One Hundred 
and Fifty-sixth Streets and the nearest station is at 
One Hundred and Fifty-seventh Street. The Hispanic 
Society is thus conveniently reached, and the stranger 
who decides to spend an hour or two within its walls 
will have visited one of the most remarkable institutions 
not only in New York, but in the world as well. In 
fact, the Hispanic Society probably is better known in 
foreign countries than it is at home, though in recent 
years its local fame has greatly increased, partly by 
reason of the splendid exhibitions of Spanish art which 
it has given from time to time. Its late exhibition of 
Spanish tapestries is a case in point. Lovers of art 
were thus enabled to use the best examples of the most 
famous Spanish creations in this ancient art, and our 
country thus received the benefit. The lately increased 
interest in Spanish America has also given the society 
an added importance that is rapidly growing as its 
usefulness becomes more widely known. 

The collections of the society, though small, are 
of exquisite quality. No attempt has been made to 
include the varying grades of certain illustrative originals, 
the idea being to limit the exhibits to the very best 
specimen obtainable in each class, and also one other 
that might be described as generally typical. In this 
manner the society has gathered examples of wood 
carving, silver work, ivory plaques and combs of Phoeni- 
cian origin, Hispano-Moresque plaques, neolithic and 
Roman pottery, Euen-Retiro ware, azulejos or glazed 


tiles, Roman mosaics and ecclesiastical embroideries, etc. 
Most of them are of the greatest rarity and many date 
from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, or are even 

As the society delights to encourage special research 
in literature and strives to promote new and original 
investigation so that the result may be literature by itself, 
it offers special facilities to those pursuing such studies, 
and its library is, without exception the most important 
devoted to this particular school in America. Of its orig- 
inal manuscripts, first editions, etc., New York is justly 
proud. It includes a large collection of the work of Lam- 
bert Falmart, of Valencia, the first printer of Spain, with 
some specimens of contemporary printers of Germany 
and Italy for purposes of comparison ; the first editions 
of important Spanish authors and a unique special 
collection, including nearly every known edition of "Don 
Quixote" — itself an item of absorbing interest and value; 
autograph letters of Charles the Fifth and the Duke 
of Wellington; manuscripts of George Borrow and 
Robert Southey; some ancient maps and rare old prints 
and beautifully illuminated mediaeval liturgical books. 
The society gives its cordial co-operation to sincere work- 
ers and upon application to the librarian the treasures 
of the library are freely placed at the disposal of readers. 
It is doubtful if such a similar collection of Spanish 
memorabilia is extant in any other country in the world. 

The existence of the society has been known to the 
people of New York in a perfunctory way since its 
opening in 1904. Its building was admired, but con- 
sidered too far out of the run of things to warrant a 
special visit. One morning, however, the city buzzed 
with excitement concerning the advent of a hitherto un- 
heard-of artist — Sorolla — whose works were being 
exhibited at the Hispanic. The land of Velasquez, of 
Fortuity, of Murillo, of Goya had once more seized the 
sceptre of vanished power and like a meteor the splendor 
of Sorolla's work flashed across the New World. 

New York hastened to pay homage to the genius 
who had in a moment revived the ancient glories of 
Leon and Castile. Long lines formed their tortuous 


lengths in and around the building, and more people 
viewed Sorolla's pictures in a shorter time than was 
ever before recorded. The importance of this exhibition 
did much to focus public attention upon the art treasures 
possessed by the society, and for the time being over- 
shadowed its other attractions. Its pictures are un- 
doubtedly entitled to the high praise bestowed upon them, 
as they are of exceptional importance. There are three 
splendid examples of Velasquez's work. There are 
paintings by El Greco, Goya, Ribera, Zurzaran, For- 
tuny, Madrazo, Sorolla, Zuloaga and many other dis- 
tinguished Spanish artists. The Duke of Alba's is only 
one among other famous portraits in the society's collec- 
tion, of which King Alphonso by Sorolla is another. The 
Queen of Spain is represented. The collection is fully 
entitled to be called representative in the best sense 
of the word. 

A bronze bust of Collis P. Huntington, father of 
the founder and to whom the building is a memorial, 
is of special interest It is on the right as you enter. 
The building is open from 10 to 5 every day of the week, 
but the library is closed on Sundays. 


Ambitious Projects for the Next Number of 
Valentine's Manual. 

Our readers we hope, will agree with us that the 
present number of the Manual is a decided improvement 
over the first. Eleven colored plates besides a large 
folding supplement in addition to the usual number of 
rare old prints and photographs are, we think, an earnest 
of our policy to make the Manual stronger and better 
every year. Judging from past experience there is not 
a shadow of a doubt that in the years to come the present 
numbers of the Manual will greatly advance in price 
just as did their predecessors. We have a limited market 
and our edition is therefore small. The price of last 
year's issue has already advanced one dollar per copy. 

Ships of Old New York 

The third issue will have three distinct features. 
The first, the "Ships of Old New York," wherein will 
be portrayed all those famous flyers that brought renown 
to the port of New York in the Roaring Forties. The 
old Dry Dock neighborhood and the Eleventh Ward will 
once again blaze forth in all their pristine glory. The 
shipyards of Christian Bergh, Henry Eckford, Smith and 
Dimon, Adam & Noah Brown with a dozen others will 
in memory echo to the sound of the hammer and the 
anvil. And the tense crowds that awaited news of an 
old time clipper race will reappear in our pages. All 
the pictures will be printed in colors — about 24 in all. 

The series will not be wholly confined to Clippers but 
will include other ships of equal interest. The develop- 
ment of Hudson River and coastwise trading ships will 
be shown. Also (by courtesy of the New York Yacht 
Club), a series of plates showing all the races for the 
famous "America" Cup. The Club has shown great 
interest in this work. The India House, through Mr. 
Willard Straight, has also offered its cooperation and 
the Peabody Museum of Salem has also placed many 
rare prints at our disposal. 


Fourteenth StTeet, West frnn: Broadway. 1870. 
Delmonicu's and the Old Guard at Fifth Avmu« — the New York Hospital or 
Fifteenth Street is seen at the ri^ht. 

Ships of the line, merchantmen, private yachts, whale- 
backs, modern liners and submarines will not be omitted. 
This ship feature will be continued during several 
numbers as the subject is large and of great importance. 
It will be the most expensive undertaking in a publishing 
way that has ever before been attempted in a periodical 
of like character. It will form a volume that will be 
eagerly sought for and highly prized in the days to come, 
as New York is already well advanced toward the re- 
covery of her former world supremacy on the Seven 

Notwithstanding the largely increased cost of the 
next number there will be no increase in price. We 
would advise our subscribers, however, to order at once 
as the edition will be soon exhausted when its contents 
become known. Specimen pages will soon be ready for 
examination and will be mailed to those interested. 

A second feature, of equal if not greater importance 
will be our reproduction of all the Valentine pictures 
in the old Manual. These will be printed by the old 
fashioned lithograph process in all the quaint colorings 
of the famous orignials, under the personal supervision 
of Mr. Norman T. A. Munder of Baltimore, whose work- 
in this number, "View from IVeahawk, The Clermont 
passing West Point, Pelrus Stuyvesanl's Army, etc., is 
sufficient guarantee of the excellence which -our sub- 
scribers may expect. Sixteen plates will be given in the 
first installment and will be succeeded each year with an 
equal number till the entire series is completed. In 
the addition of Mr. Munder to our staff for color work, 
and of Mr. Edward Lent in typography we consider 
ourselves fortunate. 

Villages of Old New York 

The third great feature will be The Villages of Old 
New York wherein will be described the dozen or so 
hamlets like Chelsea, Bloomingdale, Harsenville, Tubby 
Hook, Yorkville, Harlem, etc., and will be treated ex- 
haustively. This idea appeals to us strongly and I think 
we can make a splendid thing of it. It has never yet 
been done the way we want to do it. 


This will be followed by a delightful narrative on the 
Farms of Old New York. You will see this busy city 
once more the scene of bucolic delights. The lines in 
Grey's elegy 

Homeward ihc plowman plods his weary way 
Leaving the world to darkness and to me 

is no more appropriate to his deserted village than it will 
be to the scenes in old New York which we will be able 
to revive. 

It will be a notable number. We know it will add 
ti> the reputation of Valentine's Manual. Any of our 
readers who have any old documents or photographs 
pertaining to these subjects are kindly invited to com- 
municate with the editor at their early convenience. 

Filth Avenue- — 1885. The Victoria "French Flats," as ihey were called, at 26th Siru-i-t, Built by Mrs. Paran 
Steven;, -the first appeatunee of the now universal apartment hous*. The original Knickerbocker Trust 
Comfia:. was located on lha upper corner opposite — almost the first commercial institution on the Avenue. 


Abbott, Lynmn, 382. 

Abbott's, Undo Jacob, 373, 

Abcrle's Theatre, 223p. 

Adfima, Uiimucl, 304. 

Adams, Catsllna, 49. 

Adams, John Qulncy, 220, 

Adams, Wllllain, 223. 

Advocate, The. 200. 

Aim, John, 300. 

Alblan. 200. 

Albro, Stephen V.. 208. 

Alexander, Catherine, 242. 

Allen, l>(-linrnh, Sit, 

Allen, Timothy, 174. 

All Saints Church, 190. 

Aleop, John, 105. 

Amsltiek, Lewla E,, 2S7. 

Amslnck, Iy. E. and Company 297, 

American Kichamre Bunk. 220. 

American Geographical Society., 
The. 238. 201. 

American Historians, 364. 

American llousu Missionary Soci- 
ety. 225. 

American Hotel, 160. 

American Life Insurance Com- 
pany, 283. 

American Museum Natural His- 
tory. 118, 246. 

American Wntcb Co., 215. 

Amundsen, 301. 

Ahtlerton'p, 354. 

Anderson, Cornelius V.. 224. 

Anderson, Samuel. 3(141, 

Andrews, Alfred C-, 44. 

Angers, David d', 110, 

Angcvlne, 62. 

Anthony'a None, 303. 

Applcbe. Catherine. 313. 

Apthorp, Chas. W., 103. 

Apthorpe, 237. 

Aptliorpe Apartments, lGSp. 
Arculsrins, Isabella, 270. 
Arden, Sally, 313. 
Armstrong, Johnnie, 60. 
Arnold, 241. 

Arno)d, Mrs. Seethe, 309. 
A/nold, Constable A Co., 371 p. 
Aronaon, Hndolph, 891p. 
Arthur, Oeneral, 148. 
Artfc ,r, Mary, 314. 
Asplnwall. John, 223. 
Aspl"wall, Win. II., 69. 
Astor, Smlly, 267. 

Astor, Col, John J., 270, 

A.stor, John Jacob, l!l, 20, 23 4d 

50, 135. 220, 207. 21Dp. 
Astor, Vincent, 361. 
Astor,. Mrs. William. 279. 
Astor, Wm. B., 2(1, 207. 268. 
Astor. Wm, W., 160. 
Astor House, 160. 207. 303. lBSii, 


A ^?c r H brnj, y' 1S - 1B - 23 > 2 *. **< 

-08, Wm 
Astor Place. ID, 20, 204p. 
Athcrtoti, Gertrude. 122. 354. 
Atlantic voyupe. 301. 
Austin, Wm., 276, 
Allien, Sally Tan, 314. 
Auehinnty, Illehard T„ 271. 
Auchiuuty, Dr. Samuel, 193. 
Avery, Deborah P., 309. 
Avery, a. I 1 ., 324. 
Avery, Samuel T., 310. 


Babcock, Paul, 268. 
Bacbe, Sarah, 309. 
Bacon, Mrs. Ilobert, 122. 
Haerle, J. n„ 1G3. 
Ballad, 122. 
Bailey, Gen. The.o., I». 
Baker, George. A., 319. 
Baker. Lewis. 242. 
Balance Dock, 3f»0p. 
Balfour, Arthur J., 31. 113. 100. 

Bancroft, G corse. 301. 
"Rank Coffee House", 283 
Bank; of Commerce, 212. 237, 27<f. 
Hank of the Delaware and Hud- 
son Canal Co.. 225. 
ISank of England. 229. 
Bank of New York. 275, 283, 284. 
Banyer, Goldsborongh, 245. 
Banycr Mrs, Maria, 24B. 
Barbour, Rev, Dr. It. S-, 10, 13. 
Bnrck, Oscar, 114. 
Barkman, Peter, 174. 
Barclay, Ttev. Dt. Henry. 245. 
Barclay, Capt, Thos., 245. 
Barclay, Tbos. 151 
Barnard, F. A, P., 324. 
Harmiin, TCllphalet, SIX*. 
Harnum, P. T., 113. _ 
Barrett, Walter. 164. 237. 271, 275. 
Bassett, Mr. John Spencer, 3(M- 
Battf^ry Place, 316p.. 320p, 

Note.— Letter P after a number refers to description 011 


Battle mini of Ihe Rep Hi 211. 

Battle of Lout; Island, Til. 

Battle Pass, 70. 

Battle Row. HO. 

Banman, Sophia Christiana, 313. 

Raymim, Miss, 50, 53. 

Bearh St., 203. 

Beusn urn, 24. 

Bonis, JaH., 14. 
Reaver street, !'lp., 220. 
Beaumont, Captain. SI'.). 
Utekwith, Carroll. 358. 
Reckwith. H. 8. Mr. N. M., 311). 
Redlent. 02. 

Bcdlne's Island. 81, 305. 
Bednlne, 02. 

Beeclier, Henry Ward, 3lA. 
Beekinan, 88, 233. 
Beekman, Gerard G., 30!). 
Bookman, Pierre Van Cortlandt, 

Boekmnn, Senator, 113. 
Bcekman street, 14, 211), 226. 
Bidden, Charles, 230. 
Bidden, Frederick. 230. 
Bidden, George, 23(1. 
Belden. It. 46. 
Bellows, Henry W.. 310. 
Bellows, Rev. Dr., 311), 
Belmont, Anj?nnr, SO. 
Belmont Hotel, iTilji, 

Benedict Bros,, or>, 
Benoet, Kitty, 300. 
Bennett, Jas. Gordon, 5. 
Bennett, James Gordon Sr., 315. 
Benezet, Betsey, 306. 

Bernard. H, Itv Jr., *RI. 
Rerrimen, Mary, 313. 
Belts, Mra, Caroline C. 314, 
Riliby. Gonvornour S„ 164. 
Rlcelow, John, 350. 
Blfjolotv, Poiiltenv, 354. 
Billing, Arthur T., 45. 
Bingham. Miss H.. 300. 
Itluck. William. 306. 
Rlackboum. MJ.«s Mnrv, 300. 
Blackford. Edward, 30*. 
Blake, William. 171. 
RTeecker. 40. 
Bleecker, A„ 40. 
Bleecker, A, J„ 147, 
Bleecker, Mrs. Hester, 300. 
Bleecker, .Tumi's, 300. 
Bleecker, Pegey. 306, 
Bleecker St.. lOflp., 207, 212, 220. 

Bliss, Boia P.. 300. 
Bloek, Adrian, 70. 
Rlodgett, William T.. 328. 
RloomlnBdale Road, 103, 165, 374. 
Hloomlnjrdalc Road, 165. 
llloominsrdale, 10, 150, 164, £37, 

Bloor, A, J., 324, 
Boiiril of Kdue:ilioii, 13. 
Bodlne, 02. 
Boeke". 3E3. 
Bogardus. Rev. E., 80. 
Bouiirl. 65. 


Bojtort. C, 46, 
Bopert, James J., 306, 
BoEee, Abraham, 306, 
Bolton, Reginald Pelham, 114. 
Bond street, 13, 207. 208. 
Boonnan, Jas., 371, 372, 374. 
Boston & New York Transporta- 
tion, 237. 
Botta, Annie. 382. 
Bottet, Cnpt. M., 130. 
Uoudinot, 62. 
Ho^cn. Siillv. 

Bowery. IP, 23, 207, 216. 2S0. 

Bowery Theatre, 74p. 

Rowling Green, 130p.. 185ji.. 211. 

Bonne 230n. 
Bownc, Robert II., 204. 
Bos, Mary, 306. 
Boyd, Jas,, 271. 
Boyd, Samuel Esq., 371. 
Bradford, Will, 1, 7B, 178, 181. 
Rradner. Uenona, 314. 
Brndshaw, Geo., 256. 
Bramaa, Prof., 387. 
Rraunlfcan, John, 174. 
Brnnt. Nancy. 313. 
Brevoort, Henry Jr., 208. 
Brick Meeting House, 210. 255. 
Brick Presbyterian Crureh, 2l5p. 

L'lO, ' 

Hri^iis, Charles P., 310. 

Rristed, Cbas. A„ 26S, 323. 

Bristol, 310. 

British Museum, 0. 

British Military Button* of ihJ 

War of Independence, 335. 
Broad street. 164p., 22D. 211p, 
286p,. 300p, 

Broadway. 10, 23. 24, 44p., 41), 
163p, IROp, l!)3p, HWp, 204p, 207, , 
20Sp, 211, 212, 210, 21!)p, 210. 
2,Tflp. 2S3p. 388. 301 ii, 402p. 414p. 

Broadway Central Hotel, 20Sn.. 

Broadway Tabcrnackle, 319. 
Brtiknw, 2ti. 
Rroknw RUIC-, 05. 
Brnmtey'H, 155. 
RrOnck, Jonas, lift, 
Bronner, Walter B„ 45. 
Bronson, Arthur, 2S6. 
Bronx Society of Arts and Solon 
ces, 121. 

Brooklyn Uridee, ir>. 305p. 
Brooks, James, 310. 
Brooks, Sidney. 2SI1, 
Broome St., 203. 
Brown. Breieiiel. 313. 
Brown, Ebeneier. 314. 
Brown, Gen. Jacob. 233. 
Brown. Walter. 310. 
Bruen. Geo. W., 271, 275. 
Bruen, G, W. & H.. 271. 
Bruen. Herman, 271. 
Bruen, Matthias, 271. 275. 
Hrmrlere, Charles, 280. 
Brush, Eboneser. 314. 
Bryant Park. 203. 


Bryant, William Cullcn. 206, 310, 

Bryant 237. 
Bryee. Viscount, 354. 
Buchanan, Thou., 100, 230, 203. 
Bulfcley, William F„ 207. 
Hunker Monsidn, 1'1'flp. 
Hunschoteiis, Van, 303. 
Rlirchell, John J., 2(10, 
Hurdell, Dr. Harvey. 250. 
Burdell, Dr. John, 250. 
Uilrdcll murder, 1!86, 

Burke, Billy, 3SS. 

Hurleau, Mnry, M. 

Burloek, Henry, 253. 

Uurlock, Mary, 253. 

Burlock, Thus., 253. 

Burnett, Frances Hodgson, 354. 

Burnham'a Hotel, 1(15. 

Burnham'a Mansion House, 109. 

Burnham's Tavern, IGGp. 

Burnham, <!co., 170. 

Burn nam, Jus. C, 170. 

Burnham, Tn., 100, 170, 

Burns Clnh, 151. 

Burn's Coffee House, SO. 

Burr, Aaron, 234. 

Busteed. Q<<n.. 148. 

Butler, William Allen, 377. 

Cabot Mm., 3(11. 
Csiimiin, l.r. S. Partes, 190, 
Caffrey, Wm. J. A., 43. 
Caledonian Club, 147. 151, 1B6. 
Calhoun Robbins &, Co., 31)1. 
Calver, W. L., 114, 120. 335p. 

Cambrelenn CLurch, 230, .'oC. 

Cambria. 2B5. 

Cambridge. 203. 

Crimp. Mrs. Kealoh, 300, 

Cannon. Andrew, 174. 

Carey, Matthew. 1.11. 

Carl ton Hotel, 2flfl. 

Carlton House, 88, 

Carmer, Margaret, 300. 

Carmine street, 256, 

Ciirnnclinn, l>r.. 27.".. 

Carl-,, John, 174, 

Carroll, Andrew, 174. 

Carroll Place, 211, 

Carne, llenrv It., 44. 

Carter, Jus., 40, 

CiiHuiiiain'u, 111. 

Casey, Elenor, 30!!. 

Cassady, Mary, 308, 

Cuslle Clinton, 110. 

Castle Garden, Hp., 32, 110, 113, 

8 :i73. 

Cfttlin. Lynde. 223. 
Catoe, 170. 

Catsklll Aqueduct. 0«, 80p. 
Catskill water smpl'ly system, 

Centenary Medal, 302. 
C«ntr« St., 245p. 

Central Park, 143. 200p.. 204. 
Central J'resbjetrbm C It u r c h. 

Century, 319 
Century.The Ass'n, 237. 
Cennola, General, 310, 
Chadevoioue, 82. 
Chnloner, Join A., 267. 
Chamber 0* Commerce, 144, 177, 

mi, 196, 100, 220, 220. 250, 276, 

2H3 31.1 
Chnmhers street, Bp., 220. 
Chnuler. John A., 207, 

Co»ntilly, 256. 

Chssnrer, Hear Admiral Jaa, II,, 


Charles IT, 62. 
Charleston Hotel, 16, 
Cheevor, Dr. George. B,, 3B1. 
Chemical Bank, 103p., 275. 
( ■in!.:-. John, 3O0. 
Choate, Joseph II.. 361. 
Cholera, 377. 

Chown, Bishop Eam'I l\, 100. 
Christie, John, 174. 
Church, Capt. Tlionias C„ 3<)9. 
Church of the Ascension, 383. 
Church of St. Ann, 223p. 
Churchman, The, 210. 
Cincinnati I,a\v School. 220. 
City Anna, 80. 
Cltv Bank, 218. 

Citj Hall. 44p.. 62, 65, 75, Pfl. 00. 

City' Hall Park, 67. 

City Hotel, SO, 

City Inventing Bide. 256p. 

Clnremont, 177. 

I'lnrk. BcnJ., 30. 

Clark street, 58. 

Clarke, David, 196. 

Clarke. Wm. M., 271. 

Clarkson, David W„ 100. 

Clarkson, M„ 40. 

Clarkson, Mra, Rcbeccst, 314. 

Clerkemvell, <li>. 

Clermont, 14 p„ KK 

Cork, At.ifrnil, 200. 

Cork. rlfliueham, 255. 

Cock, 1.;. ft W. & Co.. 255. 

Cock, Mary, 200. 

Cock, i'liebe, 300. 

Cock, Wm. E_, 236. 

Coddinjjlon, Jonathan I., 220, 230. 

Cnilrliufjloii. 1'oHlmaslcr, 103. 

Coenties Slip, 174p, 

Cogswell, Dr., 26& 

Cogswell, Joseph G„ 267. 

Colden. A., 05. 

Colden. Lt. Cot., 250. 

Coler, Bird S.. 80. 

Coles, John B„ 293, 

Coles. Isaac U.. 203. 

Collier, 62. 

Oolunuc Hotel, 16k. 
Cohmade How, 16, 24, 216. 
Colton, Sam'l, 35. 
Columbia College. 10, 80, 212, 216. 
210, 229, 241, 245, 246, 276, 324. 


Columbia Insurance Co., 160. 
Columbia Law School, 20. 
Columbia Marine Insurance Co., 

Columbia Oval. 173. 

Columhla University, 70. 

Columbia War Hospital The, 173. 

Colver, Vincent, 319. 

Comfort, Trof, George F,. 319. 

Commercial Advertiser. 144, 100, 

Common Council, 143, 174. 

ComptOO. Nancy, 309. 

Conger, Mrs. C. de C'osse, SOS. 

Conrey. Abraham. 309. 

Connelly, Alexander, 174. 

Connelly, John, 174. 

Connolly. Michael, 177. 

Connecticut, 319. 

flun stable, James, 177. 

Constable. William, 177. 

Constantinople. 122. 

Cook, Clarence, 382, 387, 

Cook. Rhodn. 309. 

Cook, Thomas F.. M. D„ 207. 

OcioklnMrj. Ctt:is. IT.. 15. 

Cooley, Senator, 143. 

Coolidge, Frederick 249. 

Cooper Union, 32S. 

Cooper. Elizabeth, 300. 

Cooper, Fenlmorc. 350. 

Cooper, Jas, F., 234. 

Copper, Susatiah, 313. 

Cooper, Thomas ApthoTpc, 298. 

Cooper Union, 339p. 

Cnni Exchange I lank, Mp. 

Cornell, John, 3flfl. 

Cornell, Willct, 399. 

Cotte, Peter, 203. 

Cotton Exchange, 79, 

Couenhoven, Catherine, 313. 

CoLienhoveiifi, 303. 

Oowdry, Samuel, 250. 

Cowing, Miss Jstie, 237. 

Cox, Lieut. 8. K« 22fl. 

CozzenB, Frederick S., 215. 

Cranch, 31!!. 

Crary, John 3.. 260. 

Crary, Peter, 2fl0. 

Crosby, Dr., 17fip. 

Crosby Street. 215. 

Crotoii Aqueduct, 00. 

Cruger. li. de, 5, 

Cruper. John. 4*1, 195, 

Cm Ik shank, Jas., 1-18. 

CruiiibT. John, 2P3. 

Crystal Palace, 144. 

Cullum Medal, 302. 

Curnniinf"!, 310. 

Cummiug, Jrtn, 151, 

Cummin gs, Mary. 390. 

Cunningham, Mrs. Emma A.. 200. 

Cunniniihnm, Mrs., 203. 

Curh Market, 164p, 

Curiea. Samuel. 309. 

Curtenlus, Peter T„ 300. 

Curtis, George William, 328. 

Curtis, ITanriah, 314. 

Curtiss, Edward, 2?o. 

Custom House, 70, 309p. 

Cvsnet, 248. 
Cutler, Bltn; 215. 
Cutler, Julia Rush, 211. 
Cutting, 62. 

Daly, FenJ., 174. 

Daly, Judge Charles P., 301. S02. 
Daley, Mrs, Hannah. 27B. 
Dana, Chas. A., 2. 
Dnnbury, 220. 
Darien, 319. 

Daublgny, Mrs, Mary, 2">4. 

Daughters of American Involu- 
tion, 74, 75, 78. 

Davenport. 319. 

Davics. J. Clarence. 144p. 

Davis, Gilbert. 280. 

Davis, Dr. Isaac. 300. 

Davis, Dr. John. 204. 

Dawson, Benjamin F.. 2S3. 

Dawson, Elizabeth, 283. 

Dawson, Major Henry, 174. 

Day, Cornelius, 309. 

Dayton, Abram C, 170. 

Deal Man s Hock, 140. 

Deaf and Dumb Asylum, 2S3. 

Debevolse, MaJoT Geo. IV,. 44, 

Declaration of Independence, 110, 

De Forest. Alfred, 253. 

Dc Foreet, Benjamin, 208. 233, 

De Forest. Benjamin & Co., 203. 

De Forest & Smith, 253. 

De Forest, Geo. B., 254, 

Deer Park, 854. 

Degrnw. Ah rah am, 300, 

De Haven, Artie Expedition, 238. 

De Kay, 02. 

Delacroix, 19. 

Delamnter. 02. 

Delamater. Elizabeth, 309. 

Dc la Montague, 02. 

de Lancey, 103, 

De Lancey house, B0. 

de Lancey, Anne, 210, 

de Lancey. J«*„ 210. 

De Lancey. Oliver, 138. 

Delano. Franklin, II., 20. 

Delaval, 02. 

Dclmonleo, Loren70. N7. 

Delmonlco's, B7, Hip. 103p, 400p. 

Democratic Party. 220. 

Do Milt, 03. 

DeolSOD, David, 237. 

Ilenlson, Margaret V., 237. 

He Pev.vli-r, 03. 

tie Povster, Frederick, 250. 

De Peygter, Frederic. 249. 

De Peyster, Jaa. F.. 210. 

De Pevster, John Walls. 224. 

Do Teyster & Whilmnrsh, 2-ifi, 

Derve, 02. 

Desnbaye's School, Mme., 233. 
Desbrosses, Elius, 195. 
Des tropes, 02. 

Devereux, Esther Ann, £9-1. 


Dfi Vou, Frederick, 313. 

Da Witt Clinton, 36. 

Dey, A., 46. 

Dey St., 54, 219. 

Dickens, Charles, 88. 350, 

Dillingham, Mrs., 122, 

Diocesan House, 24, 27. 

Dispensary. N. ¥„ 24». 

llix, Dorothea L., 377. 

Dbc, Governor, 110. 

Dix, John A., 233. 

Dix, Rev. Dr. Morgan, 230. 

Dixon, Robt. T., KB. 

Diion, Saras, 165. 

Diiun, Win. J„ 45, 

Dobbs Ferry, 57, 

in,d K c; Win. Ej, Jr„ 324. 

Hodge, 3. SeiilHi. 230. 280. 

llodworth Building, The, 328. 

Dodworth's Dancing Academy, 

Allen. 326. 
Dolbeare, Mr.. 373. 
Doll, Dr. William. 313. 
Dolmase, Mr., 383. 
1 urn, < . A U-xii inler, 31 :(, 
Don Juan, 33D. 
Dorcan, Cant. Timothy, 309. 
Dover, 254. 

Dowling. Hon. Victor J„ 174. 
Doyer, Henry, 45, 
Dressier, Marie, 123. 
Drlpp's Atlas, 155. 
Dry Dock Bank, 273, 
Duane, Jas„ B. 
Dubois, 62, 

Duer, Judge John, 212. 
Duer. John. 212, 245. 
Duer, "Lady Kitty," 242. 
Duer, William A., 245. 
Duer Win., 242. 
Dusts Reports, 243. 
DiiflBehl, Dr. Howard, ISA. 
Duke of York, 62. 
Duke's Finn, P. 

Dunham. Sturgrs S,, 13, 207. 

215p, 230p, 234p. 
Dunlap, Jas., 48. 
Dunsmore, John W., 114. 
"Durwnrd, Qurntin." 373. 
Dur yea Charles, 306, 
Dutch Reformed Church, 203. 
Dutcher, Margaret. 314. 
Dyckninn, US. 
Dyckman farm, 121, 335p, 


Eagle Hotel, 32. 

K"frl« l-'iri- Insurance Company, 

231 263 
Enrle. John t~ 280. 
East River, 216. 
Eastern lintel, 32. 
Kiilon, WnltiT Prleliard, 13, 16. 
Ebeck & Kunhardt, 297. 
Eckel, 2(50. 

Kddy, Win. S-, 36, 3Bp. 
Edgar, Wm.. 246, 

Edward. King. 358. 
Edwards, Cel., 250. 
Edivardn, l.l.-ur, Jan., 130. 
Edwards, Jonathan, IStl. 
Edgar, William, 177. 
Eldridge, 310. 
Eleventh Ftreet, 215. 
Elford, Eliza. 314. 
Elliott, Maud Howe. 212. 
Elliott's directory, 207. 
Ellis, Richard, 313. 
Ellis, Sarah, Mrs., 313. 
Elv, Enoch, 309. 
EIv, Theodore, 223, 
ElVfilan Fields, 147. 
Embury, Philip, 174, 180, 
Empire Rldg., 20p. 
Empire Skating Kink, The. 144p. 
Kngilie Co. No. 21, '.-J3, 
Bnsine Co. No. 2S, £23. 
English. Madame. 366. 
Equitable Bide,. p54. 
Equitable Insurance Co., 220, 276, 
Ericsson. John, 372. 
Erie Canal. 276. 
Erie Railroad, 27S. 263. 
Evarts, Wm. J I,. 250. 
Evening Post, 46, 144, 173, 31B, 

Exr.liange Alley, 226n. 
Exchange place, 271, 288, 293. 

Falrchlld, Prof., 387. 
Farmer's Insurance & Loan Co., 

Federal nail, 73, 10D, 110, 

Female nigh School, 373. 

Kerdon, Abraham, 30!), 

FeriH, Drbornli. 300. 

Field, Cyrus Bldg., 31p. 

ri.1.1, Sarah K, 30. 

Fielding, Betsey, 313. 

Fifth Avenue, Hp, 14, 1B4 P| ^00p, 

245p, 240p. 2&3p. 280p, 271p, 

2713p, 294p, 371p, 37Sp. 
Fifth Ave. Tlotel, 13p. 
Flflh Ave. Presbyterian Church, 

223, 24Dp. 
Fine, Elfic, 200. 
Fire of 1853, 58. 
Fireman's Halt, 224. 
Firemen's Insurance Co., 242. 
First Presbyterian Church. 1S(>. 

FiVh," Col. N., 231. 

Fish & Grlnnell, 2,18. 

Flske, Prof. Georgp. 324, 3S7. 

Fitch, James D,, M.D., 207. 

Flagg, 144. 

I 'liiri'nee, Sfl". 

Folgcr, Kcuben W„ 226. 

Follin. Charles, 297. 

Fort Amsterdam, 76. 

Ft, George Hill, ISO, 

Fort Washington, 79, 130. 

Foster, Jas„ 253, 


Foster. Jtimoa, Jr.. 250, 283, 
Fonter, Samuel, Jr.. 2S0. 
ffOHlke, Joseph. Jr.. 284. 
Fountain, Itev. John, 30i). 
Fourth Ave., 204. 
Fourth Avenue Building, 310. 
Fourth street, IB, 24. 
I'ox, Mr., 310. 

Francis. Dr. John W., 'IDS, ill'. 

Xtt. 216, 210. 203. 
Franklin, Benjamin, ITS, 360, 3>4, 
Franklin, Sir John. 238. 
Franklin, Samuel, 246. 
Franklin & Mluturii, 246. 
Frank lin, Sinuin & Co., 215p. 
Franklin Hotel, 40p, 
Franklin Mansion, 134p. 
Franklin Square, 73. 
Fraiiuei* Tavern, 1, 75. 
Frasser. G. B„ 148. 
Free Soli oo 1 No. 1. 36. 
Free School No. 2, 38. 
Fren School Society, The, 36. 30, 

40, 43. 

Free Port. at. Hamburg, 305. 

Freeman, Pliny, i!!JT. 

Fremont, General John C, 301. 

Friar, White, 354. 

Friek, HcnrvC., 381. 

Fridenborg, Ilobt, Hp., 74p„ 194 p. 

Front street, 219. 225. 

PnUgnA. Dr, Otto, 20S. 

Fulton. Robert , 82. 

Fulton, M„ 14[>. 

Fulton Kerry, 30©n. 

Fulton Insurance Co., 226, 246. 

Furman, Abby, 285. 

Furman, Gabriel, 285. 

Furulus, Wm. P., 226, 

Gage, General, 182. 

Oaine, i .■. 390. 

flaine, IlUffli, 1, ITS. 181. 182, 185, 

Gallatin. Alben, 220. 

Gabriel, Col,. 283. 

Gano. Bar. John. 160. 

Garcia, Slgnorlna. 289. 

Garden St. Church, 54. 

Gardeniers, 363, 

Gardiner, David, 20. 

Gardner. Julia, 20. 

Geiincy. I,aviu;i, 300. 

CilMT, Both, ll>. 

Oeiti, BUtsabeth, 207. 
General Theological Seminary, 

Geographical lb-view, 302. 
<ieorgo. King, 75. 
Gerard, Jas. W. r 255. 
Gerehart, Thon.. 2!K)p. 
Glbbea, Thoa. S„ 164, 165. 

fiibbs, Isaac, an. 

Gibson Girl, 358. 
GUisou, Agnes D., 241. 
Gibson, John D„ 241, 
Gilford. Swain, 3ll>. 

Gilbert, Catherine, 300. 
Gilford, Jacob T., 242. 
Gilford, Jacob T., 241. 
Gilford I, Samuel, 241. 242. 
Gilford II, Samuel. 211. 212. 
Gilford. Samuel. 253. 
Gilford, Samuel & Son, 242. 
Gilford. Thos. B., 241, 242. 
41111, Hugh, 174. 
Gillnly, I lee.. Kit 
Giobe, Mademoiselle. 3S9. 
Glmbfl Store, 21i8n. 
Glraud, 02. 

Girl's Grammar School, 40. 

Glin, Anthony, 174. 

Glover, John, 177. 

Glover, Samuel, 280. 

Goelet., Peter, 275p. 

Goelet, Peter P.. 253. 

Goelet, ltnbert, 210p.. 275p., 35Sp. 

Goelet, Kubert li., 253. 

Goetbals, MuJ. General, 301. 

Golden Hill, 70. 

Golden Hill Inn. 212. 

Goldlng. John N.. J3p. 

Goodrich's History, 373. 

Goodyear, 268. 

Government House, 76. 

Governor's Island, 144, 

Gowanus Creels. 70. 

Graeie, Archibald. 223. 

Gramercy park, 230, 27ti. 

Graham, Frances B., 382. 

Graham, Lieutenant, 20-1. 

Graham, John Hodge, 239. 

Graham, Mihs, 381, 387, 38S. 

Grammar School No. 3, 36. 

Gran, H. P., 310. 

Grand Central Depot. HOji. 

Gray, Polly. 308. 

Great Eastern Hotel, 32. 

Great Jones Street, 19, 20, 23, 21. 

27, 208, 220, 254, 203, 
Great South Buy, 216. 
Greeley, Horace, 1 82, 234. 
Green, Andrew H., 310. 381. 
Green. Miss Lucy M.. 377. 
Green. Mary BL 377. 
Greene, Mrs. Catherine, 3'JO. 
Greene, William, 300. 
Greenwich Savings Bank, 234. 
Greenwich Street, 5p., 210, 271, 

280, 200p. 
Greenwich Village, 36, 3!), 0B. 
Greer, Bishop D. H„ ISO, 103. 
Grllllii, Francis, 224. 
Griffin, George. BstL 371. 
Grlliin, Old George. 224. 
Griininel, Joseph, 238. 
Grinnell, Henry, 238, 246, 301, 
Grlnnell. Moses H., 238, 240. 
Grlmiell Land, 238. 
Griunell, Mint urn & Co., 238. 
Grlnton, Geo. W., 45. 
Grlowold, Charles C, 285, 
tlriswold. John. 208, 220, 284. 
GrlswolJ, Nathaniel L„ 223. 
GrymeR, John II., 267. 
Gryiues, Medora, 207. 


«ulon, (OS, 

(juimiug, Iir. Tlmmas IV, 287. 
i.i ..'. John, 278. 
(Justine, Mr«. Mary A., 275. 
Uullirle, Itev. K. S„ 


Ilacrlem, 363. 

Hagarly. Ja<.. 2,0, 

Hagirerty, John, 177, 

Hagner, Isaac, 313. 

Hague The. 367. 

Hale, Chan. A., 43, 

Hale, Nathan, 110, 253. 

Hall, A, Oakey. 204. 

Hnll, Klsey. 313. 

Hall, K. H., 111. 

Hall, Jonathan Prescott, 209, 250. 

Hall, Willi*. 22fi. 

Halleck, 173, 237. 

Ha.ll«ck, Pitas-Greene, 267, 2CS, 330. 

llallelt, >i,.|...-i. 313. 

Hallett, Samuel. 207. 243, 

Hani, Wandel. 313 

Hameller, Mrs. Ann, 300. 

Hamilton, Alexander, 372. 

Hamilton, Ann, 3(10. 

Hamilton, <ien„ 242. 

Hamilton. John C-, 101. 

Hamilton, Schuyler, 163, 170. 

Hamilton Square, 144. 

Hammond street, 226. 

Ham), Charlotte, 314. 

Hand, Cunt. Inaac, 300. 

Hand, Silas B„ 300. 

Hannah, Joseph, 300. 

Hardmeyer, Conrad, 20S. 

Harlem, 73. 

Hark-in Heights, 78, 

Harper, James, 230. 

Harper. Mayor, 221). 

Harpuilierf,', John, 88- 

Marvey. CSas. M„ 152. 

Harvey, Chan. T„ 2H0p. 

Harris, Hicuurd, Esq., 374, 

Harrison, Itichard, SSS, 

Harsenvllhs ISO. 

Hart, Ell, 280. 

Hart, Eli, & Co., 280, 

Hart, Win., 310. 

Harvard College, 3<17. 

Haswell, Dr., 200, 255. 

Havlland, I., 40. 

HawiYy. Ciipl. ISiinlel, 300. 

Hares, 53, Su». 

Mays, Mi,-', C»ii.stal>Ie, 2ND. 
Hayes, Itichard, 300. 
Hayes expedition. 288. 
Havs, Jacob. 286. 
Healy, Samuel, 2113. 
Heath, Mifis Alice, 14, 31, 3fll. 
Hehbard, Edgar C, 44, 
Heck, Jacob, 174, 
Heely. A. V.. 44, 
Henry, E. L,, iSOit. 
Henry. Prince, 351. 
Ucrali), 144, 148, 101. 

HerlxUrton, EILtn, 806, 
Herald, Morning. 343. 
Hewitt, James, 314. 
Here Foundation. US. 
llibln'ii. John <"!.. ISO. 
Siekt, Albert, 253. 
Hicks. Mrs.. 253. 
Hicks. Mis. Manila, 2311, 203. 
Hick, Paul, 174. 
Hicks, Whitehead, 230. 
Highland Guards, 131. 
Hispanic Society, 302. 
Hitchcock, John, K.T3. 
Hitchcock, John C, 220. 
Hilckcock, Rev. Di-„ 310. 
Hohoken, 203. 
Hoey, John, DO, 
Hoffman, Chas. Feimo, 231. 
Hoffman, Charles. 220. 
Hoffman, Ogden, 220. 
Hoffman, Samuel V.. 5p. 0. 10. 
I iHp. 

Hogan, Michael, 177. 

HoKiin, Philli). 171. 

Holeate, Alexander L., 220. 

Holland Society, 80. 

Holmes, Captain Silas, 203. 

Homeopathic Dispensary, 20S. 

Hone, John, 211. 

Hone, John, Sr., 250. 

Hone, Mrs. Maria Kant-, 256, 

Hone, Philip, 46. 160. 

Hone, Mayor Philip, 236. 

Honeywell. Jemlua, 314. 

Hook and Ladder Co. No. B, 223. 

Hopkins, Major E., 301), 

Ilopmire, Lydla, 300, 

Hopmlre, Peter, 300, 

Hoppln, Wm. J., 310, 

Home, Dr., 256. 

llomvick, Mru. Catharine. 314. 

lldsiicl,, J >r. Alexander. 313. 

HOsUCk, Dayid. 223. 

I [ Co, \n, 3, 223. 

Hotel Astor. 35p. 

House. Col. E. M., ll>3. 

Howe. Julia Ward, 212, 225. 

Howe. Lord, 253. 

Howlatid, Wm. Edgar, 225. 

llowhiud and Asplawall, 223. 

Uoyt, Hannah, 31)0. 

Hoyt, Mrs. Lydlg, 122. 

llliclilns, Iiarkins, 30B. 

Hi. ,..-(, i. .Iiilin 11., .).-,. 

Hudson, Wm. V.. 44. 

Hudson Square, 371, 373. 387. 

Hudson St., 334j>. 

Ih.--,.. I Society of Aitii'i-len, 70. 

Hunt. K. M., 319. 

Hunt, Stephen, 314. 

Huntington, Daniel, 310. 

Huntington, Mr, Henry E„ 350. 

Ilurtln, William, 300. 

Hyde Park, 283. 

Hyer, W. W.. 300. 


Iconography of Hew York, 387. 
Iddlngs, James, 
Ingersoll, Ralph I., 163. 
liipliB, Rt'v. Ch;t8,. 174. 
Ingham, Chas. C. £08. 
Interstate Commerce Commission, 

In wood, 117. 

Irish Pioneers of New York City, 

Irving, John T:, Jr., 285, 
Irving, Judge John T,. 285, 

Irving, JiJlni T„ 234|i. 2711. ail. 
Irving, Washington, 20, 140, 234P, 

237,' £07. 288. 300. 
Irving Hotel, 103p. 
Ishani, Samuel, 358. 
Ishani, Miss, 353. 

Jackson, Pres. Andrew, 234. 
Jackson, Mr., 3SS. 
Jackson, (ipii 254. 
Jackson, William. JSfl, 
James, William. SO!). 
JaniB, Klsie, 129. 
Jans, Annexe, 80. 
Jarmnn, William, 314. 
Jarvi a, James, 313. 
Jay, Pr, John C, 246. 
Jay, John, 310. 

Jay, Chief Justice John, 243. 240. 

Jay, Mary, H4f). 

Jay, Peter Augustus, £48. 

,li nmit'He l':irk, 1 7-S |i . 

Jeans, Mary. 314. 

Jerline, 02. 

Jenhson, Wm. If., £30. 

Jersey City Ferry Co.. The, £37. 

Jefferson. Pres., £20. 

Jefferson. Joe, 353, 

Jeiferson. Thos.. 110. 

Jockey Club, 2Slp. 

Joftre. Qen., 31. 113, IMp, 301. 

John St., 54, 225. 

John Street Church, 174. 

Johnson, Dr. Amos, 276. 

.ToIlhboti, Uhr.a, 170. 

Johnson, Shepherd. 30, 30. 

Johnson, William. 177. 

Johnston, John Taylor, 328. 

Johnston, John T.. 60. 

Jones, Mrs. Csdwnladcr, 122. 

Jones, Judge David S.. 21!!. 

Jones, Jns. S., 148. 

Jones, Phoebe, 300. 

JoneB, T^ewis C.. 147. 143. 

Jones, P. L., 46, 

Jones, lii'lufefi, 148. 

Joncrs, Miss Sally. 300. 

Jones, Samuel, £10. 

Jones, Thomas, 21G. 

Jones. Walter It., 144. 

Jones. William A., 210. 

Jones, Wm. H., 110. 
Jones' Wood, 10. 110, 143, 156, 
Jones' Wood Hotel, 147. 155. 
Jumel, Madame, 234. 
Jumcl Mansion, 74. 


Kahn, Mrs. Otto, 122. 

Kakiat, 363. 

Kane, Dr., 238. 

Kastner & llefleli. 150. 

Kearney. John W., 177, 25<>, 270, 

Kearny, Uen. Phil, 256. 

Kearney, Philip. 177. 

Kearney, Robert. 206. 

Kelby, Robt. H„ 0. 

Kelby, Wm.. 9, 

Kemp. John, 185. 

Kennedy House. 75, 220. 

Kensett, John P.. 319. 

Kent. Wm., 220, £23. 

Kent. Judge Wm., £30. 

Kermit, Robert, 280. 

Kenan, Robert, 300. 

Ketch, Hannah. 300. 

Kettletas. Dr. Philip, 306. 

King, Chas., 228. 

King. Eliza. 311. 

King, James Gore, 208, 220, 265. 

King, John A., 220. 

King, Rnfiis, 220. 

King, William F., 301. 

Kingsland, A. C, 143. 

Kingsland. Cornelius, 300, 

King's College, SO. 

King's High way. 70. 

Kll>. Isaac A„ 306. 

Knickerbocker Trust Cn„ 41 Oil. 

Kossuth, Ltuiis, 113. 

Knickerbocker Magazine, The, 

£34. 285. 
K nil be], Fred'k. E.. 45. 
Kronachcr, Joseph. 15. 

LaCnult. A. L.. 130. 

La Fayette, 40, 43, 113, 223. 31Bn. 

Lafayette Place, 1,1, IS, IS, 23, 27, 

216, £80, 297, 381. 
Lafayette Street, 24. 
Ln Grange Terrace. 16, 10, 20, 

23 24 27 
r.:i Orange, Chateau, 223. 
Laight St., 283. 
Lamb, Chas. P., 40, 45. 
Lamb, John, 174. 
Lambert. Dr. Adrian V. S.. 173. 
Lambert, Dr. Alexander, 173, 
Lambert. Dr. Samuel W., 173. 
Lancon, Madame, 383, 
Lang, 319. 
Liingilon, 54, 
Lnngdon, Walter, 20. 
Lanfdon, Woodbury, 80, US. 


Last Dorse Car, The, Makes Its 

Last. Journey, 313. 
Larue, 02. 
Latouretlc. G2. 

i :.. .-. JoLn, ICQ. 

Laurence, William, 100. 
Lawrence, Cornelius W„ 234, 
Lawrence, Jane, 208. 
Lawrence, Mrs.. 50. 
Lamnce, Mayor, 2SQ. 
Lazellre, Jacob, 30!>, 
Lea, Anna M„ 110. 
Leather Manufacturers, 234. 
Leardo, Giovanni, 302. 
Leaven worth, Elialia, 223, 
Lodyanl, I., 40, 

Ledyard, Peter Vaudecvoort, 313. 

Lee, Allen C. 2*4, 

Lee, Jlenjaraiii F.. 2G1, 20S. 

Leo, Gideon, 234, 237, 238. 

Lee, Mayor, 234. 

Lee, Robert, 314. 

Lee & B&bcOCk. HSR 

LegiMI, Samuel, 203. 

LeTiiler, 88. 

Iienox, llobert, 100. 

Lenox Library, 301. 

Leonard St., 280. 

Lo Koux. 02. 

Le Hot, 62. 

Loroy place, 230, 271. 

Leupp, Chaa, M., 234, 237, 

Leverieh, Chaa. P., 275. 

Leynard.Mrs, Charlutte, 308. 

Liberty Bonda, 12S, 

Liberty Street, 256p. 

"Life of Washington," 3D0, 304. 

Lincoln, 139. 

Llnd, Jenny 32, 113, 31fip. 
Llspenard, A., 40. 
Llapenard, G2. 
Little, Jonathan. 223. 
Little, J. & Co., 225. 
Livingston, Catherine, 20, 313. 
Livingston, Catherine It., 2S7. 
Livingston, Chancellor, 350. 
Livingstone, David, 302. 
Livingston, John, 313. 
Livingston, P., 40, 
Livingston, Phllln, 10.1, 
Lockhfirt. Wm. J„ 45. 
London Times, The, 310. 
Lone worth's Directorv, 204. 
Lord, Daniel, Jr.. 208. 
Lord, liezetlah, 223, 
Lord, TIiob., 2f4. L'i^. 
Lord & Lees. 2114. 
Lorillard, 234. 
Lorillnrd, Maria D., 234. 
Lorillard, Peter, 234. 
Lorillard Mansion, ]2l. 
Louvre Farm. 
Lovelace, Gov., 01. 
Lovcjoy, Dr. John, 250. 
Love Lane, 374. 
Low, Alfred A., 208. 
Low, Isaac, US, 
Low, Nicholas, 1(10. 
Lowell, James Russell, 358. 

Loyd, Thomas, 313. 
Ludlow, Carey, 281. 

Ludlow, Daniel and Company, 


Lvdlg. Mra., 122. 
Ludlow, Gabriel W., WO. 
Ludlow, Gillian, 283. 
Ludlow, Maria, 283. 
Lin! low, William. 264, _ 
Luillum, Isaac T.. ltio. 
Lydlg, 129p, 21!)p. 


McAfee, Jas. H., 45. 
MeCIaskey, John, 174, 
MeCorab, Alexander, 177, 
McComb, John, II In, 
McCormu-k, Daniel, .177. 185. 
McCoskry, Robert, 275, 28J. 
McCoy, Alexander, 174. 
McCoy, Donald, 171. 
McCrackcn, John II. L., 2S0. 
McCrcady- Forrest, 23. 
McDavetl, Patrick, 177. 
McDonald, John K., 80. 
MeEutee, 319. 
»U' livers, ('has., 1M. 
MeKvers, Jas., 103. 
MeGie, John, 174. 
McGoers, John, Jr., 174. 
McGregor. A„ 313. 
McGulre, Johnny, 50. 
McKonnie, Rev. Francis, 174, 
McKesson. J,, 43. 
McLellau, I>„ 10.1. 
Mc Lei Inn, John, 151. 
M'Munuars, Pntrlclns, 309. 
M'Masters, James, 314. 
MNcely, Alexander, 308. 
Mol'herson, Prof., ir>], 
MeVickar, John, 177. 
McVlcknr, Nathan, 177. 
MacmonniHs, .1.10. 
Macomb, Maj. Gen. Alexander, 

Mac Crnckan, John n. L., 215. 

Maerca, Colin, 163. 

Madison Ate,, 20, 73p, 110p, 204|>. 

Madison, Prea., 220. 

Madison Square, 203, p.T4fl, 

Mager, V 147. 

Miigulre, Mary 1\. 40, 44. 

Mahan, Thomas, 311. 

Maiden Library. S58. 

Manhattan, 310. 

Manhattan Athletic Club, llllp. 

Manhattan Bridge, 73. 

Manliallan rial,, 204 p. 

Manhattan College, 101 p, 

Manhattan Company. 284-, 

Manhattan Hotel, 27%. 

Manhattan Insurance Co., 237. 

Manhattan Island, 371. 

Manhattan Life P.ldg., flOp. 

Mantln, Martin, 210. 

Marble Collegiate Chnrch, 2Ii3p. 

Marconi, 31, 344, 301, 

Hardell, nohert, 313, 
Market St.. 203. 
Market field Street, 211. 

Kanie. US. 

Marshall, Gharlotte, 313. 
Marvin, Her, llrinh, 263. 
Man, Henry C„ 224. 
Mason, Jtcv. llr,. 371. 
Masonic Hall. 250. 
MnsK.ipeo,ua. 21(1. 
Mastering Maria, 300, 
Matthews. l>r„ 54. 
Matthews, Anna, 04, 
Mauutsell, John, 178, 
Mnunscll, Hielinril, 178. 
Mawson 301. 
Maynard. til'. 
Maynard. Mrs., 122. 
Miss Maynard's School. 51. 
Mead, Jhks*. 200. 
Mi'iirm, Prof., 387. 
Mechanics Ifunk, '.'34. 
Mei-ks, K'lwanl. 
Melchlzedtck, 318. 

Mercator map, The, 3111, 
Melville, Bear Admiral Hen. W, 
Mercantile Library. 23, 283. 
Mercer Street, 224. 
Merchants' Association, The, 301 
Merchant's Bank, 220. 
Merchants Exchange, 1, 58, 66, 

00, 20-1. 
Mcrrlt, M. Franklin. 2S6. 
Mesorolo, 112. 
Mefiie.r, 62. 

Metropolitan Hotel, 200. 
Metropolitan Museum of AH, 

The. 32S. 
Metropolitan Opera House, 4Mn. 
Middle Dutch Church, 10. 80, 6$, 


SfUbert, I29t>. 

MiledoW, It, riiilip F,. and Dr. 

John L., 286. 
Mllford New, 61. 
Mil nor, Dr.. 225. 
Miller, Phinens, 300, 
Miner, Mr. and Mrs,, ,188. 
Minturn, 230p. 

Minturn, Jonas, 2117, 24«. 24.-, 285. 

Minturn. Uuhert I',., 23S, 24(1. 
Mitituni, Sanih, 203 
Minturn. Nathaniel. 245. 
Mint urn. Eilivnrd, 215. 
Minturn, William. 245. 
Minturn & Champilu, 24,1. 
Mliinfflt, 02. 

Miranda Filibuster, 223. 

Milt-hell, Mayor, ft. 122, 11)3, 301. 

Mitchell, Samuel h.. 263. 

Monroe, Fortress, 233. 

Monroe, President, 57. 220. 

Moore, t!eo. H„ 0. 

Moore, Mary. 309. 

Moore, reftsy, 309. 

Morccln. 02. 

Moreno, 3111. 

Morgan, Catherine. 233. 

Marrow, Bel win D., 20. 
Morgan, John J., 308, 230, 233, 

Morrow, J. l'ierpont, 211 30!>p_ 

Morgan, Senator, 143. 

Morrow, Mr. William Fellowes, 

Morris. 237. 
Morris. Lewis, 118. 
Morris, Mary, 104. 
Morris. Matthew, 174. 
Morris. Kobcrt, 46. 104. 
Morris, Thojs.. 104. 
Morris, Mrs, Iloser, 241. 
Morris' HI reel, 220p. 
Morrison's Hotel, 173. 
Morse, S. T. II., B0, 113, 3l«P. 
Morton, General .latob. 281. 
Moses, Messrs.. 374, 
Mott, Betsey, 313. 
MoLt, Stimnel, 313. 
Molt, Hopper S., 10, 140. 15!>. 
Mould, Mr., 31ft 
Mulligan. Alexander, 177. 
Mulligan, Hercules, 17<. 
Mulligan, Hufih, 174. 
Alii (ready, Wm., 3Kjp. 
Muniford, I'lavld, 100. 

HhiuiiicipaL BldR.,' S3 

■Nsnn. John, 313. 

RPMttnrO, John, 

Mnrchlsoi). Sir Boderiek, 301. 
M iir::'.. Hannah, 309. 
Murray, John, 100. 
Murray, Johtl it., 36, 30, 
Museum of American Indian, 118. 
Museum of Natural nintory, B9p. 
Mutual Life Insurance Co., 80. 


Naprel, 118. 

Nassau Street, 210, 2,10. 
National Academy of Oesinn, 208, 

National Bonk, 220. 
National City Bank. 103. 
National Theatre, 231, 358p. 
N. J. Bailroad & Transportation, 


Neptune Insurance Co., 225, 270. 
Netherlands Art Museum, 1!>0. 
Kevin, Bryan, 174. 
Ncvins. Hussell H„ 237. 
New Amsterdam, 303. 
Nowburgh. N. T.. 220. 
New in an. Dr. A. n., 45. 
Nexen, Susan, 300. 
N. Y. Academy of Sciences, 24fl. 
N. T. Caledonian Club, 140p. 
New York Central Ttaiiroad Litu s, 

N. Y. fias Light Co., 220. 
New York Cassette, 70, 05, 185. 
N. T. & nnrlem K.H., 27(i. 
New York Historical Society, 0, 0, 

10, 70, 220, 306, 316. 
New York Hospital, 18Bp, 400p, 
New York Infant Asylum, 219. 


New Tort Insurance Co., 22(1. 

Now York Mercury, 181. 

New York I'ultlic Library. 23. 

£66. £73p, 3 til. 
N. Y. So hoolmast.ers' Club, 79. 
Now York Stock Exchange, 240, 


N, y! Temperance Society, 212. 
New York Times, 210. 

New York Trade Schools, 271, 
New York University. 210, 223, 

2M), 27.1. 
New Vurk Yaehl Cluh, 24(1. 
Nil.lo'K "Harden." 2K3, 
Nleoll, Cnpr. William, 309. 
Noah, Moi'dccnl M„ 200. 
North Moore StTeet, 221). 
Norwood, Andrew 8., 224. 
Norwood, Carlisle. £24. 
Norwood. Carlisle. 223. 
Norwood and Austin, 223. 
Norwood, Andrew S., 223. 
No:ih. r .Mori ien i M„ 287. 
North ItivCT Hank, 219. 
Nyack, 303. 

Oakley, Betsey, 300. 
OnknV. l':mi.'L 2211. 
Oakley, Eliza, S14, 

m>ii<-iitis I m', 121. 

O'C '. Chan.. '230. 

OfiTden, Samuel G., 223. 
"Old I'.illy Post," 294. 
Old John Street Church. IK). 
Old Merchants of New York, 1P4, 

Old Time Marriage Notices. 303. 
OlyphiuM. llnviU W. C, 28(1. 
Olvany, c w., -;r>. 
«.lnilenloiik. Itev. Hcnj. T„ 233. 
Onderdonk, Kliznbcth. 43. 
O'Nell, 1SS. 
Oram, Ij., 210p. 
Oran, M - - . 373. 
OrancH Country, 382. IB. 2ft, 27. 
Orr, A. K, 80. 
Ortez, Bi'Tior Angel. 30ii. 
Osoorn, William, 2K0, 294. 
Or (rood, Samuel, 00, 
Olis. Joseph 4(1 22.1. 
Oyster Bay. L. I., 3!U. 

Taclfic Insurance Co.. 237. 
Talge, 31!), 
Paine, Thos., 1(Klp. 
Palatines. Irish, 174. 
Palmer Tablet. 802. 
Palmer T-and. 302. 
Palmer. Captain Nntlmn'I Brown, 

PaniliTirast. Capt. James, 300. 
Papal states, 219. 

!':iris. 31,. 

Purk Ave., OOn, 313l>, 
Park Bow. 21 n. 
Park How Bide., r*p. 
Park fin .:ir-. 2M(. 
Parker, James. Igt, 
Parker, Joshua, 314. 

ParkhnrRt, Dr., 2(i4p, 

Pnrkiti, Jiimes, 314. 

Fnrhy's, Tetrr. 373. 

Pnrmly, Dr. S. W., S5!>. 

Parsons, Alfred. 

PaTsonn, Win. B. r 80. 

Partridge. Miss Eliza A., 240. 

Patterson, Or. D., 44, 

I 'an Mine, 237. 

PanHis Hook, 00. 

Tavne. Thatcher T., 2iifl. 

PeabodT, Judge, 319. 

Peacock, William, Jr.. 300. 

Pearl Street. 218, 210, 223, 223, 

22(1, 2«|). 2fffl. 
Pearsiill. .Thos., 1«0. 
Tell family. 223. 
relletreau. 02, 240. 
Tendleton, TJ. H.. 147. 
Penn, Mary. 314. 
Penn. Medical College, 250. 
Pennsylvania E. lt„ 114p. 
Penrose, It.. 300. 

Percy. Earl, 233. 
Peril, Psiatiah, 144;, 
Perry, 310. 

Pluigan, Patrick. 174, 
1'hf'iiix ISrink, 2M, 
Philipse, Susan, 241. 
Pierce, Tres.. 144. 
Plerrepont, John Jnv, 13. 
Pino Plains, 01. 
Pine Street. 220. 285. 
Philard, John, 62, 
Plain Moiel, 200)1, 

Pop, 88, 

PoillOn, Geo. W.. J OK. 

Folllon, Baebel A., Iflfi. 

Polaris Expedition, 238. 

rollnck, Cnrllsle, 177. 

Follaek, (icorge, 177. 

Polliiek, Hugh, 177. 

I'nii.p'li. ST. 

Poole's Museum. 373. 

Porter. Noah, 01. 

Post, 374. 

Post, J., 43. 

Post Office, SO. 

Potter's Field, 2(13. 

prall, Ahrnl.avo, 309. 

pregldeiit, 285, 

Trcvost. V., 5p. 02. 170p, 

Trice, Francis, IBk 

I'riee. Stephen, 2S0. 

Prime, llapt,, 133. 

Prime, Frederick. 210. 

Prime, Laura, 246. 

Prime, Nathnnlel, 220, 2461. 

Trlmc, William C. 324, v. 

Prime, Ward & King, £11, £29. 

Trlmc, Ward & Sands. 220. 

I ™ ] 

Prime. Ward, Sands, King & Co., 

Priuco Street, 215. 
l'robst, Jacob, 45. 
Produce Hxchmige, 31 p, 7!). 
Prospect Park, 139. 
Protestant Half Orphan Ajsylrmi, 

Prnvlnee Arms, so, 
FrovoOst, David, 155. 
Frovoost Mansion. 147. 
Putnam, George P., 31!). 
I'll I nam, I I. 75. 
Pugsley, Polly, 313. 
Tync, Percy, II., 14. 
r y uc; Thomns, 2tM. 

Qunckcnbos, Dr. John G., 388. 
Qucenxboro Bridge, 73. 
Oulucy, Mrs. to. 8. M., 133. 
Qalinr, Joslah, 133. 


RadeUff, Peter, Esq., 371. 

KjiniHI") Wafer CoiLil'aii J", 302, 
Randall, 117. 
Randolph, John, 3 10, 
Eathboac, John, 27!). 
Hathbun Hotel, 9up. 
Ray, Cornelius, 100. 
ltavinoml, nwiry J., 352, 
Raymond, Sally, 309. 
Raymond. Susannah, 300. 
Read, Ann. 309. 
Red Cross, 125, 310. 
Red Fort. 203. 

Reformed Dutch. Church. 10. 
Held. Daniel Q , 173. 
Reminiscences of an Oeiogenar- 

Inn, 234. 
Restless, The, 70. 
Revolution, Sons of the, 7.1. 
Richards, Laura E., 212. 
llidiliuv. KJ Isabel h. 309. 
Ridley, Mrs. Catherine, 313. 
141 firs. EUsha. 211. 
ltltji-Carltoii, 80p. 
Riverside drive, 7flp, 22fl, SS8. 
Hi?es, Geo. L., 80. 
Rhlnelaiider, 140. 
Rblm-biudcr, Miss Sally, 309. 
Rhinelander SuKiir Uonw, 80. 
Bobbins, George S., 283. 
Eobbins, George S. and Son, 283. 
Roberts, Marshall O., 00, 324. 
Robinson, Col. Beverly, 241. 
Robinson, Ucverly, 238. 
Robinson, Beverly III. 211. 
Robinson, Wm. t., 27ft. 
Robinson, Mrs. Wm. T., 134. 
Robinson's, 135. 
Roe, Ollvlfi, 313. 
Roelnntsen, A., 79. 
Rogers, 319. 

Rogers, Hugh, 174. 
Rogers, Dr. J. II., 371. 
Rogers, Leonard, 300. 
Rogern, Moses, 100, 
Romeyne, J. D„ 371. 
Ronalds, Thos. A.. 233. 
Roosevelt, Jacobus. 88. 
Roosevelt, Theodore, I!)0. 301. 
Root, Klihu, 3m. 3S2. 
Rose Garden, 130. 
Rose Street, 220. 
Rose. Luke, 174. 
Rose. Wm. H„ 44. 
Rosseau, Elizabeth, 313. 
Rossmore Hotel, 95p. 
Rowe, Mr., 328. 
RuggleB, Samuel I!., 271!. 279. 
Rugjrles, Samuel R,, 
Runkle, Paul, 174. 
Ruppert, Jacob, 313p. 
Russell, Lillian, Sfllp. 
Rutgers Street, 280. 
Ryan, Bartholomew, 174. 
Ryan, John, 174, 


Safe, Russell, 20}). 

St. Andrew's Society, 234, 

St. Bartholomew's Church. 20, 23, 

24. 73p. 

St.. Domingo, 289. 

St. George's Chapel, 88. 

St. George's, 225, 253. 

SI. Juan's Chapel, 233. 

St. Jolin'a Purisli, 208, 224. 

St. John-ln-the-Ficlds, 372, 

St. Joseph's Orphan Asylum. 229. 

St. Luke's nospltal. 24!)p, 209p. 

St. Mark's place, 215, 223, 280, 371. 

St. Mary, Franels, 313. 

St. Michael's Chiireh, 24!), 

St. Nicholas Society, 224. 

St. Nicholas, 303. 

St. Paul's, 49, 02, (K, 74, 71"., 100, 


Silks & Co., 118. 
Sands, Austin L., 20. 
Sands, Comfort, 224. 
Sands. Robert C_ 224. 
Sandy Hook, 200. 
Sans Soud, 354. 
Sailors' Snug Harbor, 234. 
Sampson, Joseph, 212. 
Saturday Evening Post, 2. 
Saunders, Cant. John, 313. 
Sawyer. Justine, 104. 
SchRglitlcoke, 363. 
Schenk. Mil me, 309, 
Schermerhorn, 23, 140, 15(1. 
Schermerhorn, Abraham. 279. 
Scliermerlmrii, Anna E, II., IBS. 
Schermerhorn, Edmund IL, 155. 
Schermerhorn,, Helen, 285. 
Schermerhorn, John Jones. 135. 
Schermcrlioru, Peter, 153. 100. 279. 
Schermerhorn, P. & Sons, 270. 


Schermerhorn, Willis & Co.. 279. 
Hchermorhorn, Wm. C_ 148. 355, 
Sclaeueliii. Samuel B., 293. 
Schneider, Wm. K, 44. 
Schodack Landing, 49. 
Schuback, John. 2S7. 
Sclnilton. John W.. 210. 
Sf luillLfifi, John 153. 
Schuta, Erhard, 155. 
Schuyler, General, 272. 
Schwab mansion, 7Bp. 
Bdduiore, Joel, 300. 
Scotch Presbyterian Church. ISO. 
Seott, Wlnfloia, 220. 
BeoU, am. 

Strew Dock Company. The. 238, 

Scrougan, Ellon. 00. 

N -. l : ; i ' ■ : i' - Institute, 63. 

Second avenue, 208. 

Selifrmati, 111 [>. 

Sembler, Caspor, 313. 

Seventh Itcginicnt, 27, 70n, 3.10p. 

Sewell, J„ 313. 

Stmdtteton, 301, 

Shakespeare Burden, 204. 

Shaddlc's bakery, CO. 
Sharp, George. £75. 
Sharp, Jake, lOCp, 402p. 
Shattuek, Sally, 314. 
ShatLnck, 31!). 
Shntcei, William, 313. 
Shepherd Kuiipp, 234. 
Sherbrooke, Miles, 177. 
Bhonts. Theo. P., 200p. 
Sicllly, 219. 
Bickels, Alithea, 313. 
Sickles. Gen.. 143. 
Blegkortncr's, 20, 24. 
Sierra. Leone, 216. 
Silver King, 15(1. 
Simmons, Jemima, I 
Simmons, John, 6, 
Simmons, William K.. 306. 
Simmon's Tavern, fi. 
Simpson, George, 314. 

Sinclair, Elizabeth, 21)3. 
Sinclair, 374p. 
Sing Sine. 19. 3(53. 
Singer Tower, 250p. 
Sixth Avenue, 298p. 
Skene, Major, ITS. 
Sketch Club, The, 237. 
Skinner, Clnrituia, 313. 
Skinner, Philip. 3011. 
Skinner, Mrs.. 388. 
Blecpv Hollow, 303. 
Sloane, W. & J.. W)p. 
Slocum, Sarah. 300. 
Smith, 310. 
Smith, Mrs., 372, 373. 
Smith, Charles, 3oo. 

Smith, Chas. H„ HI 
Smith, Mra. E.. 371. 
Smith, Elkanah, 314. 
Smith, Esther lioorman, 371. 
Smith, Gershon, 253, 
Smith, Hannah, 313. 
Smith, Harriot. 313. 

Smith, Thoa. II., 271. 

Smith, Taos. II. & Son, 271. 

Smith. Thos. I,,, 21.1, 

Smith, Thos. 11., 240. 

Snyder. Corporal Peter, S5S. 

Sohel. Isldor, 45. 

Society of the Cincinnati, 75. 

Society Library. 239, 245 250, 251. 

Sonierindyke. Tcunis, 103. 

Sommer. Isaac, 148. z 

Sonunora, 151. 

Sons of Liberty, 7(3. 

SttnB of the Uevolution, 7<i, 79. 

South Perry, 5p. 

South Street, 174r>, 225, 2G3, 271. 

Sfnitlierbmd, Ihitij I»o Lnmslcr, 

43, 44, 46. 
Southwlek. Jonathan, 255. 
Spaulding, Harry J., 45. 
Sparks. Jared, 364. 
Spencer, Col. Lnrlllard, 103, 
Sperry, Jacob, 19. 
Siiinijler, 65p. 

Spring, Dr. Gardiner, 208, 219, 

Spring Street, 2S4. 

Sfadt Hutu, 78. 

S tagg, John P., 2S4. 

Stagg, John P. & Company, 2R4. 

Standard Oil, 13Bp, 

Stanley, Henry M„ 305. 

Stanley. Henry W.. 354. 

Stansbury, Nathan, 300. 

Staples, Mrs. Amelia. 271. 

Staples, John, 271. 

Staples, Wm. J., 271. 

Staples & Clark, 271. 

Stnrln, John H., 8fl. 

Startin, Chas., 160, 

Slate Street, 24p, 284. 

S( ti Island Kerry, 21p. 

Statue of Liberty. 84. 

Steamship How, 211. 
Stearns, P.. 3»5p. 
Stcbblns. Henry □., 324. 
Stephenson, 103p. 
Stephenson, George, 
Stephenson, Nelly, 2 
Stevens, Ebeneyer, 223. 
Stevens, Mrs. Paran, 410p. 
Stevens House, ISop. 
Stewart, Alexander T., Dp, Gil. 
Stewart. George, 313. 
Btillwell, Ellaahelh, 178. 
Stirling, Lord, 242. 

S k Kit-liangi-, 237. 250. 

Stokes, Mr., 307. 
Stone. 310. 

Stone's History, 100. 
Stroet, Mra. Lois. 216. 
Striker, O. II.. 4(t. 
Stringham, Capt. Joseph, 309. 
Strong, Benjamin, 223. 
Rlrong, Selah, 223. 
StrnluT, M.. 300. 
Strykcr. Mrs.. 49. CO. 
Stuart, Ilobort L., (30. 
Stiirge's, Col., 46. 
Scurges, N. h„ 4(3. 


Shii-jrc?*. strong, 4fl. 
Stiirtrynnt House, 3!Klp. 
Wliivvesant. 1S9. 210p, 363, 
BtttyMSMtf Nicholas W,, Jr.. 230, 
8t<i.vven.m( Institute, 211', 237. 
Hull-Treasury Building, Ti, 101 p, 

S'iM.-.i i. Gen., 70. 
snti, 52, 234. 
Burets- KlilK-., ttfip. 
Sutherland, Mars-. 230. 
Sutherland. Dr. Tnimndse, 230, 
Swnmp, The. 8S. 
Bwarttont, U., 46. 

Tait. F. A., 310. 

T nv 1 Tn 11. 20f>. 

Tnppon. Lewis, 220. 
Tnvenor, Mr., 3SS. 
Tuvlor. Bavuaiil, 301. 
Taylor, Klizabcih, 3(H). 
Taylor, Jeremiah H„ 22,1. 
Tiivlfir, KikhvIi's, 2IIN. 22.1. 212. 
Taylor, Nnjnh, 3ft. 
Taylor. Thos. C, 30. 
Teisselre, Anthony. 288. 
Templet on, Oliver, 177, 
Ten Unmk. John. .113. 
Ten l!rn<)k. S- lly. Ill at. 
Tlmckery, *■><). 
Theolocical Beminarteo, 31(1. 
Third Avenue. 216. 
Thistle Benevolent Ass'n., lfil. 
Tliomn*, Betsey .Telf, 3rni, 
Tlioninn, Mrs. H. II,, 338. 
Tliomas, Theodore, lSlp. 
Thomas Strivt, 18!)p. 
Tombs prison, 245|>. 
Thompson, I!ev. Dr., 31!). 
Thompson, Jonathan, 300. 
Thompson, I'olly, 300. 
Thompson Street. 212. 
Thorliurn, Grant, 40, !». 
Thome, II,, 43. 
Thure Lie Thlllstrup. SM. 
TluiririfTen l-'onwl. 334. 
Thurston, Chan,, 11*. 
Thurston, Chnrles M„ 224. 
Tiffany Studio. llOp. 
Tieer, The, 7B. 
Tilden, Samuel J.. 23rj. 
Tildeu. 333. 
Tllloii, «2. 
Times, 14T, 1.1.0, 

Tit mi k'. S3, £70. 
Titus, Mrs. Mary, 203. 
Titus, Sianleycttn. 44. 
Tod, J. Kennedy. 334. 
TofTev, Thobe, 300. 
Toffv, Tlantuili, 313. 
Tompkins, Daniel 1'.. 10 
Tom-kins, Minthorne, 220, 273. 
Tompkins Market. 330p. 
Toiiipkiiixvllle, 200. 
Torrey, William, 30. 
Townisend, Ellhu, 237. 

Tradesmen's Bank, 237. 
Trader's Insurance, £34. 
Trinity Cemetery, 220, 204, 
Trinity Church, 1.1, 30, 54p, lSBp, 

ni. 178, isn. 

Trinity Corporal ion. 37-. 
Tronsoii. Widow, 300. 
Tram ball, 110. 
Trumbull, John, 223. 
Tvron Hull, 216, 
Tucker, Mr., 319. 
Tucker, Ceorge D.. 226. 
Tucker, llichartl I„ 220. 
Tucker, Thos. W„ ££«. 
Tuekerninn, 208. 220. 
Turner, Charlotte II.. 30(1. 
Twain, Mark, 354. 
Tyler, John, £0. 
Tyiijr, Dr., 83p, 

Uillne, The Prince of. 31, 3(11. 
Underbill, Israel, 23. £4. 
Union Bunk, 22,-1. 
Union I.eiiKiK' Club, '.Tip, 310. 
Union Square. 03 p, 100, 203 , 270, 

28,1. 34Sp. 
Union Trust Co.. 00p. 
United States Hank, 253. 
United States Branch Hank. 100, 


United States Hotel, £3.1. 
United States Navy, 280. 
University of the City of New 

York, 374. 
Upjohn. Hlchnrd. 310. 


Vfilenllue's Manual, 40, 2(50. 
Valentine. David. «, !), £07. 
Van lioiireri, Michael, £75. 
Van Beuren Mansion, 207. 
van Ilevervoonlen, Hliza, 104. 
Van HuiisehiileiiK. 363. 
Van Kiiren, Marl in, 220, 
Van Cortlandt, J., 163, 
Vnndam, Anthony, IDS. 
Van Dam, Rip, RS. 
Van den Heuvel, 10, 160, 163, TOO. 
Van den Henvrl, Clias. A., 194, 
Van den Ileiivel, Charlotte, 1B3. 
Van den Heuvel, I. CI. H., 163. 
Van den Heuvel, J. C. 150. 
Van den Heuvel, ,T. A., 1B3. 
Van den Heuvel, Jacob A., 104. 
Van di'ii Hem el, Jiisll ae, lOI, 
Van den Heuvel. MarKim-l, 163. 
Van den neuvel, Sn-.-.i A., 101. 
Vanderbilt, Cornelius, 2Mb, 
Vanderbilt, Mrs. W. K., Jr., 122 
VaiulerlinlT, I'olly, 30(1. 
VamliTviKirt. ivter. S!3. 
Van drolls, 303. 
Van HiKSinbottom, 363p. 
Van IlOi-KellH, 363. 


Van KoTtlniulls, 3(13. 

Vim iviis, ;nB n . 

Van Pelt, Jane. 300. 

Vim J Lt-ii -r-.-lin-r. Jeremiah, SI 4. 

Vim Selmak, John, 300. 

Van Tiivl, Catharine, 313. 

van Tuyl, Mario, 313, 

Van Vloti'iis, 3(«p, 

Ti5ti wuwnen, Catherine, 306. 

Villi Wart, Irvine. 20. 

Van Winkles, 3KJ. 

van Weatreenen, Maria R, ](M-, 

Van Wyck, ltoht. A., 80. 

Van Zaiiilt. >lr». 1 ' I i !>■ -1 h . Bi li. 

Vnriek Street, 258, 283, 

Vnrict, Kirhard, 6. 

Vanxhall Gardens, 23, 24, 27. 

Vauxhall, 373. 

Verphinck, Daniel Crommelln, 

Verpianek. Onlian. 264. 
ViTEiliiiit-k, Surmiel, I'i.i. 
v, tv.'.i.. ;i. L> (i i I i i > . :tr:. 
Vescy Street, 40. 53. MOp, (88. 
Victoria Hotel. 410p. 
Vinci's, da, 3S7. 
Vlvlaua. M 31, 113. 
Vivano, M. lleue. 3tSl. 
Von Hoffman, Huron, 173. 


Waddell, Coventry. 254, 271. 
Wmblell, I Vamiia I.., 255. 
Wmblell, l.'nmfc, -J.-.5. L'7I. 
Wmblell, Ciipt. John, 254. 
Waridell, Wm. C. II., 213p, 254. 

Waddcll Mansion. 230. 
Wade, Edward Jr., HIJti. 
Wade, John B„ 45. 
Wagner, Miss A., 306. 
Waiutvright, Uniimr, 3SS. 
Wiildsm-uiiilhT, 31)1. 
Wales, Prlnew of, 113, 
Walker, .Joseph, 220. 
Walker Street. 280. 280. 
Wall Street, 2Sfip, 283. 340, 37Sp. 
WallRbout, 7». 
Wallace, Alexander. 177. 
Wallace, Hugh. 177. 
Wnilaek, Jas, W„ 30Sp. 
Walton, Abraham. 314. 
Wnl (on, Isanc, 230. 
Walton, William. 135. 90B. 
Walton, William P.. 30(1. 
Wanamakir Hblg., 22;l|>, 
Wnuamnker, 1ft 24, 
Ward, Anne, 2il. 
Wan!, Henry Hall. 249. 
Ward, Henrv. 238, 240, 250. 
Ward, Cant. James, 300. 
Wiirtl, J, Q. A., 310, 
Ward, John, 211. 220. 210. 
Ward. Rlehnrd II.. 211, 220. 
Ward. Samuel, 20S, 211, 224. 220. 

Ward. Samuel II, 104, 212, 225. 

Ward. Samuel III. 207, 2l!f. 
Wnnl Mansion, 224. 
Ware, llr. Jonathan, 238. 
Waring, Col., 300p. 
Waring, Wm., 23!l. 
Warner, George J,, 30tS. 

Warner, Peter, 
Wiirren, Jus. K.. 250. 
Wiirrea, John. 236. 284. 
Warren, John 6„ 230. 
Warren, John & Son, 2.")ti. 
Warren, Sir I'eler, 177. 
Warren .Street, 17l)p, 210. 
Warthbnrg Castle, 354. 
Washington, George, 75, 05, 100, 

133, 134, 241, 242. 
Washington Hall, 2011, 
Washington Headixuartera 74. 
WnHtiiiiffK.ii l£s-l c Jil.s, 114. 
Wiisliiiiulmi liiMiriiiie,- Co., ZVt. 
Washington Market, '-3T. 
WanhinfTtou Park, 150. 
Washington Place. 2Bi>. 
Washington Square. 20. B0, 122, 

203, -JOS, 211. 
Wns.liliigt.oii Street, 2S0, 
Water Street. 283. 
Wntson, Miss Esther Ann. 314. 
Watson. William. 314. 
Waver] y rince. 207. 
Webster, Daniel, 32. 
Weck-qiias-Kceks. 118. 
Weed, Harvey, 210. 
Weed, Nathaniel, 210. 
Weed, N. *. II., 210. 
Weelcawken, 220. 
Weeks, Amy, 300. 
Weir, Robert, 223, 
Woleh, James, 174, 
Wengler, 310, 
Wesley, John. ISO. 
Went Point, 241. 
West Street, 324y, 343, 3S4p. 
Weslervelt, Mayor, 144, 
Weyman, William. 181, 
Wheeler, HUniid IJ„ 2)17. 
White, Mi™. 388. 
White, Charles. 174. 
While, Helen. 270. 
White, Henry, 270. 
White, llichiird Or.anl, 310, 
White Street, 2SB. 
Wliiltdiiill i'erry, 75. 
Wattes Id e, Andrew J., 44. 
Whitfield, Oeorgc, ISO. 
Whiting. James, 314. 
WhlttredRe, Worlhhifftfiii, 310. 
Whit man, (lav., 188, 103. 
Whitney, Mm. h. 1*.. 122. 

Whitney. Stephen. L"ll. 223, 
Whltrldge, Mr., 2. 
Wickes, Jnseph, 30!). 
Widcea, Ohadlah, 300. 
Wilder. Mr,, 188. 
Wl Ikons, Charles. 204, 
Wilkes Lund. 3ti5. 


Wilkes, Lltnit. Charles, 5C6S. 
Wlllett, Col, Murinus, 233, 
WillHt. Marians. 76. 
Willinm Street, l33p. 2S3. 
"Williams, Mrs. Emmn, 20*. 
Williams, Henry, 174. 
Williams, Dr. LeiRhtoii, 3S7, 
Will 1ft inshurg Bridge 73. 
Williams, Prince, 351. 
Willis, 237. 
WiIHh, William, 314. 
Wilson, Janet, 313. 
Wilson, John. 309. 
Wilson, Bishop Luther B., 1811. 
Wllwoti, Pres., 1M, 
Wilxon, Miss Sally, 300. 
Windsor Arcade, 80p. 
WinthrOD, Frauds B., 104. 
Wlnttirop, Got., 01, 
Wlntnroj). Henry It., 253. 
Wise, Wlllinra. 306. 
Wlsner, dahriel, 219. 
WlHt.Hr, Miss Kitty, 134. 
WofTendale, Miss Hlizu, 373. 
WohUiat'en, A. jr.. a. 
Wolcol.t, OW, 242. 
Woods, Arthur, 1. 

Woods, Levinln, 313. 
Woods, William. 309. 
Woodruff, Tijiiatliv. 259, 
Woodvllle, n. Caton, 358. 
Woodward, Miss Dewing, 358. 
WnnUi.y, William W., 223. 
Woolworth Bide, 199. 163, 3!WV 
Woolworth, lDBn. 
Wnualt, Ctipf. Peter. 178. 
WrlfiM, Anpushis, 253. 
Wrlsht, Flnlev, 207. 
Wright, Ilaroid Bell, 2. 
Wright, Orvill*', 290p. 

Yellow Hook Ferry, 305. 
Youiijt, JCbomwr, 300. 
Young, Jn»o W., 300. 

Zsillnskl. Capr... 350. 
Zenker, Peter, I. 
Zopliaum, H. P., 358. 

( 423) 


Abbot, J., 235. 
Abbot, S„ ML 
Abbott, Ur, Lyman, 194. 
Abeel, Rev. John N., 61. 
Aboriginal Place Names, -IT. 
Aborn, H,, 225. 
Abrahams, E. 215, 
Acierly, Mrs, H„ 2.19, 
Ackerly. S„ 239, 24*. 
Ackcrman. A., 234. 
Acker-man, I'., 245. 
Ackerman, J., 217. 
Ackermau, P., 240. 
Adams, John, 183. 
Adams. John Q,, 193. 
Adeel, J., 264. 
Adeer, P„ 242, 
Adelphi Coltofre, 142. 
Asassia, Louis. 163. 
Aldermen, Board of, 149. 
Alccra, J., 242. 
Alton. P.. 220, 
Alton, &., 250, 
Allen. Thco.. 112. 
Allen, W., 254. 
Always. J., 242. 
Amar, It, 248. 

Ambulance Service, Board of. 159 
America, the famona yacht, 54. 
American Army, 100. 
American Clipper shipa, 5-1, 138. 
American Mabllle, 112. 
American men of letters. 185. 
American Museum of Nat. Hist., 

101, 15o. 
American Records, 0. 
American Theatre, 109. 
Amerman. P.. 220. 
Ames. F.. 230. 
Amraenhuyser, C, 224. 
Ammerman, Gre.tty, 223. 
Anderson, Alex., 18, 224, 
Anderson, C„ 238, 240, 
Anderson Cottajre. 61. 
Anderson, J., 256. 
Anderson, Jnmi's, 225. 
Anderson, H„ 214. 
Andes, M„ 248. 
Andre Major, 199. 
Andrews, 1,, 250. 
Andrews, I,, 250. 
Andrews, William Lorlng, 65. 
AiiEemne, S. A.. 239. 
Annan, H., 247. 

Anthony, Hester. 22. 

Antliinij-, .1 iiiie, 22. 

Anthony, J., 222. 

Anthony. Miss. 248. 

Anthony, N., 242. 

An til I, E. C 236. 

Apptojriite, K„ 233. 

Apthorpe, C, 240. 

Aquarium, 157. 

Aranaon, Rudolph., 122. 

Arbin-kle, Catherine, 138. 

ArUUckto Institute, 138. 

Arbuckto. John. 198. 

Arculariue, IS.. 246. 

Ardcn, Susan, 22. 

Armory Board. 168. 

Armorv Hall, 111. 

Armour, dipt. .1., 222 

Armour, S., £25. 

Armour, Polly, 225 

Armstrong, Mrs., 225 

Armstrong, Capt. W,, 237. 

Arnt, M.. 238. 

Arnold, Benedict, 100. 

Arnold, K. W. C., 79, 

Arnold. 0„ 245. 

Arnold, P., 244. 

Arrlbine, M„ 212. 

Art Commission. 167. 

Arthur, Pre*., 138. 

Arthur. &., 2&6. 

Aru micro us, C, 253. 

Ash. W., 238. 

Asplnwall, G.. 224 

Aslor, Jacob, 28. 

AstOT. John Jacob, 77. 03, 132. 

Astor Library, 95, 182. 

Astor, Mrs., 170. 

Aslor. Win. WnLih-irr. 170. 

Assessors, Board of, IBS. 
Assessments on Broadway, 1793, 

AUvood, Miss, 240. 
Aubury, Lieutenant Thomas, 110. 
Audubon. John James 193, 214, 

Avenue of States, XIV, 214. 
Avory, L„ 233. 


Babcock, |L 243. 
Bache, C, 2S5. 
Bachc, Miss,, 224. 
Kache, Nancy, 223, 
Baehe. P. K., 231. 
Backhouse, W., 230. 

[423 J 

Backhouse. W. & Co.. 30. 
Buehr. C, 230 
Bailey, E. A.. 2311. 
Bailey, James, '223. 
Bailey, M„ '223. 
Bailey, Mis, '122, 
Bailey. N., 2SS. 
Bailey, S., 253. 
Baker, Abigail, 225. 
Baker, E., 235. 
Balding, M., 229. 
Baldwin, E., 227. 
Baldwin, M., £4li. 
Ball, E., 230. 
Ball, E. J., 241. 

r.;t n, j„ 2:;.-,. 

Ball, Joint, 223. 
Ball. Mrs. H., 235. 
Bancker, J. K.. ZOO. 
Bancker, M., 232. 
Bancroft, John, 103, 
Bank Coffee House, 174. 
Banks, E., 237. 
Banks, Jamefi Lenox, 211. 
Billiyer, H., 245. 
Barber. Mrs. fit £27. 
Barclay. Marie, 224. 
Bard, S., 228. 
Barnard, Pres., 123. 
Barnes, P., 241. 
Il.'irninii's Museum, 71. 
Harreit., George, 110. 
Rarretto, P., 235. 
Barron. James, 22. 
Bart, C, 234. 
Barthoir, M., 247. 
Btirtou, B. J.. 210. 

IV l 1 1 B„ 234, 

Barton, T, 233. 

Basset, John, 38. 

Basset, M., £35. 

Batt, K. B.. 255. 

Battery, T., 68. 

Battery Place, AD. 

Battery Walk, the, 177. 

Battle of Golden Hill, T2. 

Baud on lilt". A., 23G. 

Baumnu. 0., 24S. 

Bavanl Estate, 108. 

Bayard, B., 8S. 

Bayard, C, 201. 

Bayard, E_ Mrs., 240. 

Bayard. M„ 348, 

Bayard, Nichs., T. 

Bavard, William. 175. 

Bavley, S. L-, 230. 

Beale, John Y., 220. 

Beaneliftmp, W, M., 217. 

Betnert, T„ 24! I, 

Beckly, T., 237. 

Bodlow, E, 0„ 232. 

Beecher, Henry Ward, 13ft 193. 

Biwkman, E., 23S, 241, 250. 

Beekman. Estate, 108. 

Beekman, G., 62. 

rsiTkiiuiii. <:. h\, ;ui. 
Beekman, J., 232. 
Beekman, M., 210. 

Beekman, Mrs., 228. J., 223. 
Bell, E., 245. 
Bell, M., 247. 
Bell, K. Mrs., 247. 
Bellevue Coffee House, 175. 
Bellevue Hospital, 150. 
Belmont, August, I'M. 
Bement, G., 234, 
Bend. Grove, 222. 
Benedict Bros., 81. 
Benedict, James, (12. 
Bennett, tie engraver, 79, 
HeTinet, K„ 241. 
Eennum, D„ 22ft 
Benson, B.. 230, 239. 
Benson, Egbert, (11. 
Benson, Bobt.. 8. 
Benson, S., 256. 
Bergen, Hans, 217, 
Bergen, P., 255. 
Bergh, C, 53. 
Bergh, Henry, 52. 
Bergman, B„ 238. 
Bernard, F„ 24S. 
Berrian, J., 240. 
Bert bee. F., 230. 
Bcthune, P., 240. 
Bettfl, J., 230. 
Betts, \V., 241. 
BeTOls, Marltie, 218. 
Bicker, Sophia, 22. 
Bickor, C, 230. 
Blddle, Mrs., 232. 
Bigelow, John, 188. 
Rieelow, Poultiiey, 42. 
Bingham, Miss. 243. 
Bingham. P., 240. 
Bindos, Joseph, 14. 
Bird sail, N., 242. 
Bishop, S., 52, 
Biaset, J. D., 228, 
Bilby, W., 227. 
Blitau, Sarah. 223. 
Black. A.. 248. 
Black. J., 225. 
Black, L.. 22fi. 

Btacfcwell, Samuel and Joseph, 31. 

Rtagge, Henj., 7. 

Blair, A., 231. 

Blake, X, 251. 

Blanchard, F., 241. 

BlantOn, J., 220, 

Blavr. H„ 230. 

Bleecker. E., 255. 

Bleecker, M ., 230. 

Bleecker, R., 234. 

Bleecker, S., 210. 

Bleecker, W-, £53. 

Block. A., 68. 

Bloodgood, A., IE. 

Blood good, V.. 231. 

Bloodgood, T„ 248. 

Bloomer, Rev. Mr., 222, 

Bloom, Mrs., 218. 

Bloomingdale Road, 120. 

Blue Boar Tavern, 71, 

Blydpnfeurgh, I., 247. 


Blydenburifh, Maria, 213. 

Blj*aiburgh, W., 256. 

Board, J., 248. 

Boerum, J., 234. 

Bogart, A., 247. 

Bogart, C. J., 31. 

BOtfarl, J-, T£i. 

Bogert, J. U., 213. 

Bogart, 1., 231. 

Bogart, I'., 242. 

Bogart, S. 1>., 228. 

Bokev, J.. 230. 

Bouclcault, Dion, 20G. 

Bennett, P„ 231, 

Boni Stt, L " = - 1 ■- , 18. 

BOIl Ml, S„ 236. 

Boone, Daniel. 11)3. 

Booriunn. James, 12. 

BooLh, Edwin, 201, 206. 

Hcrki]il)ini' t l-r I i k., 222. 

Soroush Presidents, 148. 

Borrows, L., 226. 

Borrowc, S., 230. 

Bouwerle Lane, 10ft. 

Hmiwi-rle Village, 108. 

Bowderi, Rev. JoJjti, (11. 

Buwdoin, Mrs. Juiiu Urimell, tML 

Bowers, F., 244. 

Bowery Bay, 111. 

Bowery Boys, 110. 

Bowery Theatre, 112. 

Bowling Ureen, 48, 04, 70. 

Bowne, It., 30. 

Boyd, S., 234. 

Bovd, W, 228. 

Boylau, C-. 243. 

Boyle. C, 224. 

Bradford, Mrs., 237. 

Bradish. J., 238. 

Bradlie. M., 258. 

Brauson. S., 227. 

Brett, MIsa, 235, 

UrevOOrl., Mrs. A., 243. 

BrevOOrt, A hr:i rn, 29, 

Brevoort Farm, 88. 

Brewerton, 11., 242. 

Brewster, Hannah, 224. 

Brewster, 1„ 227, 

Brewster, Temperance, 227, 

Brisk Pres. Church, 145, 203. 

Brides, Dept. of, H12. 

Bribes, S„ 250. 

BrigfiiriiL Bench Hotel. HO. 

Brincherhorr, C, 223. 

Brinckcrhorr, 0.. 22, 232. 

BrliK-kerhoff, t, 33. 

BrinekerhofT, S,, 235. 

Brinkorhoff, 0„ 242. 

British Museum, 100. 

Britton, J.. 228. 

Broadway Parades, 80. 

Broadway llosidents, I7M. 75. Tij. 

Broadway Shanties, 1785, 74, 

Broadway Views, 70. 

Br k. Jonas. 215. 

Bronx Borough. 215. 

Bronx Parkway Commission, 158. 

Bronx Shopping District, 134, 

llrnnlilyn Rriilg.-, HI.".. 
Brooklyn crowds, 135. 
Brooklyn Institute, 160. 
Brooklyn Shopping District, 131. 
Brooks, C, 250. 
Brooks, Phillips, 183. 
Broome, John, 7. 
Brown, Adam and Noah, 52. 
Brown and Belt, 52. 
Brown, 1)., 256. 
Brown, Henry K., 57. 
Brown, J., 242, 

Brown, M„ 24i, 

Brown, R., 25S. 

Brawn, w. H., 62. 
Browne, £., 253, 
Broth, A.. 233. 
Brotherson. P., 256. 
Hrower, A„ 2211, 251. 
Brower, David, 18. 
Brower, J., 244. 
Brewer, N., 232. 
Brower. Folly, 224. 
Uruee, Mr. Arrliil.mHI. 01. 
Bruce, W., 220. 
Eruen, J.. 230. 
BruiT, E„ 246. 
Brush, E., 224. 
Bryan, Mrs., 20. 
Bryant, D., 226. 
Bryant, liliz., 220. 
Bryant, K„ 220. 
Bryant, William Culleii, 1B3. 
Brycn, Mrs. It.. 230. 
Brvnes, J., 247. 
Buchanan. A., 235. 
Buchanan, J. r 21, 229. 
Buchanan, M„ 240. 254. 
Buchanan, Thos.. 5>2. 
Buckraaster, G., 253. 
Buckmaster, S., 250. 
Budd, Hannah, 22, 
liugbey, II., 231, 
Bull, «?., 253. 
Bull, L„ 232. 
Bull's Head Tavern. 109. 
Bullln. It., 253. 
Dunce, E.. 226, 230. 
BuflCe, M„ 233, 240. 
Bunvan, Miss, 251. 
Burden, S., 241, 
Burger, E_, 234, 210. 
Burger, J., 223. 
Burger, John, 18. 
Burling Farm, 88. 
Hurling. &., 226. 
Burns, M.. 241. 
Burn's Coffee House, 71. 
Kiirnhurii, Mrs,, 253. 
Burr, Aaron, 10, 33, 77, ISlO. 
Burr, I., 18. 
Burr, T,, 237, 
Burrnl, Joseph, 14. 
Burris, B.. 245. 
Burroughs, Anna, 220. 
Burt. E.. 24S. 
Burtls, S., 244. 
Burtou, T„ 234. 


Biiryer, N., 253. 
Bush. II., 258. 
Bushmoll, J., 238, 
Busklrk, R„ 243. 
Bussen, J., 255. 
Bussing, P., 232. 
Bussing, \V,, '.'27, 
Butchers & Drovers, 109, 
Under, V„ 2-1 1 , 
Butler, J., 250. 
Butler, Mrs., 223. 
Buttermilk channel, 217. 
Buxton, Dr. C„ 234. 
Bnvg GL 232. 
Bylee, J., 225. 
Byrnnck, O, 232. 
Bvranck, Maria, 22. 
Bvranck, F.. 234. 
Byrd, J„ 233. 
Kyrues, Captain, 112. 
ByTanek, June, 240. 

Cadman. S. Partes. 142. 
Cameron, J., 235, 
Camp, M., 249. 
Campbell, A. Mrs., 246, 
Cam [.bull, A,, 241), 
Campbell, D., 244, 
Cum phH]. G., 242. 
Campbell, Dr. J., 232. 
<;::nn r 1I..11 ,r., 2:;::, 231, 243. 
Cannon, Mrs., 243. 
Cannon, Sarah, 226. 
Canon .T., 237. 
Carew, D., 236. 
cargi'ii, w., ;nr.. 
Carleton, 8„ 248, 
Cfirmlchael, A„ £41. 
Came, Mrs.C 23G. 
Carnegie, Andrew, 102. 
Carnegie corporation, 209. 
Carpenter, F., 2fM. 
Carpenter, P., 239. 
Carpenter, 8., 220, 234. 
Carpenter, W a 248, 
Carpenter & Itisli(i|>. B2. 
Carr, A. L., 227. 
Cftrr, Naucey, 2£7. 
Carrere and Hastings, 101. 
Cary, 1^, 247. 
Casey, B.. 240. 

CsMle V." is, 219. 

Cathedral of St. Jolin the Divine. 

Caudell. H., 253. 
Cobra, E. f 237. 
Chambers, Judge, 7*. 
Chamber of Commerce, ISO. 
Chamberlain, The, 151, 
Changing, William E., 193. 
Chapels of the Tongues, 196. 
Chapman, J. A., 251. 
Charlotte Cauda Monument, 139, 
Chatham Street, 120. 
Chelsea, 1. 

Chichester. I" , 210. 

Ciilktti, J., 229. 

Childs, Francis, 13. 

Chlsholni, J., 248, 

Choate, Burns, 193. 

Chuck. C, 111. 

Church of All Saints, 34. 

Church of the Ascension, 8S. 

Church in the Fort, 203. 

Church of the Pilgrims, 138. 

Church of the Transfiguration 

(The Llltle Church around the 

Corner), 209. 
Circus, The, 178. 
City Hall Directory, 3. 
City Hall Park, 70, 17S. 
City note], 76, 174. 
City Marshall^, 165. 
City Record, Board Of, 166. 
Clark, M„ 242. 
Clnrk, IT. J., 2I17. 
Clark. N., 242. 
Clark. It. B.. 247. 
Clarke, J. B.. 244. 
Clarke. S., 232. 
Clarkson, Oen. M., 227. 
Clarkson, M„ 223. 
Clarkson, T. S.. 223. 
Clauson, IS., 2-13. 
Clav, Henry, 45, 193. 
Clay poo I, A. G„ 252. 
Clements, Totlv, 222. 
Ciemhorn, ,T., 247. 
Clinton, C. T_, 244. 
Clinton, De -Wilt, 38, 84, 175, 100. 


Closs, H., 247. 
Close, K,, 250. 
Clcuigh, Capt. J., 250. 
Clow, Miss, 222. 
Cobham, 13. , 231. 
Coek, A., 25fi. 
Cook, J., 244, 24P, 
Cm*. T„ 232. 
Cockloft Hall. 185. 
Cod wise. Capt., 22. 
Codwise, M., 238. 
Coe, J. feier„ £43. 
Cne, N., 230. 
Cue, (L 251. 
Come, B., 238. 
Coffin, John, IB. 
Coffin, S., 229. 
Cogdell. W., 240. 
Cogswell, A., 246. 
Cogswell. W., £30. 
Cohan. L,. 234. 
Cohen, H„ £33. 

Golden, Cudwalluder D„ 76, 175, 

Cold C. 228, 

Coles, 223. 

Coles, W., 238, £r>4. 

College of the Province of Now 

York, 121. 
Collegiate Dutch Reformed. 

Church, 204, 
Collins, M. Mrs., 241. 

[ 432] 

Collins, A.. 2+fl, 
Col ci ret! Orphans' House, 61. 
Columbia University. 100. 
Columbia College, 37, 01, 121, 213. 
Colombia College Celebrations, 

Columbia Cotlece, Class Of '?«, 

Columbia College. Fraternities, 

Columbia College Literary So- 
cieties, 129. 
Columbia College Tapers, 128. 
Columbia College. Sports, 120. 
Columbian Hotel, 1S3. 
Comb, J., 2+8. 
C™merw Hotel, 1T4. 
CoramerdiiiBtT, A„ 248. 
Commissioners of Accounts, 105. 
Common I, ami, 70, 7Ji, 77, 
Comparison New York an J I/ori- 

don, 100. 
Comptroller, Tk>, US. 
Conner, J., 231. 
Conklln, E,, 214, 
Coot. A„ 2+5. 
Coot, IT., 2+0, 

Cooke, floorge Frederick. 201. 

Cooper, A., £40, 

Cooper, C„ 21(1. 

Coop, K„ 240. 

Cooper. F., 232. 

Cooper, John Fenlmore, 103. 

Cooper. It, 2+1. 

Cooper, Peter. 1M. 

Cooper, T. t 228, 22+, 

Cortiet, M„ 2+3. 

Corey, A.. 2X0. 

Corlears Hook, 2. 

Cornell. C 228. 

Cornell, G„ 243. 

Cornell, P.. 238. 

Cornell, Miss, £55. 

Co™ well, EC. Jlrs,, 24S. 

Cornwall, P., 258. 

Coroners, 103, 

Corporal Thompson's Madison 

Cottage, 89. 
Corre's Tavern, 13. 
Correction, Dept. of, 1C(). 
Cortelyon, L., 254. 
Cortenius, T.. 227. 
Cosine, CJ„ 227. 
Cottle, J. p £29. 
Cotton, !>., 22+. 
Couenhoven, A., 235, 
Conger, Doreas, 226. , 
Coulthard. A., 244. 
Coulthard, S.. 245. 
Courey, C, 250. 
Cnurey, P., 2tS6, 
Courey, W„ 237. 
Courtney, lf„ 237. 
Courts of Records, 13+. 
Cowdrer, 1111k,, 224. 
Cowdry, S„ 238. 
Couetiiioveii, K„ 2+1, 
Cox, S„ 253. 

Coyler, Thomas. 52. 
Cozine, J., 232. 
Craft, M., 2+D. 
Craig, A„ 250, 
Crane, B„ 247. 
Crane, M„ 224, 2++, 
Crane, S„ 233. 
Creamer. C 229. 
Creed, H., 23S. 
Creed, R., 245. 
Crlmmtns, John D,, 113. 
Crollns, C„ 2J0, 237. 
Crommelln, C, Jr., 2+6. 
Crommelln, E., 230. 
Crommi'llne, It., £23. 
Cronell, s„ 87. 
Crook, Capt. J„ 255. 
Crook, Mrs. P., 252. 
Crocker, n„ 24* 
Crookshnnk. Miss, 2+7. 
Crosbys, Tie, 03. 
Cross. J.. Jr., 2+5. 
Cross, W„ 224. 
CrosHiielti, Mr*. II.. 2,17. 
CrosHtleld, 8.. Jr., 222. 
Cmt.on Cotluffe, 225. 
Crorw, H„ 235. 
Crufter, M. C„ 248. 
Crydor, C. f 225. 
Crystal Palace, lit). 
Cuddy, E„ 230. 
Culbertson, J„ 240. 
Cullen, M, C„ 230. 
Ciillen, Jos.. 22. 

CiniitnTiMiid, j,, 2n;!. 
dimming. A., 252. 
dimming.", BL, 235. 
Caimmings, James, IS, 
Cunning, J., 240. 
Cunning, W„ 2+4. 
H'uiiriiii^Jiinii, M , 231. 
CniiciiiiErliiiTiL, I!., 23+. 
Carb Market, 83. 
Carser, K„ 220. 
Curtenlus, J., 245. 
Curtis. A.. 18. 
Curtis. Miss. 250. 
Curtis, L., 229. 
Cnsliiue, 8.. 254. 
Cushmun, Charlotte, 110. 
Cutler. J., 235. 
Cuyler, Miss, 240, 


Daneker & Sluyter, Journal, 143, 


Dash, Mrs. A., £50. 
Davies, J. Clarence, 70. 
Davis. J„ 252. 
Davis, Dr. J., £30. 
Davis, M. L.. 258. 
Davis. S„ 250. 
Davis, W., 2,50. 
Dawson, M,, 252. 
Dayton. Ann. 229. 
Death Notlcefl, (17S3-05), 22, 222 
ro 250, 

[433 J 

DeBarry, Mrs., 112. 

Dfbois, John, 22. 

I', ill:, I„ 23«. 

Dean, J., 233, 

Deane. Ell*,, 226. 

DeForest, It. 235. 

Degrove. 8., 248. 

De Laet's Nleuwe Wercldt, 217. 

Dclafleld, John, 30, 75, T8. 

DeLancey Estate, 108, 

Delnncey, Ktienne, 7L 

Delanccy. J.. 230. 

Deiinunlco's, 68, Dl. 

laming, J.. 2.A. 

De Motte, S„ 252. 

Denmark, Mrs.. 230. 

Denmark, P., 250. 

Dennis. N., 228. 

Delisting, William, 14. 

Denton, Deborah, 222, 

Dun ton, J., 224. 

Denton, Patty, 225. 

Dcpeyster Estate, IfW, 

Depcyster, (lerard, 222. 

Depcyatcr, G., 255. 

Depeystcr, James W., 20. 

De Sart, A., 253. 

I li-liniSMS, f!_, 250. 

DesbrOsses, W„ £30. 

Dercmer. B„ 22. 

Dcwieht, C, 239. 

DcWltt. E.. 233. 

DeWltt Clinton Ilicn School, 81. 

Dey, Tunis, 71. 

I liana's Tower, IS] p. 

DitHlrirk liiiirki'rtincker, 183. 

iliaosway, V-, 

Ditmas, A., 233. 

Hit mas, B.. 220. 

nitmas, J.. 22a. 

Docks & Ferries, Dept. of. 1C2. 

Dodco, C, 229. 

Dodge, D., 255. 

Dodge, I :.. 220. 

Dodge, U, 252. 

Dodffe, M., 221*. 

Doll, Dr. A., 248. 

Dollar Mark S, 50. 

Don Dh _■> df i; m: I, 34. 

Duncan Charter, nm, 

Doncan, Thomas, 201. 

Dougal. D.. 232. 

Doughty, E. t 228. 

Doughty, H., 233. 

Douglas. B., 237. 

Douglas, J. 226. 

Douw, J. D. P., 251. 

Dowling, Hobt. It.. 70, 

Drake, J., 252. 

Drake, 8., 231. 

Dreamland, 140. 

Dreamer, I, £53. 

Drew. Cnpt., 228. 

Drlaler, Prof,, 124. 

Duane, James, 8, 9, 101 p, 114, 

Duhcourt, filken, 252, 

Due. J. B., 231. 

Duncan, 8., 234. 

Dunham. J. ML 218. 
Dnnkly, J.. 225, 
DurnhiK, )>. K., 254. 
Durrell, W„ 22. 
Duryea. H., 230. 
Durvco, Ellz.. 22. 
Duryw, M., 239. 256. 
Duryce, Mias, 251. 
Dnainhury, Polly. 222, 
Duaseldort's Art Callery, 6Sp, 
Dnstan, P.. 21. 
Dutch Records, 9, 
Dutch Kef. Ch., Flat.nusli. 139. 
Dutch, S., 25ft 
Dutch West India Co., 217. 
Duyckinck. H„ 256, 
Dnycktne. D., 284. 
Dwicht. Ella.. 228. 
Dvckman House, 39p, 
Dyckmau, S. H„ 239. 


Eagle, H„ 253. 
Baffles, M.. 253. 
Barl. P., 234. 
Earnest. A.. 240. 
Eason, J., 248. 
Kay res, S„ 256. 
Bekforil, Henry, 52. 
Eddy, Thomas, 175. 
Edgar, Major, 232. 
Edgar, W„ 238. 
Edgar, William, 75. 

Education, Dept. of, 153. 
Edwards, J., 235. 
Edwards, Jonathan, 193. 
Edwin, J., 23B. 
Effingham, Earl of, 226. 
Egftii, I,., £04. 
Effljert, A., 247, 
Elections, Hoard of, KM. 
Electricity. Dept. of, 102. 
Elevator Innovation, 81. 
Elgin, Botanical Gardena, 91. 

Elliot, E., 238. 
Ellla. C, 229. 
Ellla, P., £52. 
Bllll, It., 254. 
Ellison, Miss, 242. 
Elmslle. Sally, 220. 
Klxworlh. 240. 
Klton, J., 243. 

Emanual Baptist Church, 112. 
Enibrie, L.,- 252, 
Soreraon, Half Waldo, 45, 193. 
Emmet, Thomas Addis, 200, 
Empire City, 7. 40. 41. 
English, N., 248. 
English Records, 9, 
Erasmus Hall High School, 84, 

Estimate and Apportionment, 

Board of, 140. 
Brening Post, 182, 183. 
Everett, Edward, 45. 

[434 J 

Breritt, II., 21i. 
Kyern, D„ 240. 
Kwart. Dr., 235. 
Exatninators, Hoard of, ICS. 

Pillow, 9.. 235. 
FnirchiM, S.. 23S. 
Falow. ll., 235. 
Fargay, J„ 237. 
Farley, Cardinal, 206. 
Farley, M„ 232. 
Farmer, Capt. G., 237. 
Farrajmt, David Glasgow. 103. 

FftrreD, J., 235. 

Fiirriiigtou, J„ 232. 

Faugcres, Dr. 1*.. 230. 

Ferris, June. 221. 

Ficket and Thorn. 02. 

Fields. The, 72, 77. 

Fifth Avenue, 132. 

Firth Avenue Hotel, AO, 

Fifth Avenue Pres. Church. 205. 

Fifth ATenne Residents, 1851 (list 

of names), 8S. 
Finance Dept., 150. 
Fin eh. Jane, 225, 
Fire Dept., 101. 
Fire of 1776, 74. 
Fir«r. City Hall, 2ft. 
First Directory (178fl), 11. 
First SI;vmt:i|„ts, Si. 

Kisiit-r. A ii in*, 
Fisher, B., 223. 
Fisher, H„ 244. 
Fisher, J,, 253. 
FIske, Dr, John, 211. 
Fltz Sim mona, M,, 251. 
Flannagan, O., 242. 
Fleetwood Tark, 210. 
Fleming, Geo., 22, 
Fleming, 3 y 223, 
FleuvelTti, J., 218. 
Flinn, li, D„ 248. 
Flower Hospital, 208. 
Foote, T., Ml. 
Ford. M„ 244, 217. 
Ford. S.. 79. 

Fordham University, 1B4. 

Forker, O.. 228. 

Format]. 244. 

Forrest, Hdwln, 00. 

Forrest — Miierendy ltiot, 11. 

Fort Amsterdam, 63. 

Fort Ann, 08. 

Fort tieorue. (IS. 

Fort Greene. 141. 

Fort James, 68. 

Fort Washington, I. 

Fort William Hendrick, GS. 

Fort William, 68. 

Foabrook, W„ 231. 

Foadlct, M., 243. 

Foster. B„ 210. 

Foster, W.. 227. 

Founder* (if the New Valentine's 
Manual, XXIII. 

Four Hundred— List of Names, 

Fowler, A., 237. 

Fowler. H., 239. 

Fowler, J„ 245. 

Fowler, S., 251. 

Foxenh, J„ 222. 

Foi, F.dwurd, II. 

Franeonl's Hippodrome, 00. 

Franklin, Anthony, 22. 

Franklin, Benjamin, 1D3. 199. 222. 

Franklin, H., 239. 

Franklin, m. p 234. 

Franklin, Mrs,, 21. 

Franklin, P., 210. 

Franklin, R.., 233. 

Franklin, Jr., T,, 236. 

Franks. Dnvid. 12, 11. 15. 

Frannccs' Tavern, 1S6. 

FraHlcr, A„ 227, 

Frazler, B., 254. 

Frcelon. A., 252. 

Free School Society, 81. 

Free School Subucrltwr* (list of 

names), S3. 
Freelon. J,. 250, 
Freick, J. C, 230. 
French Church, 116. 
French, T., 248. 
Frnhman, Charles, 203. 
Frost. B., 255. 
Frost, W., 255. 
Frost, Z., 232. 
Fulton, Robert, 103. 
Fulton Street, 120. 
Fatten Street Meetings, 172. 
Furdun, T., 227, 
Fnrman, G., 24B. 
Furman, Miss. 228, 
Furman, N., 225. 
Furman, S-, 231, 


Galnc, C 222. 
<;alnc, Hiisrli, 20. 
Gallic, S-, 232. 
Gale, A„ 234. 
Gale, M.. 240. 
Gale, S., 256. 

Gallery of I-nint lugs, 178. 
Galleten, A„ 238, 
fialloiv, C. 2*3. 
Galloway, C 255. 
Galloway, M., 290. 
Oardner, H,, 243. 
i r 1 1 s i'| 1 1 i , Inn ii|.,j><i JS, 
Garretson, F., 230., K„ 230. 
Gas. Dept., of, 162. 
Gates, Maj. Gen., 21. 
Geer, T., Capt., 244, 
Genet, E. CT, 244. 
Getiklns, J., 229. 
Geoghcgun, Owney, 111. 

George, H., 242. 
[ 435 ] 

German Hospital, 208. 
German, J., 227. 
Gerror, M., 288. 
Gerris, P.. 24fi. 
Gidnev, S„ 24!), 
Gidny, S.. 21. 
Gllhert, Capl. C, 237. 
Gilbert, G., 241. 
Gilbert. M., 240. 
Giles, lt„ 228. 
Gill, I., 266, 
Gllmore, 11., 229. 
Gilmore, E., 252, 
Glean, J.. 249. 
Goelot, Peter, 29, 
Goelet, Robert. 77. 
Goelet. K, K.. 254. 
Golden Hill. 72. 
Golding. J. N„ 79. 
Good Hope, The. 212. 
Gocdballet, H,, 245. 
Goodwin, O., 238. 
Goodwin, S„ 244. 
Gordon, N„ 244. 
Gc.rkill, J„ 260, 
Government House, 89, 
Govern cur. A., 250. 
Governeur, I., 250, 
Governors Island, 21T. 
Grace Church. 76. 198. 
Grace, M., 232. 
Oracie, Archibald, 2ft, 75. 
Graham, Andrew, 22. 
Graham, J., 248. 
Graham, Mies. 222. 
firand Union Hotel, 130. 
Grant, E., 230. 
Grant, L., 248. 

Grant. Ijlvssea Simpson, 193. 

Grant, W„ 225. 

Gray, Asa, 51. 

Gray, J„ 232. 

Gray. Mrs., 241. 

Great White Way, 82. 

Greeley Square, 1S3, 

Green, A., 238, 

Green, Marv, 227- 

(Jreer, J'., 233, 

Greenlenf T„ 22ii. 

Greenwich Til] ape, 1. 

Greenwood, 13!). 

Gremiell, Sally, 224. 

Grenoch, B,, 255. 

Grlrfen, P.. 228. 

Griffin, .T., 223. 

Griffiths, J., 229, 

Grise. H., 253. 

Grlmstrad. M.. 247. 

Guerlain, L. H., 251. 

Guest, S., 233. 

Onion, M., 252. 

Gnion, Carthy & Company, 29. 
Gurvln, P., 22!). 
Guthrie, J., 2S«. 


Hn<:ker. Mrs., 239. 
II-: 'T- J. P, 248, 

Haigh, J. Lloyd, 20. 
Haines, J., 245. 
Hale. Nathan, 48, 45, 
Halett, J.. 242. 
Hnll, D., UT. 
Hall. Edward H.. 02. 
Hall of Fame, ST. V. University. 

Hall. Dr. John, 205. 
nallam, L,, 28a. 
Hallett, J., 230. 
Hnllett, S. Mrs., 247. 
Hally, D., 227, 
Hslsey, N„ 224. 
Halsted, J. T.. 211. 
Halted, S„ 211. 
Halsted, 3. T.. 243. 
Ham, It. C. 241. 
Hjunai, W„ 23,1. 
iininiT. M., 'in, 

Hamilton, Ale*., 15, ]«, 30, 70, 113, 

182, 393, 198, 214. 
Hamilton It.. 226. 
nammol, Tlay, W., 225. 
Kaminersley, L., 228, 

11 tiniTnynd, Alnjah. h 
Hammond, Miss, 251. 
Hammond, M., 238. 
Hampden Hall, 71, 73. 
Hancock, John. 13. 
Hancock, J„ 237. 
Hand, N„ 244. 
Hancs, T., 227. 
Tlarberdlnc. John, 71. 
Uardenbrobk, John A., IS. 
Harding, 3. P., Cant., 241. 
Ilareiihel, P. J.. 249. 
Hargrave, R, 242. 
Barnard, Samuel, 52. 
Harper, A., 239. 
Harper, J., 231. 
Harriman, Mrs, E. H., 179. 
Harrington, J. P., 242, 
Harris, A., 243, 
llurriu, Pev, William, <5t. 
Harrison, Cnpt. C, 288. 
Harrison, H., Mrs., 213. 
Harrison, Pichard, 77, 
nnrsenvllle, 1. 
Iliirt, M„ LSJi, L>4«. 
Hart, S. De, 231. 
nartshorn, P., 229. 
nartshorne, W.. 249. 

swell. Cllfirlefi, 211, 
Hnswell. E.. 230. 
Hatfield, I., 237. 
Hatfield, J., 248, 
Hauxhnrst, N., 241. 
Havens, S_, 220. 
Hawkins. Mrs. P.. 233. 
Hawkins, J„ 235. 
Hawthorn, Nathaniel, 193. 
Hayrtoek, M., 238. 
Ilav, J., 242. 
Hays, TI., 19, 237, 
Health, Dept. of. 158. 
lleaviland, M„ 230. 


llcddcn, L„ 232. 
Hogamau, J„ 24!), 252. 
liegeman, P.. 210. 
LU-lser, M.. 251. 
UeuderKOii, Dr. It., 228. 
II end rick son, A., 245. 
Html rick son, G., 245. 
Hsury, H„ ID, 
Henry Hudson 1'lrlve, ITS. 
Henry, Joseph, 193. 
Henry Street School. 84. 
HtiiiKOU, 11., 222. 
Heimhaw, C., 234, 
Henshaw, 8., 237. 
Herald Office, 71. 
Heron, U., 243. 
Herrlinau, Martha, 223. 
Herrman, S.. 228. 
f I itI nil, C., 247. 
Hertel. T„ 232. 
Hervey. W., 252. 
Heyer, K„ 232, 233. 
II.' jit, i , 21 r. 
Beyer, W.. 247. 
Hewlett. Lewis, 233. 
Hewlett, P.. 252. 
Hewlett. Ph., 2ti2. 
Hicks, B. Dr., 242. 
Hicks, a., 248. 
Hick*, M„ 2.'i«. 
Hicks. O., 245. 
Hicks. S„ 231, 239. 
Hicks, T., 233, 240. 
Ilicka, W.. 228. 
Higglus, E„ 247. 
Higgins, S., 247. 

High Dutch Culvaulst Church, 116 

Hildrelh, M„ 254. 

Hildrith, S., 239. 

Hill, Mrs. C, 223, 

Hill. Harry. 112. 

Hill, J., 237, 

Hilllker, H.. 253. 

Hillikt-r, M„ 283. 

Hillis, Newel] ltwlgbt, 138. 

Hlne, J., 223. 

lllnton, A., 24<1. 

Hlnloti, S. f 248. 

History of Harlem (Hiker), 139. 

Hispanic Society of America, 194, 

Hlteheoek, E., 255. 

Hitchcock, J., 233. 

Hitchcock. M., 223, 

Ultt, Mrs. '■! . 225. 

Hntinrt, Rev. John II., 61. 

Hubert, C. r 244, 

Hobson, J., 247. 

Hoffman, Joseph Ogdcn, 7G. 

Hoffman, if. G„ 227T 

Hofl'nmn, Nicholas, and son. 20. 

Holland, Oorge, 20fl. 

Holly, H., 240. 

Holmes, ».. 233. 

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 4.'. 19.1 

Hono, Major, 115. 

Honeywell. B. A.. 249. 

Hooglnnd, K., 235. 

Hoops, J., 249. 

Hopkins, E., 25fl. 
Hopkins, Mark, 193. 
Hopper. J„ 23«. 
Hopper, It., 241, 
Hopaon. Sarah, 225. 
Hopson, Maria, 222, 
Horn, Margaret. B9. 
Hornbluiver, W„ 22S. 
Home, J., 243. 
Horsefleld, Israel, 217. 
Hogack, Dr. David, 01, 91. 
HoBpitilH, 1.50, m 
Houtlon, Statue of Washington, 

Houghton, Itev. Geo. O., 200. 
Houseman, P.. 251. 
Houaimiu, J., 234. 
Howard, C., Mrs.. 243, 
Howard. Dr. John, 228. 
Howe. XI las, 193. 
Howe, Jamea It., 57. 
Howe, Julia Ward, 92, 
Howe, Lord. 199. 
Howell, F„ 228, 
Howell, J., 284. 

Hoyt. M„ 228. 

Huck. 254. 

Hudson, J., 235. 

Hulet, MrB. C. 255. 

Unlet. J.. 233. 

II ii lick. D., 228. 

Hulshart, W, 256. 

Humphrcyx, P., 254. 

Humph rim. W„ 232. 

Iliiu, Abraham, 38. 

Hunt, I., 217. 

Hunt, Mfb,, 234, 

Hunt, P., 235. 

Hunt, Thomas, 223. 

Hunter College, 154. 

Hunter, P., 237. 

Huntington, Archer Milton, 02. 

Huntington, Dr.. lira. 

Huntington. S.. 253. 

Hum, II., 250. 

Murtju. S. M„ 237. 

Hutchenou, A., 254. 

Hutchrson, Widow, 294. 

Hutehings, W„ 242. 

HutehiiiH, D„ 240, 

Hutching, J. It. t 229, 

HutcliiriB, It, 247. 

Hyde, John 10. U., 130. 

Hyde, P., 238. 

llycr, IV, 2.-.I. 
Hyer. W. W., 243. 

Inebriety, Hoard of, 101. 
Ingeruoll, Col., 130. 
Ingraham, S,, 233. 
InkeeP mid ISrudford., 184, 
Inwood, 1. 

Irving, Washington, 182, 193. 42. 
Irving, Washington, and Frlunda, 

[437 j 

trying, W.. Jr., 233. 
Itlaild, L„ 2-tn. 

Jackson, Andrew, l[i3. 
Jackson, P., 2.17. 
Jackson, 11. , 242. 
Jacohs, Capt., 239. 

Jisr;iltiH, V., 248. 

Jacobus, B-, 255. 
Janeway, Geo., 7. 
Jarolomen, P., 241. 
Jarvis, L., 22$. 
Jarvis, P.. 238. 
Jarvis, S., 231. 
JauiiCey, Miss, 224. 
Jauney. S.. 251. 
Jausen, M., 220. 
Jay, Aane, 225. 
Jay, ,:n ■! i. ■. 69. 
Jay, Frederick, 30. 
Jay, Governor, 76. 
Jay, John, 13. 
J:n. Margaret, 225. 
J ( .fr, M. A.. 21. 
Jefferson, I., 240. 
Jefferson, Joseph, 208. 
Jefferson, Tttoinfl.i. 103. 
Jerome Park, 210. 
Jersey, the, 212. 
Jessop. J., 240. 
Jewenson, ('•.. 252. 
Johnson. C, 22.1, 251. 
Johnson, II., 248. 
Johnson, J-, 231. 
Julmstiiii, John, 12. 
Johnston, Nelly, 223, 22B. 
Johnson, P., 247, 
Johnston, S„ 231, 238. 
Johnson, T.. 224, 2441. 
Jones, and Newman, print sellers, 

Jones, V?., 22.1 
Journeay, M„ 228. 
Jowett, Dr. J. H., 205, 
Joy, G., 21. 
Joy, Prof., 124. 
Johnston, C, V , 241. 
Johnston, J., .£35. 
Johnston, M.. Mrs., 21'-. 
Johnston, Kobt.., 235. 
Jndnh, 8., 243. 
Jumel Mansion, ISO. 


Kane, ,T., 23fi. 

Krfin, iVIiiirl.s, 201. 

Keating. J., 223. 

Kean, Kilinmul, 201. 

Keen, A., 238. 

Kecse, 248. 

Kelser, J„ 24fl. 

Kelby, Robert Hendre. 82. 

Kelly, Elia., 224. 

Kemmsna, Mrs., 2, r >2, 
Ki-iiifi, l>r, John. fli. 
Kennedy, E., 253. 
Kennedy, Henry, 31. 
Kennedy, John 8., 102. 
Kennedy, Miss, 231>, 
Kent, James, 103. 
Ketch inn, Capt,, 228. 
Ketchuin, J. L, 2.11. 
Keteltas, Peter, 230. 
Ketletas, Peter, 230. 
Keyser, E., 23(1. 
Kiersted, J,. 250. 
Kips Bav, 2. 
Kip, E„ 355. 
Kip, El, M., 237. 
Kip, I. L, 227. 
Kip, Leonard, £S. 
Kings College, 121. 
King, Mrs. KdwnrJ, WO. 
King, Q„ 233. 
Kinj;, Henry, 75, 
King. Jane, 227, 
Kins. K., 234, 
King. Mrs. N., 240. 
King, llnrus. 81, 77. 
King. W.. 235. 
Kingsbridgf, 1, 104. 
KingMand, I.'. , 238. 
Klngslnnd, M., 22K. 
Kir by, S., 255. 
Kirk, O., 228. 
Kissam, T., 234. 
Kissick, Philip, 223. 
Knap, E. K„ 263. 
Knickerbocker, Diedrlek, 183. 
Knox, Gen., 108. 
Knox, Henry, 13. 
Koch, Peter, 80. 
Kohlevagcn, J., 251, 
Kollru-k, a., 1,1, lib. 
-Kortwnglil, .7., 235, 
KrK-ger, Martin, 0'J. 
Kuuibel, E.. 220. 
Knmble, M., 237. 
Knnae, Rev, John C, fil. 

I/aekey, Mrs., 220. 
Lnfayette, Marquis do, 7, 9. 
Luke, A., 243. 
I.iirnl), A., 244. 
Ijaneaster, V., 245. 
Tiane, 8., 23fl, 
I.auR, \V., 253, 
Langdon, A., 258. 
l,:i|ili:<ni. A. HL Capt., 244. 
Ijirkln, JL 242. 
Laroas. J„ 231, 
Lasher. C. 231. 
Latham, S.. 241. 
LaTouehe, 243. 
Lulling Observatory, 140, 
Law Department, 104. 
bawnace, A., 234 , 237, 24H. 


Lawrence., H., 222. 
Lawrence, Capt, Jatnea, 198. 
Law renee, .lane, 224. 
Lawrence, Joliii. 75, 70. 
Lawrence, Lydla, 22. 
Lawrence, M., 235, 237. 
Lawrence, Mrs., 223. 
Lawrence, T., 228. 
Layhatt, CL Rev., 217. 
Lazarus, P., 239. 
Leaycraft. H„ Mrs., 244. 
Leaycraft. Mr*. K„ 250, 
Liar, Tobias. ---2, 250. 
Ledyord, W.. 201, 
Lfea, Arthur. IS. 
Lee, J., 247. 
Lee, Kobert E., 133. 
Leek, S., ESS. 
Ltfferta, A., 235. 
Le Tort, J.. 237. 
Leggctt, E., 23B. 
Leland, 3.. 251. 
Lenox, Janiea, 05. 
Lenox Library, 06. 
Lenox, Robt, 12, 26, 211. 
Leonard, Miss A., 242. 
Leonard, Betsey, 223. 

Lcltuv, lIiTlnau, 7<t. 

Le liny, J„ 221!, 233. 

Le llov, H,, 240. 

Letts, Mi-a. Ann. 223. 

Lewis, E., 230. 

Lewi#, J-, 25)1. 

Lewis, 1!., 217. 2 in. 

I i « is, 8. U., Cupt.. 240. 

Liberty Hoys, 73. 

Libraries, Public, 154. 

Licensee, Department of, 1G0. 

Lincoln, Abraham, 170, I'M. 

Lincoln, C, 24& 

Linn, 10., 21V 

Linn, Rev. W., 250. 

Lions, Ann, 228, 

I,is[ie[jard, Hi'li'ii, 231. 

LlCpemrtL Leonard, 180, 223. 

Litchfield, K.. 253. 

Literary Men of New Tort. 185. 

Little Church Around the Corner, 

206, 193. 
I.iinwsiy, I.. 22-;. 
Livingston. IJrockholst, 75. 
Livingston. C., 236, 237, 256. 
Livingston, Hdw:ml, 7,. 
Livingston, Geo, William, 222. 
Livingston, H. <!., 225. 
Livingston, II. A., 256. 
Livingston, P. W., 238. 
Livingston, P.. 254. 
Livingston, Philip II., 38, 75, 
Livingston, It, O., 22. 
Livingston. It. H., 227. 
Livingston, It. C, 243. 
Livingston, Walter, 13. 
Lock wood, C, 242. 
London, John, 22, 
London, J„ 242. 
Long. Polly, 222. 
Longfellow, Henry Wndsworth, 

Lord, W„ 245, 

Lott, Abm. P., 7, 

Loudon, £>., Jr., 251. 

Low Dnlcli Unlviiilst Church, llfi. 

Low, M., 2o5. 

Low, Id., 230. 

Low, Mr;-.. 249. 

Low, Nicholas, 30, 70. 

Low, Seth, 121. 

Low, W.. 230. 

Low, William, 20, 

Lowe, W., 250, 

Lowell, James Russell, 103. 

Lowree, Thomas, 222. 

Lowcrrle, J., 239. 

Loworre, /., 242. 

Lowry, M.. 232. 

Lowther, Miss, 22. 

Ludlow, C, 224. 

Ludlow, Daniel, 76. 

Ludlow. (.!.. 231. 

Luna Park, 140. 

Lunagan, E., 227. 

Lusltania, 203. 

Lydlg, David, IS, 237. 

Lying-in Hospital, 206. 

Lynch, Domlnlcls, 76. 

Lynch, t\, 225. 

Lynde, C, 237. 

Lyon, Mary, 1U3. 

ITCartr, C. 240. 

McCuinb, Alexander, 75. 
McCready, J.. 224. 
M'Curtln, M., 242. 
MeDamitt, H., 22. 
McDavitt, P., 232. 
M/Doie, E., 243, 
McDonald, J3„ 248. 
Mi J nm.-i Ii., 254. 
McDonald, v.. 231. 
McKueu. Catherine, 223. 
M'Eucn, T., 242. 
M l'nll, D., 242. 
McCjlory, Hilly, 111. 
McQowftn, 234. 
McGurks, 111, 
McKay, Mrs., 235. 
McKen7.ii-, Hugh, 222. 
M'Kcnzie. M., 241. 
McKnlght Dr. C, 225, 
MeKni'ght/Mlss. 252. 
McLaren, J., 235. 
M'Lean, C, 240. 
McLeod, M., 233, 
McMenuomy, It., 228. 
MeMunngill, J,. 235. 
McNeal, P., 235. 
McPheraon, J., 230. 
McReady, A., 224. 
McKeady. N„ 230. 
Maekarei. J.. Jr., 238. 
Mackay, C, 252. 
MacJtay, J., 252. 


Mackaj, T.. 230. 
Maekey, Mr., 224. 
Mucomh, A., 224. 
MaeDoiiald, A., 238. 
MaeNlven, I>r. William J„ 200. 
Macomb's Dnm, 1T6. 
Hodden, M„ 247. 
Madison, Jiimos, 103. 
Madison Nq. Pres. Ch., 202. 
Maghec, A,, 247, 
Maghee, S., 23o. 
Maglene, H.. 228. 
Mahauy, M., 245. 
Mnlcom, Miss, 22. 
Malcolm, Win., 225. 
Man. W., 240. 

Manhattan Reach KHtntes, 140. 

Manhattan HridBC 105. 

Mauhiittanville, 1. 

Manhattes, 217. 

Manloy, W., 254. 

Mann, Horace, 193. 

Man, J., 246. 

Mann, Mrs., 255. 

Manning, J., 250. 

Manning, it. 231, 

Manning, Dr, W. T„ lflfl, 

Marb I.' Colleitate Itef. Oh., 203. 

Marble Hill, 104. 

mark, 8.. 233. 

Marks, K„ 248. 

Marie?, J., 247. 

Marlins. M., 249. 

Marriage Notices. 1780-1795, IS to 

22 and 222 to 256. 
Marseli™, M,, 247. 
Marsh, 3-, 245. 
Marshal. 1'., 2.15, 
Marshall, John, 193. 
Marshall, M , 2S7. 
Maraton, Miss, 22. 
Marston, P., 241. 
Martin, Joseph, 52. 
Mason. Rev. John, 228. 235. 
Mason, Rev. John M., 61. 
Masonic Temple. Brooklyn, 142. 
Massauieau, P., 23U, 
Matlaek. M., 228. 
Maverick, Peter, «5, 79. 
Maxwell, Cnpt. A,, 230. 
Maiwoll, W„ 226, 
Mayor, lhe», 148. 
Mead. H. M 1).. 241. 
Mead. W., 244. 
Mechanical Panorama. 178. 
Mechanics' Hotel, 174, 
Meeker, P., 242. 
Meeks, E., 233, £45. 
Meganolsnsin, John, (10, 113. 
Megarey, Henry I,, 79, 
MelUrom, J., S20. R,, 23". 
Mellea. D.. 244. 
Melvln, M.. 230. 
Memiea, ML 245, 247. 
Merclcr, John Dler, 13, 
Mei-Chanls' KxcliniiEO. 10p. 
Merchants' Hotel, 174. 

Merck Icr, Mrs. I!., 227. 
Merrlam, Prof., 125. 
Mesier, S. B., 248. 
Mesier, P., 225. 
Mesier, 1 A.. U 
Mesier, M., 237. 
Metropolitan Hotel. OSp. 
Metropolitan MiiHeiun of Art, 101, 

Meyers, A., 220. 
Michaels, P., 231. 
Miches u, K„ 224, 

Middugh, M., 225. 
Middle Dutch Church, 203. 
Mlldenberger, C, 247. 
Mlldeherger, Christopher, H!). 
Mildeherger. John, UL 
Milledoler, Kev. P., 200. 
Miller, B., 243. 
Miller, K., 232. 
Miller, J. D„ IS. 
Mil I-t, J. V., 234. 
Miller, Mrs. It., 239. 
Miller, Kev. Samuel, 61. 
Miller, T., 246. 
Mlllignn, James, 13. 
Mills, P., 24!). 
Mills, MiKB, 214. 
Milne, K„ 234. 
Miner, Cant S., 225. 
Miniville, Major, 74. 
Mlnthorn, P.. 230. 
Mlnturn, B. O.. 241. 
Minuse. Geo.. 13. 
Mitchell, Donald G„ 45. 
Mitchell, Mr., 238. 
Mitchell. H., 240, 
Mitchell, J.. 248. 
Mitchell, Marin. 103. 
Moffat, B.. 229. 
Monroort. M.. 254. 
Monroe, James. 28p. 
Montagnie, J. dels, 22.1. 
Montague, A., 25fi. 
Montague, K„ 231. 
Monianyea, It., 235. 
Montgomery Monument, 199, 
Moore, C, 229. 
Moore, Mrs., Dr., 260. 
Moore, P., 236. 
Moore, George It,. "<S. 
Moore, Isaac, 22, 
Moore, J„ 241. 

Moan... M., 231. 254. 
Morgan, D., 241. 
Morgan, J. I.. 255, 
Morgan, J., 251. 
Morgan, James, and son, fi2. 
Morgan, J. Plcrpont., dip, IDS 

Morris, J., 2r, f. 
Morris Park. 216. 
Morris, Peter Jay. 76. 
Morris, Robert, 211. 
Morris, 3., 230, 
Morrison, J., 249. 
Morse, S. F. R., 45, 193. 
Morton, J., 224. 

1440], Levi T.. 185. 
Molt, M., 237. 
Molt, II., 235. 
Mot*, W. 1,., £55. 
Mott. 1: .. 248. 

H«W", John Liithrop, 1S3. 

Mott, J., 230. 

Mott. J. Capt,. 247. 

Mott. J. a.. 216. 

Mott, M.. 215. 

Mount, H., 2.12. 

Mi. Sinai Hoapltal. 208. 

Moving PlehireH, 220. 

Mowntt, A., 251. 

Mowatt, J., 243. 

Mowatt, .T., Jr.. ££T- 

Muilae, J„ 235. 

Mudttc, S., -'17, 
Munichan, C. 254. 
Municipal Civil Service., irs.. 
Mnnlford. «. ij„ 238. 
Murk, H. 253. 
Murphy, Henry C, 143, 
Murphj, H., 248. 
Murray HLII lli'servclr, li.ui. 
Murray, J., 244, S&4, 
Murray, John, Jr., 61. 
Myer, £„ 232. 
Myers, K., 237. 
My era, Mis a. 230, 
Myers, S.. 243. 


Nalrnc, Prof., 125. 

Names of Subscribers, Free 

School Society, 18*5, 84. 
Narine, N„ 238. 
National Guard. 168. 
National Library of France, 100. 
Naval Militia. ll». 
Naval Panorama, 178. 
Needhain. W., 251. 
Ncely, B. A., 232. 
Ni'lll, S„ 249. 
Nesbit, 15., 245. 
Nesbit, Ells,, 229. 
Neshlt, S., 234, 
Nesbit, Dr. 8., 220. 
Newcomb, T.. 241. 
Newman. S.. 22R. 
Newmana, Mrs., 241. 
New Orange, 68. 

New York Botanical Society, 157. 
New York Club. 81p. 
New Tort Gen. & Biog, Society, 

New York Free Circulating Li- 
brary, 102. 
New l'ork Historical Society, 61, 
«2, 220. 

New York Hospital, 208, 2M)p. 
New Vurk Public. Library. 100. 
New York University, 1112, 184. 
New York Zoological Society, 157, 
NicholH, K„ 252. 
Nicoll. Francis, «2. 

Nichols, M.. 23B. 
Nichols, W., 222. 
Nicholson. Fanny, 2?2, 
Nicholson, Miss. 238. 
Nicholson, S., 250. 
Nietsnn, S„ 03!). 
Nlshitt, W.. 243. 
Nixon, Mrs., 235. 
Noble, S.. 233. 
Noewood. A., 223. 
Nooten Island, 217. 
Norrie, Adam, 216. 
North, Capt. B., 227. 
North Beach, 141. 
North Dutch <:ij ii-ch, 202. 
North, IV, 242. 
Norl.hclliT, Lord, 210. 
Norton, J., 251. 
Norwood. S., 239. 
Nostrand, D., 251, 
Nott, W. I., 243. 
N our fie, Jos., 13. 
Nutten Island, 217. 
Nutter, Ann, 22S. 

Oakley. D.. 216. 
OBlemls, A.. 204. 
O'Brlan, Capt., 227. 
O'Brlan, Capt. J., 237. 
O'Brjau, E., 237. 
Observatory Place, 114. 
O'Caufy, S., 241. 
Ocean Parkway, 140, 141. 
O Connor, Capt. J.. 341, 
Odsll. 3.. 227. 
Osden. B.. 236. 
dBilcii. Mrs. M . 223, 248. 
Ogdcii, T., 254. 
Ogden, W., 245. 
Otfilvle, A., 224. 
Otfilvle, Capt. S„ 244. 
Ogilvle, Mrs, K., 253. 
Ogsbury, A., 229. 
Old New YoTk Prints, 78. 
tilde, J., 24S. 
OmliTtlnrik, C-, 252. 
Onderdonk, G,. 253. 
Onderdonk. II., 24S. 
liailerdonk, L-., 234. 
Onderdonk, M., 234. 
O'Neil. J., 232. 
Oriental Hotel, 140, 
Osboni. B. W., 236, 
Oaborn. W., 238. 
Osgood, Samuel, 13. 21- 
Ostrander, Rev, Mr., 258. 
Otlft, Abigail, 22. 
Mvcriiifr. H.. £50. 
Owney, Gcoglicffarj, 111. 

Page. John. 22. 
IMggauck, 217. 


Palmer. Cnpt. J., 245. 
Palmer, E., 242. 
Palmer, H., 249. 
rareellH, T., Jr., 250. 
Paresis Hall, 111, 

Purc-y, li., 2V1. 
Parish, Ann. 227. 
rnrk Theater, 11. 
Parker, K„ 235. 
Parker, Hannah, 225. 
rarker, J. 13., 254. 
Parker, M., 230. 
Parker, 8., Ivz. 
Farkhurst, Dr.. 202. 
Farkman, Francis, 193. 
Parks, 157. 

Parks, Dr. Leigh I on, 294, 
ParsAlls, W., 231. 
Patchen, It., 220, 
Patterson, J., 233, 
Paul, N., 2S2. 
Paulding, J., 233, 
Paulso, C., 240. 
Paulus nook, 116. 
Pax ton, A,, 255, 
Payne, P., 243. 
Paine. John Howard, 45, 
Payne, &„ 233. 
Pi'nhody, George, 103, 
Pierce Mrs, EL, 230, 
IVorJ Kl.n'i'L, 128. 
P. I, r sail. K„ 233, 
Pearsall, P., 23S. 
Pearsall, Thomas, 34. 
Pearson, 0.. 254. 
Peek, J„ 249. 
Peck, It, 240. 
Peck, Prof., 124. 
Peck, S., 254. 
Peffer, D., 223. 
Peltrenu, J., 250. 
Pemberton, llolrt., 15. 
Pendleton, Nath., IS. 
Penler, J,, 243. 
Pennel, John, 14. 
Penny, A., 240. 
Pcnprost, Mrs,, 249. 
Fcpperell, Sir William, 218. 
Perrlne, Mrs. C, 242. 
Person, Phoebe, 225. 
Peters, E., 238. 
Peters, J„ 247. 
Fevee. C. 225. 

Philanthropic Activities, 209. 
Philips, EL, 235. 
Phillips, I... 20. 227. 
PideettM, L„ 227. 
Pieces of Eight, 50. 
Pierce, John, 14. 
Pierce, Jane, 231. 
Pierson, Joseph, 34. 
Pierson. B., 233. 
Plerrepont, John Jay, llOp. 
Pike. J, H„ 230. 
Pilinore Rev. J„ 245. 
Pinchbeck. G. A. C. A., 2T>2. 
Pint nnl, John, 81, 175. 
Pitt, William, 214. 

Place, P. II.. 224. 

Plate, S., 237. 

Plat, C 236. 

Piatt, li, 228. 

Piatt, M„ 234. 

Players, The. 206. 

Plumbers, l!x. Board of, 10B. 

Plymouth Church, 138. 

Poc, Edcur Allan. 103, 215p. 

Poe Park, lRfl. 

Police Department, 180. 

Pollick, A.. 258. 

Pollock, C. 230. 

Pollock, H., 247. 

Pope, H„ 235. 

Porter, C, 230. 

Tost. D.. 237. 

Post, D.. 251. 

Post, J., 230. 

Post, M., 241. 

Post, Dr. W., 222. 

Potter, Ulsbop Henry C. 195, UK). 

Powell, S„ 237. 

Bowles, 1.., 247. 

Pratt, Herbert Leo, 77. 

Pratt Institute, 142. 

Pray, J., 226, 233. 

Precre, Marquis, 237. 

Prentiss, J.. 238. 

Prentice, P.. 229. 

Presbyterian Hospital, 207. 

Presidential Mansion, 187. 

Price, It., 231. 

Prince, W.. Jr., 243. 

Prince of Wales, 249. 

Princess Caroline, 249. 

Prison Ship Martyrs Mon., 142, 

Prison fillips, WfillaliOUt. 211, 

Provost, Bishop, I'M, 

ProvOOst, C. 2^lo. 

Frovoost, Cnpt. Jon., 229. 

Provost. JL, 228. 

Public Charities. Dept. or, 159. 

Public Employment Bu., 188. 

Public Mnrkel ■. PR. 

Public Service Coin., 163, 

Purchasing Committee, 107. 

Purdy, S., 250. 

Putnam, Major Gen., 222. 

Pyae, Percy, 2nd, 77, 

Quaekeahos, C., 2.10. 
QuackeubGt, J.. 227. 
Uuackenbos. M., 242. 
tjuccn of All SiUolN Church, 

Brooklyn, 142. 
Queensbiiro Bridge, 105. 

Rao, Miss, 253. 
Kamage, W., 236. 
ltntnsay, li., 24."), 


Ranton, C. 233. 
Randal, J„ 243. 
Randall, J., 23(1. 
Randall, H.. 240. 
Kaniliker, J., 253. 
Raney. J., 252. 
Rapaije, A., 238. 
Hapatye. c. 253. 
Rapeliie, S., 233, 
Rapilje, J., 233. 

ii»iip, i:., 'm. 

Ration. Rev. Ji.. 224. 
Rattonc. JI,, 238. 
Read, C. 216. 
Redmond, P. 248. 
Reed, Jane, £26. 
Reed, M., 248. 

Regents of the University of N. 

Y., 219. 
Regnaw, O,, 248. 
Rehfiu, Aila, 208. 
Reld. JObn. 220. 
Remsen. Ann, 227. 
Remsen. Cornelia, 222, 
Remsen. Henry, 13. 
Remson, Jerome, 218. 
Repalje, P., 228. 
Replica of Old City Hall, 214. 
Reservoir, 42nd St., DO, 127, 132. 
Rustless, The, 68. 
Revo ugh, Mrs., 254. 
Reynolds, Capt. J,, 253. 
Rhinelandcr, P., 238. 
Rhodes, W-, 224. 
Rico, Betsey, 225. 
Rleh. II., 251. 
Rich. T., 255. 
Richardson, A., 242. 

Richardson, M., 226. 

Ilichey, J., 224. 

kkhey, M„ 231. 

Richmond Hilt, 16, 

Rldabaels, C, 254. 

Rldman, M., 236. 

Rlersoii. G., 220. 

Rlker, G., 247. 

ttlker, Mrs., m. 

Rlker, J„ 237. 

RimingtOn, W.. 255. 

Iilsae, Louis A., 215. 

Rives, Geo. It, !)3. 

Rives, Mrs. Sara Whiting, IMS. 

Rivinfiton, Mrs. E., 250. 

Roach, J., 243. 

Roberts, Grace, 220. 

Roberta, R., 224. 

Robertson, A.. 215. 

Uobbins, V... 228. 

Robins, R„ 230, 

Robinson, 1-3,, 253. 

Rockefeller's! Church, 204. 

Rockefeller Foundation, 210. 

Rodett, C, 237. 

Rodgers. B., 250. 

Rodgers, II,, 231). 

Rodger*, sc., 241. 

Rodman, Catherine, 220. 

Rodman, C, 22T. 

Itodmnn, D„ 241. 
Rodney, Admiral, 212. 
Roe, Catherine. 223. 
Hoe, Eliz., 223. 
Hoelautsen, Adam, B4. 
Rogers, C, P., 232, 
Etoci-rs, I:.. 22ii. 
Rogers, Mrs. S„ 237. 
Rogers, S.. 232. 
Rood, Prof., 125. 
Hoof Garden, 117. 
Rook, It nib. 223. 
Roosevelt, Cornelius, 77. 
Roosevelt, Corn. C, 7. 
Roosevelt, E., 245. 
Roosevelt Estate, 108. 
Roosevelt Hospital, 208. 
Roosevelt, I„ 243. 
Roosevelt, Isaac, 23, 34. 
Roosevelt, J., 240. 
Roosevelt, J. C„ 232. 
Roosevelt, J. J., 231. 
Roosevelt. S., 241. 
Root, Mr.. 242. 
Rorabacb, Sophia, 224. 
Rose, Mnrla, 225. 
Hoss, A., 252. 
Ross, R., 253. 
Boas, T-, 228. 
Rosseter, Capt, E., 249. 
Rote, Mary, 2ij, 
Rouss, Charles Broadway, 57. 
Howe, Hi 245. 
Rowland, Capt. J., 228. 
Royse, J., 232. 
Rueker t Mrs., 224. 
Rudolph. Mrs. i.'„ 25.!. 
Russef, H„ 236, 
ltusseil, H., 242. 
Russel, J., 234. 

Russell Sage Foundation, 210. 
Rutgers, Anthony, 222. 
Rutgers, Col„ 53, 
Rutgers, G., 248. 
Rutgers, II. <;., LTiU, 
RutgerB, N, G„ 265. 
Rutherford, Walter. 77. 
Uycktnnn, A.. 231. 
Ryer, K., 233. 
Ryer, P.. 241. 
Ryerso, M., 231. 


Backet, E., 253. 
Sackctt. A.. 247. 
Baciett, 9., 23a 
Salement, G., 232. 
Ballonstall, Capt. G.. 250. 
Saltonstall, T. B., 250. 
Baiter, Elil., 228, 
Sample, Ann, 225. 
Sands, B., 231. 
Sam!*, Jeslina. 31, 
Sandys, E., 251. 
Hatterthw&lte, T, TV., 255. 
Saycr. N„ 247. 


St. Ambrose's Chapel, 100. 

St. AnftnriiiH Chapel, 106. 

St- Bartholomew's Chnrch, 204. 

St, Coiumba'a Chape], 196. 

St. OeorBe'n Cunreh, 177, 182. 

St. Hilalre, F. de, 251. 

Kt. James' Chapel, 19G. 

St. James' Church. Brooklyn. 11-. 

St. Johit'H Church, 201. 

St. lake's Hospital, am, 21B. 

St. Mark's Church, 202. 

St. Martin of Tours' Chapel, 106. 

St. Patrick's Cathedral, 205, 207p. 

St. Paul lllJu., 71. 

St. Paul's Church, 167. 

St. Peter's Church. 201. 

St. Saviour's Chapel, lBti. 

St. Thomas's Church, 208. 

St. Vincent's Hospital, 207. 210. 

Sehnckerlv, J. II., 229. 

ScheJI, Francis Robert, 62. 

Bcheiick, Alice. 22. 

Sthenck. C, 234. 

Schenek, Marin, -2. 

Schenk, T„ Jr., 245. 

Schetzel, J., 251. 

Schleflelln, Jacob. 28. 

Schmidt, Prof., 124. 

Schniclzel, P., 232. 

Schoolmasters' Club, SI. 

Schoonmakcr, J., 253. 

Schoonmakcr, M_, 255, 

Sehurman, J., 232, 

Sehnvler, Mrs., L'40. 

Schuyler, Philip. 15, 

Schuyler, P., 247. 

Scirtmore, Klir.., 226. 

Scldmortj, Polly, 220. 

Setilroore, N„ 226. 

Bellman. J., 240. 

Scoles, J., 251. 

Scott. J., 234. 

Scott, M., 253, 

Serlba, Goo., 75. 

Senilder, Miss. 2&S. 

Sealy, J., 227, 

Seaman, P.,, 331. 

Seaman, C. £35. £38. 

Seaman. P., 23». 

Seaman. K.. 2SO. 

Seaman. T., 237. 

Seaman, W., 227. 

Sen mens' Institute 203. 

Senrs, Rebfeca., 222. 

Searae. J„ 231. 

Sehra, Mrs., 250. 

Scoring, A., 230. 

Soaring, C, 235. 

Sell, J„ 245, 

Seuey. Hon. J„ 222. 

Serron. P.. £31. 

Servlec, T., 253, 

Baton. A. M., 230. 

Seton. J., 227. 

Seton, Miss, 223. 

Seton, W. ML 230. 

Shafer, C, 235. 

BhiKkerly, M.. 242. 

Sharp. C, 220. 

Shnituck. Capt. J., 227. 

Bhatzel. M., 220. 

Shaw, 13.. 227. 

Shaw, J, 225. 

Shaw, M,. 2.15. 

Shaw, Sally, 222. 

Sherman, M.. 248. 

Sherman, William Tfcuniseh. 103. 

Sherwood, D., 232. 

SlienvouJ, M., 214. 

Shover, K., 231. 

Shipnmn, E., 246, 

Shirku, E., 230. 

Shong. C, 234. 

Short. Prof.. 121. 

8 h rally. Henry M., 57. 

Sickles, H„ 235. 

Slemon. S. r 250. 

Siceers, M,. 227. 

Sill, M„ 23S). 

Sllvn. J. R., 216. 

Sliniuoua, Mrs., 224. 

Slmmermaii. Mrs., 210, 

Suum Ingtoa, J„ 243. 

Simmons Tavern, 101. 

Simons, D„ 251. 

Sinking Kuud, 150. 

Sktiuts, B., 240. 

Skinner, A., 251. 

Slater, Chrlstlanta. 22. 

S Udell, J., Jr., 241, 

Kloam- Hospital, 20ft. 

Slunne, William Mllllgan, (12. 

Si oo, H.. 227. 

Sly, Cal liiTii.e. 114. 

Smith, A. H., 104, 

Sin ill:, 15.. 2,Vi, 

Smith, Belinda, 223. 

Smith, K„ 232, 23(1. 

Smith, C, 242. 

Smith, C. L., 244. 

Smith, Mrx. Deborah, 226. 

Smith. (1., 2M. 

Smith. J„ 243, £45, 252, 254. 

Smith. Capt. J., in. 

Smart. Col. J., 23(1. 

Smith. Hannah. 221. 

Smith, M., 221), 230, 237, 245. 

Smith, Mrs,, 231. 

Smith, P., Mrs., J43. 

Smith. MIse, 246. 

Smith, P., 243. 

Smith, H., 244. 

Smith, S. p 237, 247. 

Smith, T_, 22rt, 242. 

Smith, T. K.. 241. 

Smith. Wm, 224. 

Smith, Winifred, £27. 

Smith, William Peartrce, 74. 

Smith, W. P., 254. 

Smith and Dimon, 52. 

Smity, Francis, 3H. 

Smyth, A.. 230. 

Snedden ami Lawrence. 52. 

Snifteu, I.. 251. 

Snow, J„ £44. 

Snyder, Mrs. M., 252. 


Snyder, 252. 
Social Centers, ill, 14.1, 
Society o( OUT New Yorkers. 214. 
Soldiers' and Sailors* Monument, 

Solomons, R., 243. 
Somers, E. C, 234. 
Sona of Liberty, 72, 186. 
Soper, Esther, 22tf. 
Sothern. E. A.. 201. 
Bowers. Ann, 224. 
Spanish Mill d Dollar, SO. 
Spanish Ml a Inter, 35. 
Specialty Shops, 133. 
Splngler Karm, KS. 
Splngler, Dr., Institute, 203. 
Spring Garden, 71. 
Bproac, David, 211, 

Spityti'ii Duyvil, 11)3. 

Staey, G„ 240. 
Stugg. 1 , 246. 
Staiibury. D.. 251. 
Stanslmrv. L. P., 248. 
Stanton, Ell:.. 224. 
Staples. Maria, 22. 
Steamship Mow, 09, 
Steliblns, D„ 238. 
Stead If ord, Peter. 38. 
Steele, C, 256. 
Steeple, E., 252. 

Steers, James It., and George, 52. 
Steers, John Thomas and Henry, 

Steal***, a., 252. 

Stenger, K„ 205. 
• Stephenson & Co., W. T,, print 
sellers, 70. 
Stevens, Henry, 90. 
Stevens, Hester, 22. 
Stevens ITouse, 89. 
Stevens, John C„ owner of Yaeht 

"A nit L ric:i," 
Stevens, Mrs.. 230. 
Stevens, Paran, 00. 
Stevenson, nay. 222. 
Stevenson. Mrs, IT., 250. 
Steuben, Earon, 114. 
Steuben, Baron, de. 15. 
Stewart, A. T., 81, 133, 202. 
Stewart, Miss, £25. 
Stewart, M, A.. 236. 
Stewart, P., 253. 
Slewart, VV. M., 220. 
Stewurt, Wllliurn lshlm'ltnider, 50. 
Sttlwell, J.. 2i}2. 
Btllwell, M„ 230. 
Stlteher, Mrs. M 254. 
Stock ICx change, 97. 
Stoekwell, N.. 226. 
Stolces, I. N. Phelps, 77. 
SlOTiehotiHi-, C, 224. 
Stoothuff. Dy 256. 
Storm, E.. 250. 
Storm, J.. 235. 

Storrrs, Richard Saltor, 138. 
Storv, Joseph, 1113. 
Story, P., fti* 
Story. Capt, ^3?. 

Stou-rhten. M„ 240. 

Stout, A., 254. 

Stout, H., 245, 

Stout, Capt. J., 2S3. 

Stoiileuhtirgh, A., 233. 

Stouteiibnrgh, T., 24S. 

Stuart, Charles Gilbert 1!)3. 

Stuyvesanl, N. TJ., 2411. 

Stuyvesimt, Peter, 33, 67, 202. 

Stuyve-sitnt, Peter C, 01. 

Stymen, P.. 232. 

Strang, J„ 250. 

Stralton, E., 22S. 

SI rat ton, M., 245. 

Ktrehrrek, G., 2,17. 

Street Cleaning, Dept. or, 160. 

Street, M., 254. 

Stlekland, D., 245. 

Strong, B., 227. 

Strong, E. M„ 15. 

Strong, Capt. T. S„ 224. 

Strong, J., 228. 

Strong, M., 228. 

Strong, VflTlinm la., 101. 

Stunner, Job, 22. 

Sutton, ltnchel, 223. 

Suvdam, J.. 241. 

Snvdam. L., 240. 

Ku villi in, I'., 247. 

Suydam, R., 240. 

Suydain. Walter M.ipenard, 62. 

Byce, M., 244. 

Sylvester, Francis, 38. 

Ewnln, S„ 244. 

Swartwout, J., 237. 

Swartwout. John. 175. 

Swlnhtirn. Capt. W., 250. 

Swords, F.. and J., 29. 

Swords, J.. 243. 

Swords, M„ 242. 

Tabele, YV„ 242. 
Talllf", the engraver, 70. 
Tallman, Miss, 225. 
Talmadges Tabornaekle, 136, 
Tain infill v Hull. 174. 

Tapr, W, Cant,, 24fl. 
Tappen. C„ 227. 
Tappen, Mrs., 236. 
Tar, FL, 23;i. 
Targe, !>., 238. 
Taterson, K„ 250. 
Tax List, Broadway (1703). 75, 
Tsixt'fl anil Assessments, Dept. of, 

Taxpayers' Calendar, 152. 
Taylor, Mrs. Ann, 220. 
Tavlor, Capt. O. T„ 255. 
Tavlor, J., 228, 230, 242. 
Taylor, John, Jr., 226 
Teaclierncli. P.. 231, 
Teller, I. Depoyater. 22, 
Teller, Jr. J„ 240. 
Temple Emanuel, 203, 
Ten Brook. W. W., 230, 


Tenement Hem Dept., 159. 
Tim Eyek, J.. SB*.' 
Ten Kyck. M.. 212. 
Ten Eyek. Thos., 7. 
Terry, S., -227. 
Thalia Theatre, 109. 
Thatcher. M. A,, 247. 
Tlieall, N.. 250. 
Thiclda, C, 242. 
Thomas, A., 248. 
Thomas, ,T., 245. 
Thomas. Pully. 223. 
Thomas, K„ 2 J 2. 25fl. 
Thompson, A., 233, 254. 
Thompson, Cltfis.. 13. 
Thompson, K,, 233, 
Thompson, H., £55. 
Thompson, J„ 231, 
Thompson. M„ £33, 238, 256. 
Thompson, P., 227, 
Thompson. S. Capt.. 242, 
Thorliurii, fleorge, 52. 
Thorn, C, 248. 
Thorn, Stephen, 52. 
Thome, K., 23if. 
Tliorne, II,, 234. 
Thortou. N., 231. 
TioBout, J., 238. 
Tiffany's, 6B. 
Tiirer. The, CS. 
Tiiden Foundation, 97. 
Tildcn. Samuel J., 07. 
Tilden Trust. 8B. 
Tillln, B„ 249. 
Til ton. J., 247. 
Tilyon, J., 248. 
Tilyoii, V„ 241. 
Tilyou, T„ 231. 
Tingley, Cant. D.. 253. 
Tinney, S-. 253. 
Titus, R., 231. 
Titos, D.. 228, 
Todd. Miss, 23S. 
Todd. S., 230. 
Tolfrey. K„ 230, 
Tomllnson. A., 238. 
Tontine, Coffee House, 18, 120. 

Tooker, D., 233. 
Tooker, I,., 233. 
.Torry, W., 23fl. 
Totten, Il„ 254, 
ToUen, J„ 25.-1. 
Tout, Sarah, 223. 
Towers, J.. 248. 
Town, E., 21. 
Tciu-naend. H., £58. 
Town son d, Jacob, 92. 
TflwnseiHl. J„ 238. 
Townaend, Mlaa, 240. 
Townaend, Dr. Saranparilla, 84. 
Townaend, 8., 255. 
Towt, R. n., 230. 
Tnmsit Piiei lilies, 1(13, 
Travels in the Interior of Amer- 
ica (17S0), 115. 
Trendweil, ,7. Dr., 217, 
Treudwell, P., 204. 

Trent, M., 244. 
Treat, Dr. M„ 250. 
Trinity Chnroh, 116, 197. 
Trinity Staple, 81. 
Triple. Mr.. 245. 
Tryon, Gov.. 203. 
Tubby Hook, 1. 
Tulse, E., 233. 
Tulfp Tree, 70. 
Tnlon, Cant. M„ 235. 
Turk, P.. 22. 
Turner. A.. 252, 255. 
Turner. B., 233. 
Turner, K., 250. 
Turner, Miss, 237. 
Turner, N. L., 220. 
Turner, W. I.., 21. 
Tnttle. N., 230. 
Turtle, S., 23S. 
Tyher. Dolly, 2£2. 
Tydfiatt, Mr,, 245. 
Tyler. 3„ 229. 
Tyiig, Dr. Church, 70. 


Underground Trolleys, 82. 
Underbill. S., 238. 
Underbill, T„ 283. 
Union LenBiie Club, 213, 
University of the City of New 

Tork, 87. 
Uatiek, Eliz. 222. 
1 [slick, J., 249. 
Unllett, Miss, 220. 
Uatiek. P. B.. 240. 
Ustlck. W., 235, 

Valentine, David Tlicnma, 1 . 
Valentine'a Manual Table of Con- 

lenta, 1841 1842. 2. 
Valentine, N„ 253. 
Valla nee, IS., 21. 
Van Allen, C„ 252. 
Van Amrlngo, Prof., 125. 
Van Awler, J,, 227. 
Van Finint, K.. 2.10. 
Villi ['.runt, Miss, "J27. 
Van Buren, C, 253. 
Van Buren Farm. 88. 
Van Buren, Martin, 07. 
Vance. J. S„ 235. 
Van Cortlandt, H., 254. 
Van Cortlandt, Phillip, 15. 
Van nam, Surah, and Catherine, 


Vanderbeek, A., 21. 
Vanderbllt, Ciimmodorc, 221. 
Vatnlerbllt, Conauela, 20fi, 
Vanderbllt, Cornelius, 204. 
Vanderhilt, F. W„ 22i"i, 
Vanderbllt, William U., 225. 
Vnnder Heme). J. C. 240, 
Vnnderhoff, F., 230. 


Van Drnvoort, r. I*., 220. 

van Deoser, s., 233. 

Van DeTSnter. J., 230. 

Va tidewaters, M.. 243. 

Vandle, S„ 237. 

Van Tlyne. G., 254, 

Van Dyne, J., 227. 

Van Gaasheek, P. Hon., 247. 

Van OuMer, Al>m„ 7. 

Van Gelder, P., 251. 

Van Hngcn. Miss. 251. 

Van Home, A., 238. 

Van Ilornp. Augustus, 34. 

Van Horn, MHz., 223. 

Van Horn, F„ 230. 

Van Jandt, T,, 212. 

Van Kleeci. S., 246. 

Van Low, P... 233, 

Van Npkh, William P., IS, 

Van Norden, T„ 25(5. 

Van Norner, J., 241. 

Vim \ostr:i'i<l, J.. 2.i.>. 

Van Nostruml, M., 226. 

Van Raiisl, A., Jr, 246, 

Van Itanst, J„ 23*. 

Van Hnnxt, J. It., 240. 

Van Schiiak. M„ 234. 

Van Sollngen, Dr. H. M., 21(1. 

Van Tasell, I., 244. 

Van Tuyl. C, 234. 

Van Twlller, fiov., 218. 

Van Vart, C„ 231, 

Van Wink IP. XI., 247. 

Vim fl'j-rk. Harriet.. 222. 

vim u vck, ,r, B. ( 22. 
Van Wrote, Judge, 101. 
Van Zandt, A., 238, 
Van Zandt, T., 234. 
Vardlc, S., 23i. 
Variek, B., 2.12, 
Varlan, .T„ 248, 
Variek, RklidrJ, 7, 75, U3, 
Varlan, M., 251. 
Variek, M.. 241. 
Vater, A. Mrs., 244. 
VatixLnli Gardens, ITS. 
Veal, 15., 230, 
VennliUa, S., 245. 
Verplanek. It. C, 223. 
Verplanck, Samuel, 74. 
Viulng, Hon. J.. 223. 


Wadleigh High School, SI. 
Wagcnen, M. V.. 225. 
Wagenen, W. v. r 230. 

Wlllim-rlght, |\, 22. 
Waldorf-Astoria, 81, 132, 
Waldron, A., 230. 
Waldron, C 230. 
Waldron. K., 252. : 
Waldron, J„ 232. * ; : • 
WisMron, S., 230. . -.- : 
Waldron, T. J., 252. 
Walker, .Tames, 21. 
Walker. M.. 233. 

Willi. Mr., 255. 

Wallacfc. Lester, 20fl. 

Walton. Capt. J., 247. 

Wanamaker, John, ItiO. 

Ward, J., 247. 

Ward, J. Q. A., 37. 

"Ward McAllister's 400" list of 

names*, 63. 
Ward, Samuel, 02. 
Wardell, J„ 240. 
Warden, J., Mrs., 243. 
Waring, EL 234. 
Warn*. C., 255. 
Warner, C, 228.. 
Warner, B., 241. 
Warren, J.' O., 240, 
Warren, T., 232. 
Washington, Fanny, 230. 
Washington, Cinrp', 7. 41, 118, 

181, 187, 1&3. MS). 212, 213, 214. 
Washington Hull. 174, 
Washington Irving High School, 


Washington, Mrs. (Mother ol the 
President), 22. 

Washington Market, 70. 

Washington Statuea and Por- 
traits, 57. 

Wassenacr's "Historisch Ver- 
hael," 217. 

Water Supply, Dept. of, 1C2. 

WaterbuTT, P. C„ 229. 

Waters, W„ 233. 

Walking L.. 228. 

Watson, Ella., 224, 

WatsOn, J.. 23*. 

Watson, John, 75. 

Watson, James, 75. 

Watson, M„ 255. 

Watson, E., 255. 

Watts, John. 74. 

Wearcn, E.. 254. 

Weay, M., 242. 

Webb, Mrs, J., 231, 

Webb, HCigt, 223. 

Webb, O., 237. 

Webb, Ii. f 24fi. 

W. hh. Hilli;:Tii 11.. 52, 51. 

Webster, C. K., £51!. 

Webster, Daniel, 13. 103. 

Wedge. J.. 241. 

Weeber, S., 228. 

Weekec, Frederick Dplano, 02. 
Weekes, John Abeel, 62, 
Weeks, J., 226. 
Wet I:;-., K., 235. 
Weeks, Solly, 227, 
Weeks. Stephen, 130. 
Weeks. W.. 24D. 

Weights and Measures, Bureau 

of. 167. 
Welilon, r„ 232, 

Wf itr.'-'jf* '2+^ 
Writ..,.,' I',, -27 
Welling, C. 255. 
Wellng, T., 248. 
We;ii:fg:e,i -loU-i, 142. 


Wells, H.. 243. 
Wells, L., 231. 
Wells, \V„ £39. 
Wendell C. 228. 
Wendover. W.. 255. 
Werts, J., 229. 
West, A., 242. 
West, W„ 255, 

W«etetfield. r., 233. 

Wet more. Irene. 22-1. 

Wei more, P., 221 

Wetzell, A.. 230. 

Whenton, Cart. W.. 239. 

Wheeler, r>„ 227. 

Wheeler. A.. 252. 

Whey. T., 231. 

Whlehurch, J., 2G0. 

White, PtfBy, 228- 

White, Stanford, 202. 

White, T., 22, 

Whiteacher, A. L., 235. 

Wliileliehl. C, 234, 

Whitefield. H., 230. 

Whitehead, Mrs. H., 23fl. 

Wulteman, E., 230. 

Whitlieli!, M„ 253. 

Whitfield, H., £53. 

Whltlock, T., 231, 249. 

Whitman, Wfllt, 45. 

Whitmore, Noah. 227. 

Whitney. Ells., 45, 133. 

Whltten, S,. 231. 

Wlilltler, John Greenleuf. 

Whttlmorc, C, 242, • 

Why Not?, 214. 

Whvlley, A,. 251. 

Wlekfi. S„ 227. 

Wigeetifl. W.. 252. 

WSlkf'TLB, J., 225, 

Wilkes, Ohiirles, 75. 

Wilkes, Mlsa, 224. 

Wllkles, J.. 236. 

Wllklna, J., Jr„ 230. 

Wilkinson, H.. 227. 

Will, Henry, 7. 

Wlllurd, Franees E.. 193. 

Willett, M., 237. 

Willey. J., £31. 

Williams, A., 239. 

Williams, Elnm, IS. 

Williams, .Tube*, 52. 

Williams. J.. £23. 

Williams, Col. Jonathan, 219. 

Williamson. J. C, 232. 

Willis, It., £3-1. 

Wlllson, N., 249. 

Wtllsou, S„ 236. 

Wilson. JOlm. 61. 

Wilson. Jos., 2411. 

Wilson, Mrs,, 220. 

Wilson. M„ 23(1. 
Wilson, Mr., 244. 
Wilson, I*., 242, 24(1. 
Wilson, R„ 230. 
Wilson, ltoRer. £21). 
Wilson, S., 240. 
Windsor Arcade, B2. 
Wlsner, P. H„ £23. 
Wood, ,T., 236. 
Wood, Mrs., 231. 24fi. 
Wood, W., 236. 
Woodlmll, Dr. D„ 224. 
Woods, J., 243. 
Wolfe, K.. 233. 
Wool, Mrs., 242. 
Wool, Mary, 224. 
Wooley. B., 231. 
Wooley, Charles, 130. 
Wooley, EL 233, 
Woolsey, E. f 254. 
Woolsey, J., 220. 
WoolseT, M„ 228. 
Woolsey, W. W„ £28. 
Worth, Maj. On.. «l. 
WortJiington. K„ 230. 
Wright, C. 22t. 
Wright, E., 249. 
Wright, J., 245, 2l<>, 
Wright, K„ 228. 
Wright, S.. 250. 
Wyntt. J., 254, 
WyckofT, A. t 256. 
Wvekoff. H.. 22. 
Wynkoop, J., £2(1. 
Wyuens, I. K„ £r,r,. 
WykolT, II. I., 247. 

Yates, L., 240., S.. 230. 
Yonle, Dr. Jos., 240. 
Torke, Mrs, A., 2S4. 
Yorklson, p., £29. 
Yorkville, 2. 
Yelverton, Phoebe, 22. 
Yonle, G., MB. 
Yonle, W., 232. 
Young, E„ 223, 
Young, Capt, ¥„ 250. 
Young, .7., 229. £04. 
Young, it., 241. 
Youngs, Kezlsh. 222, 

Kefiriskle. Mrs., 2IIS. 
Kencer, John Peter, 218. 



AUG 1? 1940